593 Works

Data from: Environmentally induced dispersal-related life history syndrome in the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus anynana

Marjo Saastamoinen, Paul M. Brakefield & Otso Ovaskainen
Dispersal is a key process for understanding the persistence of populations as well as the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental change. Therefore understanding factors that may facilitate or constrain the evolution of dispersal is of crucial interest. Assessments of phenotypic variation in various behavioural, physiological and morphological traits related to insect dispersal and flight performance are common, yet very little is known about the genetic associations among these traits. We have used experiments...

Data from: Phylogenomic insights into the cambrian explosion, the colonization of land and the evolution of flight in arthropoda

Christopher W. Wheat & Niklas Wahlberg
The timing of the origin of arthropods in relation to the Cambrian explosion is still controversial, as are the timing of other arthropod macroevolutionary events such as the colonization of land and the evolution of flight. Here we assess the power of a phylogenomic approach to shed light on these major events in the evolutionary history of life on earth. Analyzing a large phylogenomic dataset (122 taxa, 62 genes) with a Bayesian-relaxed molecular clock, we...

Data from: Evidence for genetic differentiation in timing of maturation among nine-spined stickleback populations

Nurul Izza Ab Ghani, Gábor Herczeg, Tuomas Leinonen & Juha Merilä
Timing of maturation is an important life-history trait that is likely to be subjected to strong natural selection. Although population differences in timing of maturation have been frequently reported in studies of wild animal populations, little is known about the genetic basis of this differentiation. Here, we investigated population and sex differences in timing of maturation within and between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations in a laboratory breeding experiment. We found that fish from...

Data from: High degree of cryptic population differentiation in the Baltic Sea herring Clupea harengus

Jukka Corander, Kerttu Majander, Lu Cheng & Juha Merilä
Marine fish species are characterised by a low degree of population differentiation at putatively neutral marker genes. This has been traditionally attributed to ecological homogeneity and a lack of obvious dispersal barriers in marine habitats, as well as to large (effective) population sizes of most marine fish species. The herring (Clupea harengus) is a case in point – the levels of population differentiation at neutral markers, even across vast geographic areas, are typically very low...

Data from: Genetic diversity in widespread species is not congruent with species richness in alpine plant communities

Pierre Taberlet, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Thorsten Englisch, Andreas Tribsch, Rolf Holderegger, Nadir Alvarez, Harald Niklfeld, Zbigniew Mirek, Atte Moilanen, Wolfgang Ahlmer, Paolo Ajmone Marsan, Enzo Bona, Maurizio Bovio, Philippe Choler, Elżbieta Cieślak, Gheorghe Coldea, Licia Colli, Vasile Cristea, Jean-Pierre Dalmas, Božo Frajman, Luc Garraud, Myriam Gaudeul, Ludovic Gielly, Walter Gutermann, Nejc Jogan … & Karol Marhold
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at the conservation of all three levels of biodiversity, i.e. ecosystems, species and genes. Genetic diversity represents evolutionary potential and is important for ecosystem functioning. Unfortunately, genetic diversity in natural populations is hardly considered in conservation strategies because it is difficult to measure and has been hypothesized to co-vary with species richness. This means that species richness is taken as a surrogate of genetic diversity in conservation planning,...

Data from: Heterogeneous genomic differentiation in marine threespine sticklebacks: adaptation along an environmental gradient

Jacquelin DeFaveri, Per R. Jonsson & Juha Merilä
Evolutionary divergence among populations occupying ecologically distinct environments can occur even in the face of on-going gene flow. However, the genetic underpinnings, as well as the scale and magnitude at which this differentiation occurs in marine habitats are not well understood. We investigated the patterns and degree of genomic heterogeneity in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by assessing genetic variability in 20 nongenic and 20 genic (associated with genes important for freshwater adaptation) microsatellite loci in...

Data from: Comparative genomics of chemosensory protein genes reveals rapid evolution and positive selection in ant-specific duplicates

Jonna Kulmuni, Yannick Wurm & Pekka Pamilo
Gene duplications can have a major role in adaptation, and gene families underlying chemosensation are particularly interesting due to their essential role in chemical recognition of mates, predators and food resources. Social insects add yet another dimension to the study of chemosensory genomics, as the key components of their social life rely on chemical communication. Still, chemosensory gene families are little studied in social insects. Here we annotated chemosensory protein (CSP) genes from seven ant...

Data from: Ecological and evolutionary effects of fragmentation on infectious disease

Jussi Jousimo, Ayco J. M. Tack, Otso Ovaskainen, Tommi Mononen, Hanna Susi, Charlotte Tollenaere & Anna-Liisa Laine
Ecological theory predicts that disease incidence increases with increasing density of host networks, yet evolutionary theory suggests that host resistance increases accordingly. To test the combined effects of ecological and evolutionary forces on host-pathogen systems, we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of a plant (Plantago lanceolata)–fungal pathogen (Podosphaera plantaginis)relationship for 12 years in over 4000 host populations. Disease prevalence at the metapopulation level was low, with high annual pathogen extinction rates balanced by frequent (re-)colonizations. Highly...

Data from: Ecological specialization in fossil mammals explains Cope's rule

Pasquale Raia, Francesco Carotenuto, Federico Passaro, Domenico Fulgione & Mikael Fortelius
Cope’s rule is the trend toward increasing body size in a lineage over geological time. The rule has been explained either as passive diffusion away from a small initial body size or as an active trend upheld by the ecological and evolutionary advantages that large body size confers. An explicit and phylogenetically informed analysis of body size evolution in Cenozoic mammals shows that body size increases significantly in most inclusive clades. This increase occurs through...

Data from: Sex reversal and primary sex ratios in the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Jussi S Alho, Matsuba Chikako & Juha Merilä
Sex reversal has been suggested to have profound implications for the evolution of sex chromosomes and population dynamics in ectotherms. Occasional sex reversal of genetic males has been hypothesized to prevent the evolutionary decay of nonrecombining Y chromosomes caused by the accumulation of deleterious mutations. At the same time, sex reversals can have a negative effect on population growth rate. Here, we studied phenotypic and genotypic sex in the common frog (Rana temporaria) in a...

Data from: Genealogical lineage sorting leads to significant, but incorrect Bayesian multilocus inference of population structure

Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Jukka Corander & Christian Schlötterer
Over the past decades the use of molecular markers has revolutionized biology and led to the foundation of a new research discipline -- phylogeography. Of particular interest has been the inference of population structure and biogeography. While initial studies focused on mtDNA as a molecular marker, it has become apparent that selection and genealogical lineage sorting could lead to erroneous inferences. As it is not clear to what extent these forces affect a given marker,...

Data from: Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae), a new species from Kyrgyzstan

Alexander Sennikov & Georgy Lazkov
Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of A. sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from A. spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of...

Data from: Rapidly fluctuating environments constrain coevolutionary arms races by impeding selective sweeps

Ellie Harrison, Anna-Liisa Laine, Mikael Hietala, Michael A. Brockhurst & A.-L. Laine
Although pervasive, the impact of temporal environmental heterogeneity on coevolutionary processes is poorly understood. Productivity is a key temporally heterogeneous variable, and increasing productivity has been shown to increase rates of antagonistic arms race coevolution, and lead to the evolution of more broadly resistant hosts and more broadly infectious parasites. We investigated the effects of the grain of environmental heterogeneity, in terms of fluctuations in productivity, on bacteria–phage coevolution. Our findings demonstrate that environmental heterogeneity...

Data from: Genetic and life-history changes associated with fisheries-induced population collapse

Lilian Pukk, Anna Kuparinen, Leili Järv, Riho Gross & Anti Vasemägi
Over the recent years, growing number of studies suggests that intensive size-selective fishing can cause evolutionary changes in life-history traits in the harvested population, which can have drastic negative effects on populations, ecosystems and fisheries. However, most studies to date have overlooked the potential role of immigration of fish with different phenotypes as an alternative plausible mechanism behind observed phenotypic trends. Here, we investigated the evolutionary consequences of intensive fishing simultaneously at phenotypic and molecular...

Data from: Bringing habitat information into statistical tests of local adaptation in quantitative traits: a case study of nine-spined sticklebacks

Markku Karhunen, Otso Ovaskainen, Gabor Herczeg & Juha Merilä
Detection of footprints of historical natural selection on quantitative traits in cross-sectional data sets is challenging, especially when the number of populations to be compared is small and the populations are subject to strong random genetic drift. We extend a recent Bayesian multivariate approach to differentiate between selective and neutral causes of population differentiation by the inclusion of habitat information. The extended framework allows one to test for signals of selection in two ways: by...

Data from: Quantitative genetic analysis of brain size variation in sticklebacks: support for the mosaic model of brain evolution

Kristina Noreikiene, Gábor Herczeg, Abigél Gonda, Gergely Balázs, Arild Husby & Juha Merilä
The mosaic model of brain evolution postulates that different brain regions are relatively free to evolve independently from each other. Such independent evolution is possible only if genetic correlations among the different brain regions are less than unity. We estimated heritabilities, evolvabilities and genetic correlations of relative size of the brain, and its different regions in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We found that heritabilities were low (average h2 = 0.24), suggesting a large plastic...

Data from: The dual role of rivers in facilitating or hindering movements of the false heath fritillary butterfly

Mar Cabeza, Henna Fabritius, Joona Lehtomäki, Otso Ovaskainen, Katja Rönkä & Niklas Wahlberg
Background: Species movement responses to landscape structures have been studied using a variety of methods, but movement research is still in need of simple methods that help predicting and comparing movements across structurally different landscapes. We demonstrate how habitat-specific movement models can be used to disentangle causes of differentiated movement patterns in structurally different landscapes and to predict movement patterns in altered and artificial landscapes. In our case study, we studied the role of riparian...

Data from: The effectiveness and costs of pathogen resistance strategies in a perennial plant

Hanna Susi & Anna-Liisa Laine
Plants have evolved different strategies to resist pathogens, but little is known about how effective, stable and costly these mechanisms are in perennial plants across multiple growing seasons. We conducted a laboratory experiment to assess resistance variation in Plantago lanceolata against the powdery mildew-causing fungus Podosphaera plantaginis and to measure possible trade-offs between the different resistance strategies. To test stability and costs of resistance, we established common garden populations of plants possessing three different resistance...

Data from: The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes

Dimitrios Floudas, Manfred Binder, Robert Riley, Kerrie Barry, Robert A. Blanchette, Bernard Henrissat, Angel T. Martínez, Robert Ortillar, Joseph W. Spatafora, Jagjit S. Yadav, Andrea Aerts, Isabelle Benoit, Alex Boyd, Alexis Carlson, Alex Copeland, Pedro M. Coutinho, Ronald P. De Vries, Patricia Ferreira, Keisha Findley, Brian Foster, Jill Gaskell, Dylan Glotzer, Paweł Górecki, Joseph Heitman, Cedar Hesse … & David S. Hibbett
Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non–lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as...

Data from: What is a disease? Perspectives of the public, health professionals, and legislators

Kari A. O. Tikkinen, Janne S. Leinonen, Gordon H. Guyatt, Shanil Ebrahim & Teppo L. N. Järvinen
Objective: To assess the perception of diseases and the willingness to use public tax revenue for their treatment among relevant stakeholders. Design: A population-based, cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Finland Participants: 3 000 laypeople, 1 500 doctors, 1 500 nurses (randomly identified from the databases of the Finnish Population Register, the Finnish Medical Association and the Finnish Nurses Association), and all 200 parliament members. Main outcome measures: Respondents’ perspectives on a 5-point Likert scale on two...

Data from: The impact of spatial scale and habitat configuration on patterns of trait variation and local adaptation in a wild plant parasite

Ayco J. M. Tack, Richard Felix Horns, Anna-Liisa Laine & Felix Horns
Theory indicates that spatial scale and habitat configuration are fundamental for coevolutionary dynamics and how diversity is maintained in host–pathogen interactions. Yet, we lack empirical data to translate the theory to natural host–parasite systems. In this study, we conduct a multiscale cross-inoculation study using the specialist wild plant pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis on its host plant Plantago lanceolata. We apply the same sampling scheme to a region with highly fragmented (Åland) and continuous (Saaremaa) host populations....

Data from: Population divergence in compensatory growth responses and their costs in sticklebacks

Nurul Izza Ab Ghani & Juha Merilä
Compensatory growth (CG) may be an adaptive mechanism that helps to restore an organisms’ growth trajectory and adult size from deviations caused by early life resource limitation. Yet, few studies have investigated the genetic basis of CG potential and existence of genetically based population differentiation in CG potential. We studied population differentiation, genetic basis, and costs of CG potential in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) differing in their normal growth patterns. As selection favors large body...

Data from: Predicting rates of isotopic turnover across the animal kingdom: a synthesis of existing data

Stephen M. Thomas & Thomas W. Crowther
The stable isotopes of carbon (13C /12C) and nitrogen (15N /14N) represent powerful tools in food-web ecology, providing a wide range of dietary information in animal consumers. However, identifying the temporal window over which a consumer's isotopic signature reflects its diet requires an understanding of elemental incorporation, a process that varies from days to years across species and tissue types. Though theory predicts body size and temperature are likely to control incorporation rates, this has...

Data from: Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Masahito Tsuboi, Arild Husby, Alexander Kotrschal, Alexander Hayward, Séverine Denise Büchel, Josefina Zidar, Hanne Løvlie & Niclas Kolm
The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and i) investment into other costly tissues, ii) overall metabolic rate, and iii) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing...

Data from: Artificial selection on relative brain size reveals a positive genetic correlation between brain size and proactive personality in the guppy

Alexander Kotrschal, Eva J. P. Lievens, Josefin Dahlbom, Andreas Bundsen, Svetlana Semenova, Maria Sundvik, Alexei A. Maklakov, Svante Winberg, Pertti Panula, Niclas Kolm & Eva JP Lievens
Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a ‘reactive’ personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a ‘proactive’ personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata),...

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