430 Works

Data from: Genetic divergence between the sympatric queen morphs of the ant Myrmica rubra

Jenni Leppänen, Perttu Seppä, Kari Vepsäläinen & Riitta Savolainen
Pairs of obligate social parasites and their hosts, where some of the parasites have recently diverged from their host through intraspecific social parasitism, provide intriguing systems for studying the modes and processes of speciation. Such speciation, probably in sympatry, has also been propounded in the ant Myrmica rubra and its intraspecific social parasite. In this species, parasitism is associated with queen size dimorphism, and the small microgyne has become a social parasite of the large...

Data from: Causes and consequences of fine-scale population structure in a critically endangered freshwater seal

Mia Valtonen, Jukka U. Palo, Jouni Aspi, Minna Ruokonen, Mervi Kunnasranta & Tommi Nyman
Saimaa_ringed_seal_microsatSaimaa ringed seal genotypes based on 17 microsatellite loci. Individuals sampled between the years 1980-2008 from five regions of Lake Saimaa; Northern Saimaa (1st pop), Kolovesi (2nd pop), Main Haukivesi area (3rd pop), Pihlajavesi area (4th pop) and Southern Saimaa (5th pop). The data is in GenePop format.Saimaa_ringed_seal_sample_infoCollection information on the individual Saimaa ringed seals included in the study.

Data from: Secondary successional trajectories of structural and catabolic bacterial communities in oil polluted soil planted with hybrid poplar

Shinjini Mukherjee, Timo Sipilä, Pertti Pulkkinen & Kim Yrjälä
Poplars have widely been used for rhizoremediation of a broad range of organic contaminants for the past two decades. Still, there is a knowledge gap regarding the rhizosphere associated bacterial communities of poplars and their dynamics during the remediation process. It is envisaged that a detailed understanding of rhizosphere associated microbial populations will greatly contribute to a better design and implementation of rhizoremediation. In order to investigate the long-term succession of structural and catabolic bacterial...

Data from: A universal and reliable assay for molecular sex identification of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Elisavet-Aspasia Toli, Federico C. F. Calboli, Takahito Shikano & Juha Merilä
In heterogametic species, biological differences between the two sexes are ubiquitous, and hence, errors in sex identification can be a significant source of noise and bias in studies where sex-related sources of variation are of interest or need to be controlled for. We developed and validated a universal multi-marker assay for reliable sex identification of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The assay makes use of genotype scores from three sex-linked loci, and utilizes Bayesian probabilistic inference...

Data from: Competition-driven build-up of habitat isolation and selection favouring dispersal modification in a young avian hybrid zone

Jakub Rybinski, Päivi M. Sirkiä, S. Eryn McFarlane, Niclas Vallin, David Wheatcroft, Murielle Ålund & Anna Qvarnström
Competition-driven evolution of habitat isolation is an important mechanism of ecological speciation but empirical support for this process is often indirect. We examined how an on-going displacement of pied flycatchers from their preferred breeding habitat by collared flycatchers in a young secondary contact zone is associated with (a) access to an important food resource (caterpillar larvae), (b) immigration of pied flycatchers in relation to habitat quality, and (c) the risk of hybridization in relation to...

Data from: Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds: a case study of the Norwegian Lundehund

Astrid V. Stronen, Elina Salmela, BK Baldursdóttir, P Berg, IS Espelien, Kirsi Järvi, Henrik Jensen, TN Kristensen, Claudia Melis, Tommaso Manenti, Hannes Lohi, Cino Pertoldi & Torsten N. Kristensen
Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog (henceforth Lundehund) underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which...

Data from: Evolving interactions between diazotrophic cyanobacterium and phage mediate nitrogen release and host competitive ability

Johannes Cairns, Sebastian Coloma, Kaarina Sivonen & Teppo Hiltunen
Interactions between nitrogen-fixing (i.e. diazotrophic) cyanobacteria and their viruses, cyanophages, can have large-scale ecosystem effects. These effects are mediated by temporal alterations in nutrient availability in aquatic systems owing to the release of nitrogen and carbon sources from cells lysed by phages, as well as by ecologically important changes in the diversity and fitness of cyanobacterial populations that evolve in the presence of phages. However, ecological and evolutionary feedbacks between phages and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are...

Data from: Deep sequencing of a candidate region harboring the SOX9 gene for the canine XX disorder of sex development

Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Izabela Szczerbal, Hubert Pausch, Sruthi Hundi, Marjo K. Hytönen, Adrian Grzemski, Krzysztof Flisikowski, Hannes Lohi, Marek Switonski & Maciej Szydlowski
A disorder of sex development (DSD) in dogs with female sex chromosomes (78, XX), a lack of the SRY gene and the presence of testes or ovotestes is commonly diagnosed in numerous breeds. The molecular background of DSD is not fully recognized but has been linked to the copy number variation in the region harboring the SOX9 gene. We applied a genome-wide association study and targeted next-generation sequencing techniques to compare DSD and normal female...

Data from: Isolation and characterization of 145 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Chikako Matsuba & Juha Merilä
We describe primers and polymerase chain reaction conditions to amplify 145 di-, tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci from the common frog (Rana temporaria), a species commonly used as a model in ecological and evolutionary research. Primers were tested on 46 individuals from two Fennoscandian populations and yielded an average of six to nine alleles per locus (range = 1–30) depending on the population. Average observed heterozygosities in the two populations were 0.16 (range = 0–0.91)...

Data from: Species introduction promotes hybridization and introgression in Coregonus: is there sign of selection against hybrids?

Kimmo K Kahilainen, Kjartan Østbye, Chris Harrod, Takahito Shikano, Tommi Malinen & Juha Merilä
Species introductions are considered one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss via ecological interactions and genetic admixture with local fauna. We examined two well-recognized fish species, native whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and introduced vendace (C. albula), as well as their morphological hybrids in a single lake to test for selection against hybrids and backcrosses in the wild. A representative random subsample of 693 individuals (27.8%) was taken from the total catch of coregonids. This subsample...

Data from: Genetic variation in HIF signaling underlies quantitative variation in physiological and life history traits within lowland butterfly populations

James H. Marden, Howard W. Fescemyer, Rudolf J. Schilder, William R. Doerfler, Juan Cristobal Vera & Christopher W. Wheat
Oxygen conductance to the tissues determines aerobic metabolic performance in most eukaryotes but has cost/benefit tradeoffs. Here we examine in lowland populations of a butterfly a genetic polymorphism affecting oxygen conductance via the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway, which senses intracellular oxygen and controls the development of oxygen delivery networks. Genetically distinct clades of Glanville fritillary (Melitaea cinxia) across a continental scale maintain, at intermediate frequencies, alleles in a metabolic enzyme (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) that...

Data from: Food makes you a target: disentangling genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects determining susceptibility to infection

Otto Seppälä, Anssi Karvonen, Maarit Haataja, Marja Kuosa & Jukka Jokela
Genetics, physiology and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design and long- and short-term food deprivation treatments to test the role of family-level genetic variation, body condition, physiological state and foraging behavior on the susceptibility...

Data from: Plasticity and heritability of morphological variation within and between parapatric stickleback demes

R. J. Scott McCairns & Louis Bernatchez
The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has emerged as an important model organism in evolutionary ecology, largely due to the repeated, parallel evolution of divergent morphotypes found in populations having colonized freshwater habitats. However, morphological divergence following colonization is not a universal phenomenon. We explore this in a large-scale estuarine ecosystem inhabited by two parapatric stickleback demes, each physiologically adapted to divergent osmoregulatory environments (fresh vs. saline waters). Using geometric morphometric analyses of wild-caught individuals, we...

Data from: Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, François Guilhaumon, Olivier Missa, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Jürgen Schmidl, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jon R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H. C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan … & Maurice Leponce
Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6,144 arthropod species from 0.48 ha and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas...

Predator community and resource use jointly modulate the inducible defense response in body height of crucian carp

Ilaria De Meo, Kjartan Østbye, Kimmo Kahilainen, Brian Hayden, Christian Fagertun & Antonio Poléo
Phenotypic plasticity can be expressed as changes in body shape in response to environmental variability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius), a widespread cyprinid, displays remarkable plasticity in body morphology and increases body depth when exposed to cues from predators, suggesting the triggering of an anti-predator defense mechanism. However, these morphological changes could also be related to resource use and foraging behavior, as an indirect effect of predator presence. In order to determine whether phenotypic plasticity in...

Data from: Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions

Anniina L. K. Mattila
Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at...

Data from: Understanding the dominant controls on litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, Bjorn Berg, Daniel S. Maynard, William R. Wieder & Stephen A. Wood
Litter decomposition is a biogeochemical process fundamental to element cycling within ecosystems, influencing plant productivity, species composition and carbon storage. Climate has long been considered the primary broad-scale control on litter decomposition rates, yet recent work suggests that plant litter traits may predominate. Both decomposition paradigms, however, rely on inferences from cross-biome litter decomposition studies that analyse site-level means. We re-analyse data from a classical cross-biome study to demonstrate that previous research may falsely inflate...

Data from: Carry-over effects of conditions at the wintering grounds on breeding plumage signals in a migratory bird: roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection

Pauliina E. Järvistö, Sara Calhim, Wiebke Schuett, Päivi Maria Sirkiä, William Velmala & Toni Laaksonen
To understand the consequences of ever-changing environment on the dynamics of phenotypic traits, distinguishing between selection processes and individual plasticity is crucial. We examined individual consistency/plasticity in several male secondary sexual traits expressed during the breeding season (white wing and forehead patch size, UV reflectance of white wing patch and dorsal melanin colouration) in a migratory pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population over an 11-year period. Furthermore, we studied carry-over effects of three environmental variables (NAO,...

Data from: An empirical comparison of models for the phenology of bird migration

Andreas Lindén, Kalle Meller & Jonas Knape
Bird migration phenology shows strong responses to climate change. Studies of trends and patterns in phenology are typically based on annual summarizing metrics, such as means and quantiles calculated from raw daily count data. However, with irregularly sampled data and large day-to-day variation, such metrics can be biased and noisy, and may be analysed using phenological functions fitted to the data. Here we use count data of migration passage from a Finnish bird observatory to...

Data from: Genetic variability and structuring of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia

Takahito Shikano, Antero Järvinen, Paula Marjamäki, Kimmo K. Kahilainen & Juha Merilä
Variation in presumably neutral genetic markers can inform us about evolvability, historical effective population sizes and phylogeographic history of contemporary populations. We studied genetic variability in 15 microsatellite loci in six native landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia, where this species is considered near threatened. We discovered that all populations were genetically highly (mean FST ≈ 0.26) differentiated and isolated from each other. Evidence was found for historical, but not for recent...

Data from: Selection on the morphology-physiology-performance nexus: lessons from freshwater stickleback morphs

Sergey Morozov, Tuomas Leinonen, Juha Merilä, R.J. Scott McCairns & R. J. Scott McCairns
Conspecifics inhabiting divergent environments frequently differ in morphology, physiology and performance, but the interrelationships amongst traits and with Darwinian fitness remains poorly understood. We investigated population differentiation in morphology, metabolic rate and swimming performance in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.), contrasting a marine/ancestral population with two distinct freshwater morphotypes derived from it: the ‘typical’ low-plated morph, and a unique ‘small-plated’ morph. We test the hypothesis that similar to plate loss in other freshwater populations, reduction...

Data from: Safety of single low-dose primaquine in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient falciparum-infected African males: two open-label, randomized, safety trials

Guido Bastiaens, Alfred B. Tiono, Joseph Okebe, Helmi Pett, Sam A. Coulibaly, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Muna Affara, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Edith C. Bougouma, Guillaume S. Sanou, Issa Nébié, John Bradley, Kjerstin H. W. Lanke, Mikko Niemi, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Umberto D'Alessandro, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley, Guido J. H. Bastiaens, Helmi E. Pett & Umberto D’Alessandro
Background: Primaquine (PQ) actively clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals can cause hemolysis. We assessed the safety of low-dose PQ in combination with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in G6PDd African males with asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria. Methods and findings: In Burkina Faso, G6PDd adult males were randomized to treatment with AL alone (n = 10) or with PQ at 0.25 (n = 20) or 0.40 mg/kg (n =...

Data from: Assessing the dynamics of natural populations by fitting individual based models with approximate Bayesian computation

Jukka Sirén, Luc Lens, Laurence Cousseau & Otso Ovaskainen
1. Individual based models (IBMs) allow realistic and flexible modelling of ecological systems, but their parametrization with empirical data is statistically and computationally challenging. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has been proposed as an efficient approach for inference with IBMs, but its applicability to data on natural populations has not been yet fully explored. 2. We construct an IBM for the metapopulation dynamics of a species inhabiting a fragmented patch network, and develop an ABC method...

Data from: Breeding bird species diversity across gradients of land use from forest to agriculture in Europe

Matti J. Koivula, Dan E. Chamberlain, Robert J. Fuller, Stephen C. F. Palmer, Attila Bankovics, Fintan Bracken, Tom Bolger, Eduardo De Juana, Marc Montadert, Renato Neves, Rui Rufino, Angel Sallent, Luís Lopes Da Silva, Pedro J. Leitão, Manfred Steffen & Allan D. Watt
Loss, fragmentation and decreasing quality of habitats have been proposed as major threats to biodiversity world-wide, but relatively little is known about biodiversity responses to multiple pressures, particularly at very large spatial scales. We evaluated the relative contributions of four landscape variables (habitat cover, diversity, fragmentation and productivity) in determining different components of avian diversity across Europe. We sampled breeding birds in multiple 1-km2 landscapes, from high forest cover to intensive agricultural land, in eight...

Density-dependent individual variation in male attractiveness in a wild field cricket

Petri Niemelä, Stefano Tiso & Niels Dingemanse
Social environments modify a male’s ability to attract females and thus affect its fitness. Theory implies that an individual’s fitness should trade-off with its ability to cope with competition. Individuals are expected to solve this trade-off differently: some males should be more attractive at low but others instead at high density. This prediction has rarely been tested in the wild. We used an automated RFID-surveillance system to quantify for each hour of the day, over...

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  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Turku
  • University of Jyväskylä
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • University of Oulu
  • Uppsala University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Finnish Environment Institute
  • University of Eastern Finland