430 Works

Data from: Spatial and temporal patterns of nest distribution influences sexual selection in a marine fish

Bob B.M. Wong, Topi K. Lehtonen, Kai Lindström & Bob B. M. Wong
In many species, the natural distribution of material resources important for reproduction can profoundly impact reproductive success among individuals and, hence, the opportunity and intensity of sexual selection. Here, we report on a field-based experiment investigating the effects of nest aggregation on sexual selection in a fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). We found that the distribution of potential nests (sparse versus aggregated nest treatments) affected patterns of nest colonization and reproductive success. Specifically, in...

Data from: Gut microbiota signatures predict host and microbiota responses to dietary interventions in obese individuals

Katri Korpela, Harry J. Flint, Alexandra M. Johnstone, Jenni Lappi, Kaisa Poutanen, Evelyne Dewulf, Nathalie Delzenne, Willem M. De Vos & Anne Salonen
Background: Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in...

Data from: Evidence for sex-specific selection in brain: a case study of the nine-spined stickleback

Gabor Herczeg, Kaisa Välimäki, Abigél Gonda & Juha Merilä
Theory predicts that the sex making greater investments into reproductive behaviours demands higher cognitive ability, and as a consequence, larger brains or brain parts. Further, the resulting sexual dimorphism can differ between populations adapted to different environments, or among individuals developing under different environmental conditions. In the nine-spine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), males perform nest building, courtship, territory defence and parental care, whereas females perform mate choice and produce eggs. Also, predation-adapted marine and competition-adapted pond...

Data from: Enriched rearing environment and wild genetic background can enhance survival and disease resistance of salmonid fishes during parasite epidemics

Anssi Karvonen, Mariella Aalto-Araneda, Anna-Maija Virtala, Raine Kortet, Perttu Koski & Pekka Hyvärinen
The importance and volume of aquaculture is increasing world-wide. Rearing practices play a key role in determining growth rate, survival and disease resistance in aquaculture fishes. Recent evidence suggests that in comparison with a standard stimulus-poor rearing environment, an enriched or variable rearing environment has significant positive effects on several traits underlying growth and well-being of fish. However, the effect of enriched rearing on one of the most important threats for aquaculture development, occurrence of...

Data from: What you need is what you eat? Prey selection by the bat Myotis daubentonii

Eero J. Vesterinen, Lasse Ruokolainen, Niklas Wahlberg, Carlos Peña, Tomas Roslin, Veronika N. Laine, Ville Vasko, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Kai Norrdahl & Thomas M. Lilley
Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. Insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. According to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behaviour – yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be composed of specialist...

Data from: Diagnosing depression in chronic pain patients: DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder vs. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

Peter Knaster, Ann-Mari Estlander, Jaakko Kaprio, Hasse Karlsson & Eija Kalso
Background: Diagnosing depression in chronic pain is challenging due to overlapping somatic symptoms. In questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), responses may be influenced more by pain than by the severity of depression. In addition, previous studies have suggested that symptoms of negative self-image, a key element in depression, are uncommon in chronic pain-related depression. The object of this study is to assess the relationship of the somatic and cognitive-emotional items of BDI...

Data from: Air humidity thresholds trigger active moss spore release to extend dispersal in space and time

Victor Johansson, Niklas Lönnell, Üllar Rannik, Sebastian Sundberg & Kristoffer Hylander
1. Understanding the complete dispersal process is important for making realistic predictions of species distributions, but mechanisms for diaspore release in wind-dispersed species are often unknown. However, diaspore release under conditions that increase the probability of longer dispersal distances and mechanisms that extend dispersal events in time may have evolutionary advantages. 2. We quantified air humidity thresholds regulating spore release in the moss Brachythecium rutabulum. We also investigated the prevailing micrometeorological conditions when these thresholds...

Data from: The genetic contribution to sex determination and number of sex chromosomes vary among populations of common frogs (Rana temporaria)

Nicolas Rodrigues, Yvan Vuille, Alan Brelsford, Juha Merilä & Nicolas Perrin
The patterns of sex determination and sex differentiation have been shown to differ among geographic populations of common frogs. Notably, the association between phenotypic sex and linkage group 2 (LG2) has been found to be perfect in a northern Swedish population, but weak and variable among families in a southern one. By analyzing these populations with markers from other linkage groups, we bring two new insights: (1) the variance in phenotypic sex not accounted for...

Data from: Controlling for p-value inflation in allele frequency change in experimental evolution and artificial selection experiments

Petri Kemppainen, Bernt Rønning, Thomas Kvalnes, Ingerid J. Hagen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Anna M. Billing, Henrik Pärn, Sigbjorn Lien, Arild Husby, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Experimental evolution studies can be used to explore genomic response to artificial and natural selection. In such studies, loci that display larger allele frequency change than expected by genetic drift alone are assumed to be directly or indirectly associated with traits under selection. However, such studies report surprisingly many loci under selection, suggesting that current tests for allele frequency change may be subject to p-value inflation and hence be anti-conservative. One factor known from genome...

Data from: Bridge under troubled water: turbulence and niche partitioning in fish foraging

Zeynep Pekcan-Hekim, Noora Hellén, Laura Härkönen, Per Anders Nilsson, Leena Nurminen & Jukka Horppila
The coexistence of competing species relies on niche partitioning. Competitive exclusion is likely inevitable at high niche overlap, but such divide between competitors may be bridged if environmental circumstances displace competitor niches to enhance partitioning. Foraging-niche dimension can be influenced by environmental characteristics, and if competitors react differently to such conditions, coexistence can be facilitated. We here experimentally approach the partitioning effects of environmental conditions by evaluating the influence of water turbulence on foraging-niche responses...

Data from: Finding flies in the mushroom soup: host specificity of fungus-associated communities revisited with a novel molecular method

Janne Koskinen, Tomas Roslin, Tommi Nyman, Nerea Abrego, Craig Michell & Eero J. Vesterinen
Fruiting bodies of fungi constitute an important resource for thousands of other taxa. The structure of these diverse assemblages has traditionally been studied with labour-intensive methods involving cultivation and morphology-based species identification, to which molecular information might offer convenient complements. To overcome challenges in DNA extraction and PCR associated with the complex chemical properties fruiting bodies, we developed a pipeline applicable for extracting amplifiable total DNA from soft fungal samples of any size. Our protocol...

Data from: Increased fluctuation in a butterfly metapopulation leads to diploid males and decline of a hyperparasitoid

Abhilash Nair, Etsuko Nonaka & Saskya Van Nouhuys
Climate change can increase spatial synchrony of population dynamics, leading to large-scale fluctuation that destabilizes communities. High trophic level species such as parasitoids are disproportionally affected because they depend on unstable resources. Most parasitoid wasps have complementary sex determination, producing sterile males when inbred, which can theoretically lead to population extinction via the diploid male vortex. We examined this process empirically using a hyperparasitoid population inhabiting a spatially structured host population in a large fragmented...

Data from: Construction and characterization of synthetic bacterial community for experimental ecology and evolution

Johannes Cairns, Roosa Jokela, Jenni Hultman, Manu Tamminen, Marko Virta & Teppo Hiltunen
Experimental microbial ecology and evolution have yielded foundational insights into ecological and evolutionary processes using simple microcosm setups and phenotypic assays with one- or two-species model systems. The fields are now increasingly incorporating more complex systems and exploration of the molecular basis of observations. For this purpose, simplified, manageable and well-defined multispecies model systems are required that can be easily investigated using culturing and high-throughput sequencing approaches, bridging the gap between simpler and more complex...

Data from: The possible role of ant larvae in the defence against social parasites

Unni Pulliainen, Heikki Helanterä, Liselotte Sundstrom & Eva Schultner
Temporary social parasite ant queens initiate new colonies by entering colonies of host species, where they begin laying eggs. As the resident queen can be killed during this process, host colonies may lose their entire future reproductive output. Selection thus favours the evolution of defence mechanisms, before and after parasite intrusion. Most studies on social parasites focus on host worker discrimination of parasite queens and their offspring. However, ant larvae can also influence brood composition...

Data from: Accounting for heteroscedasticity and censoring in chromosome partitioning analyses

Petri Kemppainen & Arild Husby
A fundamental assumption in quantitative genetics is that traits are controlled by many loci of small effect. Using genomic data, this assumption can be tested using chromosome partitioning analyses, where the proportion of genetic variance for a trait explained by each chromosome (h2c), is regressed on its size. However, as h2c-estimates are necessarily positive (censoring) and the variance increases with chromosome size (heteroscedasticity), two fundamental assumptions of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression are violated. Using...

Data from: Pathogen dynamics under both bottom-up host resistance and top-down hyperparasite attack

Steven R. Parratt & Anna-Liisa Laine
1. The relative importance of bottom-up versus top-down control of population dynamics has been the focus of much debate. In infectious disease biology, research is typically focused on the bottom-up process of host resistance, wherein the direction of control flows from the lower to the higher trophic level to impact on pathogen population size and epidemiology. However, the importance of top-down control by a pathogen's natural enemies has been mostly overlooked. 2. Here, we explore...

Data from: Boreal tree growth exhibits decadal-scale ecological memory to drought and insect defoliation, but no negative response to their interaction

Malcolm S. Itter, L D'Orangeville, Andria Dawson, Daniel Kneeshaw, Louis Duchesne & Andrew O. Finley
1. Interactions between drought and insect defoliation may dramatically alter forest function under novel climate and disturbance regimes, but remain poorly understood. We empirically tested two important hypotheses regarding tree responses to drought and insect defoliation: 1) trees exhibit delayed, persistent, and cumulative growth responses to these stressors; 2) physiological feedbacks in tree responses to these stressors exacerbate their impacts on tree growth. These hypotheses remain largely untested at a landscape scale, yet are critical...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP data unveils the globalization of domesticated pigs

Bin Yang, Leilei Cui, Miguel Perez-Enciso, Aleksei Traspov, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Natalia Zinovieva, Lawrence B. Schook, Alan Archibald, Kesinee Gatphayak, Christophe Knorr, Alex Triantafyllidis, Panoraia Alexandri, Gono Semiadi, Olivier Hanotte, Deodália Dias, Peter Dovč, Pekka Uimari, Laura Iacolina, Massimo Scandura, Martien A. M. Groenen, Lusheng Huang & Hendrik-Jan Megens
Background: Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global...

Data from: Genome-wide meta-analysis of sciatica in Finnish population

Susanna Lemmelä, Svetlana Solovieva, Rahman Shiri, Christian Benner, Markku Heliövaara, Johannes Kettunen, Verneri Anttila, Samuli Ripatti, Markus Perola, Ilkka Seppälä, Markus Juonala, Mika Kähönen, Veikko Salomaa, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Terho Lehtimäki, Aarno Palotie, Eira Viikari-Juntula, Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Olli T. Raitakari & Eira Viikari-Juntura
Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291...

Data from: Carrion fly-derived DNA metabarcoding is an effective tool for mammal surveys: evidence from a known tropical mammal community

Torrey W. Rodgers, Charles C. Y. Xu, Jacalyn Giacalone, Karen M. Kapheim, Kristin Saltonstall, Marta Vargas, Douglas W. Yu, Panu Somervuo, W. Owen McMillan & Patrick A. Jansen
Metabarcoding of vertebrate DNA derived from carrion flies has been proposed as a promising tool for biodiversity monitoring. To evaluate its efficacy, we conducted metabarcoding surveys of carrion flies on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, which has a well-known mammal community, and compared our results against diurnal transect counts and camera-trapping. We collected 1084 flies in 29 sampling days, conducted metabarcoding with mammal-specific (16S) and vertebrate-specific (12S) primers, and sequenced amplicons on Illumina MiSeq. For...

Data from: Inferring dispersal across a fragmented landscape using reconstructed families in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Toby Fountain, Arild Husby, Etsuko Nonaka, Michelle F. DiLeo, Janne H. Korhonen, Pasi Rastas, Torsti Schulz, Marjo Saastamoinen & Ilkka Hanski
Dispersal is important for determining both a species ecological processes, such as population viability, and its evolutionary processes, like gene flow and local adaptation. Yet obtaining accurate estimates in the wild through direct observation can be challenging or even impossible, particularly over large spatial and temporal scales. Genotyping many individuals from wild populations can provide detailed inferences about dispersal. We therefore utilized genomewide marker data to estimate dispersal in the classic metapopulation of the Glanville...

Data from: Evolutionary contribution to coexistence of competitors in microbial food webs

Teppo Hiltunen, Veijo Kaitala, Jouni Laakso & Lutz Becks
The theory of species coexistence is a key concept in ecology that has received much attention. The role of rapid evolution for determining species coexistence is still poorly understood although evolutionary change on ecological time-scales has the potential to change almost any ecological process. The influence of evolution on coexistence can be especially pronounced in microbial communities where organisms often have large population sizes and short generation times. Previous work on coexistence has assumed that...

Data from: Towards a common methodology for developing logistic tree mortality models based on ring-width data

Maxime Cailleret, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, J. Julio Camarero, Katarina Cufar, Hendrik Davi, Ilona Mészáros, Francesco Minunno, Mikko Peltoniemi, Elisabeth Robert, María-Laura Suarez, Roberto Tognetti & Jordi Martinez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key process shaping forest dynamics. Thus, there is a growing need for indicators of the likelihood of tree death. During the last decades, an increasing number of tree-ring based studies have aimed to derive growth–mortality functions, mostly using logistic models. The results of these studies, however, are difficult to compare and synthesize due to the diversity of approaches used for the sampling strategy (number and characteristics of alive and death observations),...

Data from: Combined analysis of variation in core, accessory and regulatory genome regions provides a super-resolution view into the evolution of bacterial populations

Alan McNally, Yaara Oren, Darren Kelly, Ben Pascoe, Steven Dunn, Tristan Seecharan, Minna Vehkala, Niko Välimäki, Michael B. Prentice, Amgad Ashour, Oren Avram, Tal Pupko, Ulrich Dobrindt, Ivan Literak, Sebastian Guenther, Katharina Schauffler, Lothar H. Wieler, Zong Zhiyong, Samuel K. Sheppard, James O. McInerney, Jukka Corander & Tristan Sreecharan
The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could...

Data from: Tail color signals performance in blue tit nestlings

Barbara Class, Edward Kluen & Jon E. Brommer
Indirect sexual selection arises when reproductive individuals choose their mates based on heritable ornaments that are genetically correlated to fitness. Evidence for genetic associations between ornamental coloration and fitness remain scarce. In this study we investigate the quantitative genetic relationship between different aspects of tail structural coloration (brightness, hue and UV chroma) and performance (cell mediated immunity, body mass and wing length) in blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nestlings. In line with previous studies, we find...

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