71 Works

Experimental parasite community perturbation reveals associations between Sin Nombre virus and gastrointestinal nematodes in a rodent reservoir host

Amy Sweeny, Courtney Thomason, Edwin Carbajal, Christina Hansen, Andrea Graham & Amy Pedersen
Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet measuring within-host interactions remains difficult in the wild. Consequently, the impact of such interactions on host fitness and epidemiology are often unknown. We used anthelmintic drugs to experimentally reduce nematode infection and measured the effects on both nematodes and the important zoonosis Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in its primary reservoir (Peromyscus spp.). Treatment significantly reduced nematode infection, but increased SNV seroprevalence. Furthermore, mice that were co-infected...

High-Resolution Precipitation Projections for the South Central U.S.

Jung-Hee Ryu & Katharine Hayhoe
Precipitation-related indicators for seasonal precipiation, extreme precipiation, and drought have been generated for 8701 weather stations covering the entire United States, and for a 198x337 grid (on a resolution of 1/16 th degree) covering the South Central region from the future downscaled projections using the Asynchronous Regional Regression Model. The data covers the period from 1950 to 2100. The high-resolution future projections are statistically downscaled from simulations by 12 global climate models from the Coupled...

Data from: A latitudinal gradient in dimensionality of biodiversity

Richard D. Stevens & J. Sebastian Tello
Biodiversity is multifaceted and represents numerous dimensions expressing variation in richness and abundances of species, ecosystem functions, phylogenetic relationships, morphology, traits and interactions. Such dimensions are correlated to varying degrees and recent research has attempted to better understand behavior of such correlations. We define dimensionality of biodiversity as degree of redundancy in variation among multiple dimensions of biodiversity. One fundamental question regarding biodiversity is whether its dimensionality is spatially structured, also exhibiting geographic gradients. We...

Data from: Efficacy of a probiotic bacterium to treat bats affected by the disease white-nose syndrome

Tina L. Cheng, Heather Mayberry, Liam P. McGuire, Joseph R. Hoyt, Kate E. Langwig, Hung Nguyen, Katy L. Parise, Jeffrey T. Foster, Craig K. R. Willis, Auston Marm Kilpatrick & Winifred F. Frick
The management of infectious diseases is an important conservation concern for a growing number of wildlife species. However, effective disease control in wildlife is challenging because feasible management options are often lacking. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an infectious disease of hibernating bats that currently threatens several North American species with extinction. Currently, no effective treatments exist for WNS. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the efficacy of treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens, a bacterium that...

Data from: Changing environmental gradients over forty years alter ecomorphological variation in Guadalupe Bass Micropterus treculii throughout a river basin

Jessica E. Pease, Timothy B. Grabowski, Allison A. Pease & Preston T. Bean
Understanding the degree of intraspecific variation within and among populations is a key aspect of predicting the capacity of a species to respond to anthropogenic disturbances. However, intraspecific variation is usually assessed at either limited temporal, but broad spatial scales or vice versa, which can make assessing changes in response to long-term disturbances challenging. We evaluated the relationship between the longitudinal gradient of changing flow regimes and land use/land cover patterns since 1980 and morphological...

Data from: Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) mitochondrial population genomics reveals structure, divergence, and evidence for heteroplasmy

Yvette A. Halley, David L. Oldeschulte, Eric K. Bhattarai, Joshua Hill, Richard P. Metz, Charles D. Johnson, Steven M. Presley, Rebekah E. Ruzicka, Dale Rollins, Markus J. Peterson, WIlliam J. Murphy & Christopher M. Seabury
Herein, we evaluated the concordance of population inferences and conclusions resulting from the analysis of short mitochondrial fragments (i.e., partial or complete D-Loop nucleotide sequences) versus complete mitogenome sequences for 53 bobwhites representing six ecoregions across TX and OK (USA). Median joining (MJ) haplotype networks demonstrated that analyses performed using small mitochondrial fragments were insufficient for estimating the true (i.e., complete) mitogenome haplotype structure, corresponding levels of divergence, and maternal population history of our samples....

Data from: Resolution of the ordinal phylogeny of mosses using targeted exons from organellar and nuclear genomes

Yang Liu, Matthew G. Johnson, Cymon J. Cox, Rafael Medina, Nicolas Devos, Alain Vanderpoorten, Lars Hedenäs, Neil E. Bell, James R. Shevock, Blanka Aguero, Dietmar Quandt, Norman J. Wickett, A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet
Mosses are a highly diverse lineage of land plants, whose diversification, spanning at least 400 million years, remains phylogenetically ambiguous due to the lack of fossils, massive early extinctions, late radiations, limited morphological variation, and conflicting signal among previously used markers. Here, we present phylogenetic reconstructions based on complete organellar exomes and a comparable set of nuclear genes for this major lineage of land plants. Our analysis of 142 species representing 29 of the 30...

Data from: Is there a correlation between abundance and environmental suitability derived from ecological niche modelling? A meta-analysis

Marcelo M. Weber, Richard D. Stevens, José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho & Carlos Eduardo V. Grelle
It is thought that species abundance is correlated with environmental suitability and that environmental variables, scale, and type of model fitting can confound this relationship. We performed a meta-analysis to (i) test whether species abundance is positively correlated with environmental suitability derived from correlative ecological niche models (ENM), (ii) test whether studies encompassing large areas within a species range (>50%) exhibited higher AS correlations than studies encompassing small areas within a species range (<50%), (iii)...

Data from: Global population structure and demographic history of the grey seal

Anastasia Klimova, Caleb D. Phillips, Katharina Fietz, Morten T. Olsen, John Harwood, William Amos & Joseph I. Hoffman
Although the grey seal Halichoerus grypus is one of the most familiar and intensively studied of all pinniped species, its global population structure remains to be elucidated. Little is also known about how the species as a whole may have historically responded to climate-driven changes in habitat availability and anthropogenic exploitation. We therefore analysed samples from over 1500 individuals collected from 22 colonies spanning the Western and Eastern Atlantic and the Baltic Sea regions, represented...

Supporting Data and Code for \"Managing to Climatology: Improving semi-arid agricultural risk management using crop models and a dense meteorological network\"

Steven Mauget & Donna Mitchell-McCallister
Without reliable seasonal climate forecasts, farmers and managers in other weather-sensitive sectors might adopt practices that are optimal for recent climate conditions. To demonstrate this principle, crop simulation models driven by a dense meteorological network were used to identify climate-optimal planting dates for U.S. Southern High Plains (SHP) un-irrigated agriculture. This method converted large samples of SHP growing season weather outcomes into climate-representative cotton and sorghum yield distributions over a range of planting dates. Best...

Paralogs and off-target sequences improve phylogenetic resolution in a densely-sampled study of the breadfruit genus (Artocarpus, Moraceae)

Elliot Gardner, Matthew Johnson, Joan Pereira, Aida Shafreena Ahmad Puad, Deby Arifiani, Sahromi Sahromi, Norman Wickett & Nyree Zerega
We present a 517-gene phylogenetic framework for the breadfruit genus Artocarpus (ca. 70 spp., Moraceae), making use of silica-dried leaves from recent fieldwork and herbarium specimens (some up to 106 years old) to achieve 96% taxon sampling. We explore issues relating to assembly, paralogous loci, partitions, and analysis method to reconstruct a phylogeny that is robust to variation in data and available tools. While codon partitioning did not result in any substantial topological differences, the...

Data from: Effects of Bark Beetle Outbreaks on Forest Landscape Pattern in the Southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A.

Kyle Rodman, Robert Andrus, Cori Butkiewicz, Teresa Chapman, Nathan Gill, Brian Harvey, Dominik Kulakowski, Niko Tutland, Thomas Veblen & Sarah Hart
Since the late 1990s, extensive outbreaks of native bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) have affected coniferous forests throughout Europe and North America, driving changes in carbon storage, wildlife habitat, nutrient cycling, and water resource provisioning. Remote sensing is a crucial tool for quantifying the effects of these disturbances across broad landscapes. In particular, Landsat time series (LTS) are increasingly used to characterize outbreak dynamics, including the presence and severity of bark beetle-caused tree mortality, though broad-scale...

Data from: Conodont faunas across the Kasimovian–Gzhelian boundary (Late Pennsylvanian) in South China and implications for the selection of the stratotype for the base of the global Gzhelian Stage

Yuping Qi, James E. Barrick, Nicholas J. Hogancamp, Jitao Chen, Keyi Hu, Qiulai Wang & Xiangdong Wang
The upper Pennsylvanian Naqing and Narao carbonate successions were deposited in intra-platform slope to basinal settings across the Kasimovian-Gzhelian boundary in Guizhou, South China. Conodont faunas comprise a mixture of the endemic taxa of the Idiognathodus luodianensis group and cosmopolitan species of the I. simulator group. The I. luodianensis group includes the new species I. fengtingensis, I. luodianensis, I. naqingensis and I. naraoensis. Platform landmark analysis demonstrates that the species of the I. luodianensis group...

Incorporating evaporative water loss into bioenergetic models of hibernation to test for relative influence of host and pathogen traits on white-nose syndrome

Catherine Haase, Nathan Fuller, C. Reed Hranac, David Hayman, Liam McGuire, Kaleigh Norquay, Kirk Silas, Craig Willis, Raina Plowright & Sarah Olson
Hibernation consists of extended durations of torpor interrupted by periodic arousals. The ‘dehydration hypothesis’ proposes that hibernating mammals arouse to replenish water lost through evaporation during torpor. Arousals are energetically expensive, and increased arousal frequency can alter survival throughout hibernation. Yet we lack a means to assess the effect of evaporative water loss (EWL), determined by animal physiology and hibernation microclimate, on torpor bout duration and subsequent survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a devastating disease impacting...

Networks of physiological adjustments and defenses, and their synergy with sodium (Na+) homeostasis explain the hidden variation for salinity tolerance across the cultivated Gossypium hirsutum germplasm

Kevin Cushman
The abilities to mobilize and/or sequester excess ions within and outside the plant cell are important components of salt-tolerance mechanisms. Mobilization and sequestration of Na+ involves three transport systems facilitated by the plasma membrane H+/Na+ antiporter (SOS1), vacuolar H+/Na+ antiporter (NHX1), and Na+/K+ transporter in vascular tissues (HKT1). Many of these mechanisms are conserved across the plant kingdom. While Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) is significantly more salt-tolerant relative to other crops, the critical factors contributing...

Data from: Chiropteran metacommunity structure in the Atlantic Forest of South America

Richard Stevens, John Stuhler & Jenna Grimshaw
Aim Patterns of local species diversity are shaped by dispersal ability, and associated metacommunity structure. Here we set out to test the effect of dispersal ability on metacommunity structure of bats throughout the Atlantic Forest of South America considering differences among communities, functional groups and species regarding environmental, spatial and connectance-related drivers of composition. In addition, we aimed to illuminate phylogenetic and ecological correlates such as incidence (i.e., frequency of occurrence across sites) and wing...

Temperature alone is insufficient to understand hibernation energetics

Liam McGuire, Emily Johnson, Winifred Frick & Justin Boyles
Energy conservation has long been a focal point in hibernation research. A long-standing assumption is that ambient temperature (Ta) largely defines the rate of energy expenditure because of well-known relationships between Ta, metabolic rate and frequency of arousal from torpor. Body condition and humidity also affect energy expenditure but are usually considered secondary factors. We held tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) in captivity under multiple environmental conditions to directly compare the importance of Ta, fat mass...

Population connectivity across a highly fragmented distribution: Phylogeography of the Chalcophaps doves

Devon DeRaad, Joseph Manthey, Emily Ostrow, Lucas DeCicco, Michael Andersen, Peter Hosner, Hannah Shult, Leo Joseph, John Dumbacher & Robert Moyle
Chalcophaps is a morphologically conserved genus of ground-walking doves distributed from India to mainland China, south to Australia, and across the western Pacific to Vanuatu. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of this genus using DNA sequence data from two nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene, sampled from throughout the geographic range of Chalcophaps. We find support for three major evolutionary lineages in our phylogenetic reconstruction, each corresponding to the three currently recognized Chalcophaps species....

Shifts in plant composition mediate grazing effects on carbon cycling in grasslands

Maowei Liang, Nicholas Smith, Jiquan Chen, Yantao Wu, Zhiwei Guo, Elise Gornish & Cunzhu Liang
Carbon cycling in grasslands can be impacted by livestock grazing, partially as an indirect result of herbivory-induced compositional shifts in the plant community. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these shifts impact carbon cycling are not well documented. We conducted a long-term grazing experiment with four sheep stocking rates in the semi-arid grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China, to examine grazing effects on the ratio of C3 to C4 species (C3:C4), shoot biomass, root biomass, root:shoot,...

Disentangling interactions among mercury, immunity, and infection in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Jennifer Korstian, Dmitriy Volokhov, Hannah Droke, Alexis Brown, Catherene Baijnauth, Ticha Padgett-Stewart, Hugh Broders, Raina Plowright, Thomas Rainwater, Brock Fenton, Nancy Simmons & Matthew Chumchal
Contaminants such as mercury are pervasive and can have immunosuppressive effects on wildlife. Impaired immunity could be important for forecasting pathogen spillover risks, as many land-use changes that generate mercury contamination also bring wildlife into close contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the interactions among contaminants, immunity, and infection are difficult to study in natural systems, and empirical tests of possible directional relationships remain rare. We capitalized on extreme mercury variation in a diverse...

Data from: Bayesian analysis of a single gamete recognition gene yields a robust Eutherian phylogeny at all taxonomic levels

Emma Roberts
The extraordinary morphological diversity among extant mammals poses a challenge for studies of speciation, adaptation, molecular evolution, and reproductive isolation. Despite the recent wealth of molecular studies on mammalian phylogenetics, remaining uncertainties surrounding both ancestral and more recent divergence events have proven difficult to resolve. Multi-gene datasets often provide increased support for higher-level affinities within Mammalia, but such analyses require vast amounts of information (genomic-level sequence data) and computational effort (high-performance computing). This study presents...

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