497 Works

Framework for Education for Sustainability

Kalle Juuti

Populism and media and communication studies in the Nordic countries

Juha Herkman & Ann-Cathrine Jungar

AIGER 1.9 and beyond

Armin Biere, Keijo Heljanko & Siert Wieringa

Finland

Marko Ala-Fossi, John Grönvall, Kari Karppinen & Hannu Nieminen

The Politics of Euro-Balkan Police Cooperation in the 2000s

Olga Kantokoski
This article examines the political dynamics of Euro-Balkan police cooperation in the context of recent Balkan history. In the existing scholarship, the process of the ‘externalisation’ of EU-wide law enforcement cooperation outside the Union's geographic frontiers is widely considered to be a ‘functional-instrumental’ response to the menace of organised crime. Scholars believe that the functional rationale has been a primary driver behind the Union's endeavours to extend its governance of internal security to the EU's...

Data for: Refining the genomic location of single nucleotide polymorphism variation affecting Atlantic salmon maturation timing at a key large‐effect locus

Marion Sinclair-Waters
Efforts to understand the genetic underpinnings of phenotypic variation are becoming more and more frequent in molecular ecology. Such efforts often lead to the identification of candidate regions showing signals of association and/or selection. These regions may contain multiple genes and therefore validation of which genes are actually responsible for the signal is required. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a large‐effect locus for maturation timing, an ecologically important trait, occurs in a genomic region including...

Data from: Isolation and characterization of 145 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Chikako Matsuba & Juha Merilä
We describe primers and polymerase chain reaction conditions to amplify 145 di-, tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci from the common frog (Rana temporaria), a species commonly used as a model in ecological and evolutionary research. Primers were tested on 46 individuals from two Fennoscandian populations and yielded an average of six to nine alleles per locus (range = 1–30) depending on the population. Average observed heterozygosities in the two populations were 0.16 (range = 0–0.91)...

Data from: Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men

Anne Salonen, Leo Lahti, Jarkko Salojärvi, Grietje Holtrop, Katri Korpela, Sylvia H. Duncan, Priya Date, Freda Farquharson, Alexandra M. Johnstone, Gerald E. Lobley, Petra Louis, Harry J. Flint & Willem M. De Vos
There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of fourteen obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), and a weight-loss diet (WL). We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the faecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR...

Data from: Evolving interactions between diazotrophic cyanobacterium and phage mediate nitrogen release and host competitive ability

Johannes Cairns, Sebastian Coloma, Kaarina Sivonen & Teppo Hiltunen
Interactions between nitrogen-fixing (i.e. diazotrophic) cyanobacteria and their viruses, cyanophages, can have large-scale ecosystem effects. These effects are mediated by temporal alterations in nutrient availability in aquatic systems owing to the release of nitrogen and carbon sources from cells lysed by phages, as well as by ecologically important changes in the diversity and fitness of cyanobacterial populations that evolve in the presence of phages. However, ecological and evolutionary feedbacks between phages and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are...

Data from: Human-facilitated metapopulation dynamics in an emerging pest species, Cimex lectularius

Toby Fountain, Gavin Horsburgh, Ludovic Duvaux, Klaus Reinhardt & Roger K. Butlin
The number and demographic history of colonists can have dramatic consequences for the way in which genetic diversity is distributed and maintained in a metapopulation. The bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a re-emerging pest species whose close association with humans has led to frequent local extinction and colonisation, i.e. to metapopulation dynamics. Pest control limits the lifespan of sub-populations, causing frequent local extinctions, and human-facilitated dispersal allows the colonisation of empty patches. Founder events often...

Data from: Related herbivore species show similar temporal dynamics

F. Guillaume Blanchet, Tomas Roslin, Masahito T. Kimura, Tea Huotari, Riikka Kaartinen, Sofia Gripenberg & Ayco J. M. Tack
1.Within natural communities, different taxa display different dynamics in time. Why this is the case we do not fully know. This thwarts our ability to predict changes in community structure, which is important for both the conservation of rare species in natural communities and for the prediction of pest outbreaks in agriculture. 2.Species sharing phylogeny, natural enemies and/or life history traits have been hypothesized to share similar temporal dynamics. We operationalized these concepts into testing...

Data from: Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions

Anniina L. K. Mattila
Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at...

Data from: Understanding the dominant controls on litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, Bjorn Berg, Daniel S. Maynard, William R. Wieder & Stephen A. Wood
Litter decomposition is a biogeochemical process fundamental to element cycling within ecosystems, influencing plant productivity, species composition and carbon storage. Climate has long been considered the primary broad-scale control on litter decomposition rates, yet recent work suggests that plant litter traits may predominate. Both decomposition paradigms, however, rely on inferences from cross-biome litter decomposition studies that analyse site-level means. We re-analyse data from a classical cross-biome study to demonstrate that previous research may falsely inflate...

Data from: Does sex matter? Gender-specific responses to forest fragmentation in Neotropical bats

Ricardo Rocha, Diogo F. Ferreira, Adrià López-Baucells, Fabio Z. Farneda, Joao M.B. Carreiras, Jorge M. Palmeirim & Christoph F. J. Meyer
Understanding the consequences of habitat modification on wildlife communities is central to the development of conservation strategies. However, albeit male and female individuals of numerous species are known to exhibit differences in habitat use, sex-specific responses to habitat modification remain little explored. Here, we used a landscape-scale fragmentation experiment to assess, separately for males and females, the effects of fragmentation on the abundance of Carollia perspicillata and Rhinophylla pumilio, two widespread Neotropical frugivorous bats. We...

Data from: Predator–vole interactions in northern Europe: the role of small mustelids revised

Katri Korpela, Pekka Helle, Heikki Henttonen, Erkki Korpimäki, Esa Koskela, Otso Ovaskainen, Hannu Pietiäinen, Janne Sundell, Jari Valkama, Otso Huitu, H. Pietiainen & E. Korpimaki
The cyclic population dynamics of vole and predator communities is a key phenomenon in northern ecosystems, and it appears to be influenced by climate change. Reports of collapsing rodent cycles have attributed the changes to warmer winters, which weaken the interaction between voles and their specialist subnivean predators. Using population data collected throughout Finland during 1986–2011, we analyse the spatio-temporal variation in the interactions between populations of voles and specialist, generalist and avian predators, and...

Data from: Migration and isolation during the turbulent Ponto-Caspian Pleistocene create high diversity in the crustacean Paramysis lacustris

Asta Audzijonyte, Laima Baltrūnaitė, Risto Väinölä & Kęstutis Arbačiauskas
The Ponto-Caspian brackish-water fauna inhabits estuaries and rivers of the Black, Azov and Caspian seas and is fragmented by higher salinity waters and a major interbasin watershed. The fauna is known for the high levels of endemism, complex zoogeographic histories, and as a recent source of successful invasive species. It remains debated whether the Black and Azov Sea brackish-water populations survived unfavourable Pleistocene conditions in multiple separate refugia or whether the two seas were (repeatedly)...

Data from: Carry-over effects of conditions at the wintering grounds on breeding plumage signals in a migratory bird: roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection

Pauliina E. Järvistö, Sara Calhim, Wiebke Schuett, Päivi Maria Sirkiä, William Velmala & Toni Laaksonen
To understand the consequences of ever-changing environment on the dynamics of phenotypic traits, distinguishing between selection processes and individual plasticity is crucial. We examined individual consistency/plasticity in several male secondary sexual traits expressed during the breeding season (white wing and forehead patch size, UV reflectance of white wing patch and dorsal melanin colouration) in a migratory pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population over an 11-year period. Furthermore, we studied carry-over effects of three environmental variables (NAO,...

Data from: Return to work after ischemic stroke in young adults: a registry-based follow-up study

Karoliina Aarnio, Jorge Rodriguez-Pardo, Bob Siegerink, Juliane Hardt, Jenna Broman, Lauri Tulkki, Elena Haapaniemi, Markku Kaste, Turgut Tatlisumak & Jukka Putaala
Objective: We aimed to investigate the proportion of young patients not returning to work (NRTW) at one year after ischemic stroke (IS) and during follow-up, and clinical factors associated with NRTW. Methods: Patients from Helsinki Young Stroke Registry with an IS occurring in the years 1994-2007, who were at paid employment within one year before IS, and with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≤15 points at hospital discharge, were included. Data on...

Data from: Frequency of virus-resistant hosts determines experimental community dynamics

Sebastian Coloma, Ursula Gaedke, Kaarina Sivonen & Teppo Hiltunen
Parasites, such as bacterial viruses (phages), can have large effects on host populations both at the ecological and evolutionary levels. In the case of cyanobacteria, phages can reduce primary production and infected hosts release intracellular nutrients influencing planktonic food web structure, community dynamics and biogeochemical cycles. Cyanophages may be of great importance in aquatic food webs during large cyanobacterial blooms unless the host population becomes resistant to phage infection. The consequences on plankton community dynamics...

Data from: Food makes you a target: disentangling genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects determining susceptibility to infection

Otto Seppälä, Anssi Karvonen, Maarit Haataja, Marja Kuosa & Jukka Jokela
Genetics, physiology and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design and long- and short-term food deprivation treatments to test the role of family-level genetic variation, body condition, physiological state and foraging behavior on the susceptibility...

Data from: Assessing the dynamics of natural populations by fitting individual based models with approximate Bayesian computation

Jukka Sirén, Luc Lens, Laurence Cousseau & Otso Ovaskainen
1. Individual based models (IBMs) allow realistic and flexible modelling of ecological systems, but their parametrization with empirical data is statistically and computationally challenging. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has been proposed as an efficient approach for inference with IBMs, but its applicability to data on natural populations has not been yet fully explored. 2. We construct an IBM for the metapopulation dynamics of a species inhabiting a fragmented patch network, and develop an ABC method...

Data from: Food limitation constrains host immune responses to nematode infections

Kristian M. Forbes, Tapio Mappes, Tarja Sironen, Tomas Strandin, Peter Stuart, Seppo Meri, Olli Vapalahti, Heikki Henttonen & Otso Huitu
Trade-offs in the allocation of finite-energy resources among immunological defences and other physiological processes are believed to influence infection risk and disease severity in food-limited wildlife populations. However, this prediction has received little experimental investigation. Here we test the hypothesis that food limitation impairs the ability of wild field voles (Microtus agrestis) to mount an immune response against parasite infections. We conducted a replicated experiment on vole populations maintained in large outdoor enclosures during boreal...

Data from: Differential responses to related hosts by nesting and non-nesting parasites in a brood-parasitic duck

Kim Jaatinen, Markus Öst, Philip Gienapp & Juha Merilä
Host-parasite relatedness may facilitate the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism (CBP), but empirical support for this contention remains inconclusive. One reason for this disparity may relate to the diversity of parasitic tactics, a key distinguishing feature being whether the parasite has a nest of her own. Previous work suggests that parasites without nests of their own may be of inferior phenotypic quality, but due to difficulties in identifying these parasitic individuals, little is known about...

Data from: Competition-driven build-up of habitat isolation and selection favouring dispersal modification in a young avian hybrid zone

Jakub Rybinski, Päivi M. Sirkiä, S. Eryn McFarlane, Niclas Vallin, David Wheatcroft, Murielle Ålund & Anna Qvarnström
Competition-driven evolution of habitat isolation is an important mechanism of ecological speciation but empirical support for this process is often indirect. We examined how an on-going displacement of pied flycatchers from their preferred breeding habitat by collared flycatchers in a young secondary contact zone is associated with (a) access to an important food resource (caterpillar larvae), (b) immigration of pied flycatchers in relation to habitat quality, and (c) the risk of hybridization in relation to...

Data from: Genetic structure of native ant supercolonies varies in space and time

Eva Schultner, Jari Saramäki & Heikki Helanterä
Ant supercolonies are the largest cooperative units known in nature. They consist of networks of interconnected nests with hundreds of reproductive queens, where individuals move freely between nests, cooperate across nest boundaries and show little aggression towards non-nestmates. The combination of high queen numbers and free mixing of workers, queens and brood between nests results in extremely low nestmate relatedness. In such low-relatedness societies, cooperative worker behaviour appears maladaptive because it may aid random individuals...

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    497
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