430 Works

Data from: Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme Inhibitor 2 (AZIN2) is a signature of secretory phenotype and independent predictor of adverse prognosis in colorectal cancer

Tuomas Kaprio, Tina Rasila, Jaana Hagström, Harri Mustonen, Caj Haglund & Leif C. Andersson
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. The two ODC antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1) and (AZIN2) are regulators of the catalytic activity of ODC. While AZIN1 is a regulator of cell proliferation, AZIN2 is involved in intracellular vesicle transport and secretion. There are no previous reports on the impact of AZIN2 expression in human cancer. We applied immunohistochemistry with antibodies to human AZIN2 on tissue micro- arrays of colorectal cancers (CRC) from 840...

Data from: Long-term demographic surveys reveal a consistent relationship between average occupancy and abundance within local populations of a butterfly metapopulation

Torsti Schulz, Jarno Vanhatalo & Marjo Saastamoinen
Species distribution models are the tool of choice for large-scale population monitoring, environmental association studies, and predictions of range shifts under future environmental conditions. Available data and familiarity of the tools rather than the underlying population dynamics often dictate the choice of specific method — especially for the case of presence–absence data. Yet, for predictive purposes, the relationship between occupancy and abundance embodied in the models should reflect the actual population dynamics of the modelled...

Shared, modular chromosome rearrangements enable parallel adaptation in a marine fish

Tony Kess, Paul Bentzen, Sarah Lehnert, Emma Sylvester, Sigbjørn Lien, Matthew Kent, Marion Sinclair-Waters, Corey Morris, Brendan Wringe, Robert Fairweather & Ian Bradbury
Genomic architecture and standing variation can play a key role in ecological adaptation, and contribute to the predictability of evolution. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), four large chromosomal rearrangements have been associated with ecological gradients and migratory behaviour in regional analyses. However, the degree of parallelism , the extent of independent inheritance, and functional distinctiveness of these rearrangements remains poorly understood. Here, we use a 12K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to demonstrate extensive individual...

Data from: Effects of marker type and filtering criteria on QST-FST comparisons

Zitong Li, Ari Löytynoja, Antoine Fraimout & Juha Merilä
Comparative studies of quantitative and neutral genetic differentiation (QST-FST tests) provide means to detect adaptive population differentiation. However, QST-FST tests can be overly liberal if the markers used deflate FST below its expectation, or overly conservative if methodological biases lead to inflated FST estimates. We investigated how marker type and filtering criteria for marker selection influence QST-FST comparisons through their effects on FST using simulations and empirical data on over 18 000 in silico genotyped...

Data from: Joint evolution of dispersal and connectivity

Petteri Karisto & Eva Kisdi
Functional connectivity, the realized flow of individuals between the suitable sites of a heterogeneous landscape, is a prime determinant of the maintenance and evolution of populations in fragmented habitats. While a large body of literature examines the evolution of dispersal propensity, it is less known how evolution shapes functional connectivity via traits that influence the distribution of the dispersers. Here we use a simple model to demonstrate that, in a heterogeneous environment with clustered and...

Data from: Predators’ consumption of unpalatable prey does not vary as a function of bitter taste perception

Liisa Hämäläinen, Johanna Mappes, Rose Thorogood, Janne Valkonen, Kaijamari Karttunen, Tuuli Salmi & Hannah Rowland
Many prey species contain defensive chemicals that are described as tasting bitter. Bitter taste perception is therefore assumed to be important when predators are learning about prey defenses. However, it is not known how individuals differ in their response to bitter taste, and how this influences their foraging decisions. We conducted taste perception assays in which wild-caught great tits (Parus major) were given water with increasing concentrations of bitter-tasting chloroquine diphosphate until they showed an...

Data from: A phylogenomic perspective to diversity, hybridization and evolutionary affinities in the stickleback genus Pungitius

Guo Baocheng, Fang Bohao, Shikano Takahito, Momigliano Paolo, Wang Cui, Kravchenko Alexandra & Merilä Juha
Hybridization and convergent evolution are phenomena of broad interest in evolutionary biology, but their occurrence poses challenges for reconstructing evolutionary affinities among affected taxa. Sticklebacks in the genus Pungitius are a case in point: evolutionary relationships and taxonomic validity of different species and populations in this circumpolarly distributed species complex remain contentious due to convergent evolution of traits regarded as diagnostic in their taxonomy, and possibly also due to frequent hybridization among taxa. To clarify...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

Data from: Limited thermal plasticity and geographic divergence in the ovipositor of Drosophila suzukii

Ceferino Varón González, Antoine Fraimout, Arnaud Delapré, Vincent Debat & Raphaël Cornette
Phenotypic plasticity has been repeatedly suggested to facilitate adaptation to new environmental conditions, as in invasions. Here we investigate this possibility by focusing on the worldwide invasion of Drosophila suzukii: an invasive species that has rapidly colonized all continents over the last decade. This species is characterized by a highly developed ovipositor, allowing females to lay eggs through the skin of ripe fruits. Using a novel approach based on the combined use of SEM and...

The signal detection problem of aposematic prey revisited: integrating prior social and personal experience

Rose Thorogood & Liisa Hämäläinen
Data collected during three separate experiments using the "novel world" (Alatalo & Mappes, Nature 1996) approach to test how social information changes predator discrimination of novel aposematic prey from a cryptic palatable alternative. Experiments were conducted with great tits (Parus major), captured from the wild and released afterwards, at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi, Finland (62.6° N, 26.3° E) during three winters (2013-2014, 2016-2017, 2017-2018). Social information was provided by video playback of...

Data from: Genuine cross-frequency coupling networks in human resting-state electrophysiological recordings

Felix Siebenhühner, Sheng H Wang, Gabriele Arnulfo, Lino Nobili, J Matias Palva, Satu Palva & Anna Lampinen
Phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations in specific frequency bands coordinates anatomically distributed neuronal processing and communication. Typically, oscillations and synchronization take place concurrently in many distinct frequencies, which serve separate computational roles in cognitive functions. While within-frequency phase synchronization has been studied extensively, less is known about the mechanisms that govern neuronal processing distributed across frequencies and brain regions. Such integration of processing between frequencies could be achieved via cross-frequency coupling (CFC), either by phase-amplitude...

Data from: Predator co-evolution and prey trait variability determine species coexistence

Thomas Scheuerl, Johannes Cairns, Lutz Becks & Teppo Hiltunen
Predation is one of the key ecological mechanisms allowing species coexistence and influencing biological diversity. However, ecological processes are subject to contemporary evolutionary change, and the degree to which predation affects diversity ultimately depends on the interplay between evolution and ecology. Furthermore, ecological interactions that influence species co-existence can be altered by reciprocal co-evolution especially in the case of antagonistic interactions such as predation or parasitism. Here we used an experimental evolution approach to test...

Data from: Strategies of zooplanktivory shape dynamics and diversity of littoral plankton communities: a mesocosm approach

Laura K. Helenius, Anna Aymà Padros, Elina Leskinen, Hannu Lehtonen & Leena Nurminen
Planktivorous fish can exert strong top-down control on zooplankton communities. By incorporating different feeding strategies, from selective particulate feeding to cruising filter feeding, fish species target distinct prey. In this study, we investigated the effects of two species with different feeding strategies, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), on a low-diversity brackish water zooplankton community using a 16-day mesocosm experiment. The experiment was conducted on a small-bodied spring zooplankton community...

Data from: Rewetting of drained boreal spruce swamp forests results in rapid recovery of Sphagnum production

Liisa Maanavilja, Laura Kangas, Lauri Mehtätalo & Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
1. Peatland rewetting aims to restore biomass accumulation from peat-forming plants for climate change mitigation, biotope conservation and water purification purposes. Boreal spruce swamp forests in Europe have suffered heavily from drainage for forestry and are now a focus of restoration efforts. 2. We measured Sphagnum height and biomass increment by allowing Sphagnum to grow through mesh nets located in nine undrained, nine drained and 18 rewetted boreal spruce swamp forests. 3. At the moss...

Data from: Age-related effects of chronic hantavirus infection on female host fecundity

Eva R. Kallio, Heikki Helle, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes & Olli Vapalahti
1. Pathogens often cause detrimental effects to their hosts and, consequently, may influence host population dynamics that may, in turn, feed back to pathogen transmission dynamics. Understanding fitness effects of pathogens upon animal host populations can help to predict the risks that zoonotic pathogens pose to humans. 2. Here we determine whether chronic infection by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) affects important fitness-related traits, namely the probability of breeding, reproductive effort and mother and offspring condition, in...

Data from: Temporal stability of genetic variability and differentiation in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Jacquelin DeFaveri & Juha Merilä
Temporal variation in allele frequencies, whether caused by deterministic or stochastic forces, can inform us about interesting demographic and evolutionary phenomena occurring in wild populations. In spite of the continued surge of interest in the genetics of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations, little attention has been paid towards the temporal stability of allele frequency distributions, and whether there are consistent differences in effective size (Ne) of local populations. We investigated temporal stability of genetic variability...

Data from: Sex allocation conflict between queens and workers in Formica pratensis wood ants predicts seasonal sex ratio variation

Heikki Helanterä, Jonna Kulmuni & Pekka Pamilo
Sex allocation theory predicts parents should adjust their investment in male and female offspring in a way that increases parental fitness. This has been shown in several species and selective contexts. Yet, seasonal sex ratio variation within species and its underlying causes are poorly understood. Here we study sex allocation variation in the wood ant Formica pratensis. This species displays conflict over colony sex ratio as workers and queens prefer different investment in male and...

Data from: Genetic effects on life-history traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Anne Duplouy, Swee Chong Wong, Jukka Corander, Rainer Lehtonen & Ilkka Hanski
Background: Adaptation to local habitat conditions may lead to the natural divergence of populations in life-history traits such as body size, time of reproduction, mate signaling or dispersal capacity. Given enough time and strong enough selection pressures, populations may experience local genetic differentiation. The genetic basis of many life-history traits, and their evolution according to different environmental conditions remain however poorly understood. Methods: We conducted an association study on the Glanville fritillary butterfly, using material...

Data from: Predation cost of a sexual signal in the threespine stickleback

Sini Johnson & Ulrika Candolin
Much evidence exists for sexually selected traits reflecting various components of mate quality, but the factors that limit signal expression and ensure honest signaling are less well known. Predation risk has been proposed to be one factor that could constrain the elaboration of visually conspicuous signals and ensure honesty, but little evidence exists because of limitations of earlier used methods. We investigated using a combination of field observations and experimental work if a conspicuous sexual...

Data from: Between-year changes in community composition shape species' roles in an Arctic plant-pollinator network

Alyssa R. Cirtwill, Tomas Roslin, Claus Rasmussen, Jens Mogens Olesen & Daniel B. Stouffer
Inter-annual turnover in community composition can affect the richness and functioning of ecological communities. If incoming and outgoing species do not interact with the same partners, ecological functions such as pollination may be disrupted. Here, we explore the extent to which turnover affects species' roles --as defined based on their participation in different motifs positions-- in a series of temporally replicated plant-pollinator networks from high-Arctic Zackenberg, Greenland. We observed substantial turnover in the plant and...

Data from: Life‐history correlations change under coinfection leading to higher pathogen load

Anna-Liisa Laine & Hannu Mäkinen
The ability of a parasite strain to establish and grow on its host may be drastically altered by simultaneous infection by other parasite strains. However, we still lack an understanding of how life‐history allocations may change under coinfection, although life‐history correlations are a critical mechanism restricting the evolutionary potential and epidemiological dynamics of pathogens. Here, we study how life‐history stages and their correlations change in the obligate fungal pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis under single infection and...

Data from: Different DMRT3 genotypes are best adapted for harness racing and riding in Finnhorses

Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Lisa Johansson, Minna Mäenpää, Anna Mykkänen, Lisa S. Andersson, Brandon D. Velie, Leif Andersson, Thorvaldur Árnason & Gabriella Lindgren
Previous studies showed a positive effect of the DMRT3 “gait keeper” mutation on harness racing performance in Standardbreds, French-, and Nordic trotters. The mutation has also been shown to influence riding traits in multiple breeds. This study investigated the effect of the DMRT3 mutation on harness racing performance and riding traits in Finnhorses. Finnhorses used for harness racing (n = 180) and for riding (n = 59) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. For the...

Data from: Cross-frequency synchronization connects networks of fast and slow oscillations during visual working memory maintenance

Felix Siebenhühner, Sheng H. Wang, J. Matias Palva & Satu Palva
Neuronal activity in sensory and fronto-parietal (FP) areas underlies the representation and attentional control, respectively, of sensory information maintained in visual working memory (VWM). Within these regions, beta/gamma phase-synchronization supports the integration of sensory functions, while synchronization in theta/alpha bands supports the regulation of attentional functions. A key challenge is to understand which mechanisms integrate neuronal processing across these distinct frequencies and thereby the sensory and attentional functions. We investigated whether such integration could be...

Data from: Genomic signatures of fine‐scale local selection in Atlantic salmon suggest involvement of sexual maturation, energy homeostasis, and immune defence‐related genes

Victoria L. Pritchard, Hannu Mäkinen, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Jaakko Erkinaro, Panu Orell & Craig R. Primmer
Elucidating the genetic basis of adaptation to the local environment can improve our understanding of how the diversity of life has evolved. In this study we used a dense SNP array to identify candidate loci potentially underlying fine-scale local adaptation within a large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population. By combining outlier, gene–environment association, and haplotype homozygosity analyses, we identified multiple regions of the genome with strong evidence for diversifying selection. Several of these candidate regions...

Data from: Testing the validity of functional response models using molecular gut content analysis for prey choice in soil predators

Bernhard Eitzinger, Björn Rall, Michael Traugott & Stefan Scheu
Analysis of predator - prey interactions is a core concept of animal ecology, explaining structure and dynamics of animal food webs. Measuring the functional response, i.e. the intake rate of a consumer as a function of prey density, is a powerful method to predict the strength of trophic links and assess motives of prey choice, particularly in arthropod communities. However, due to their reductionist set-up, functional responses, which are based on laboratory feeding experiments, may...

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