28 Works

Data from: Evolution of camouflage drives rapid ecological change in an insect community

Timothy E. Farkas, Tommi Mononen, Aaron A. Comeault, Ilkka Hanski & Patrik Nosil
Evolutionary change in individual species has been hypothesized to have far-reaching consequences for entire ecological communities, and such coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics (“eco-evolutionary dynamics”) has been demonstrated for a variety systems. However, the relative importance of evolutionary dynamics for ecological dynamics remains unclear. Here, we investigate how spatial patterns of local adaptation in the stick insect Timema cristinae, driven by natural selection, gene flow and founder effects, structure metapopulations, communities, and multitrophic interactions....

Data from: Pathogen life-history trade-offs revealed in allopatry

Hanna Susi & Anna-Liisa Laine
Trade-offs in life-history traits is a central tenet in evolutionary biology, yet their ubiquity and relevance to realized fitness in natural populations remains questioned. Trade-offs in pathogens are of particular interest because they may constrain the evolution and epidemiology of diseases. Here, we studied life-history traits determining transmission in the obligate fungal pathogen, Podosphaera plantaginis, infecting Plantago lanceolata. We find that while traits are positively associated on sympatric host genotypes, on allopatric host genotypes relationships...

Data from: Investigating the production of sexual resting structures in a plant pathogen reveals unexpected self-fertility and genotype-by-environment effects

Charlotte Tollenaere, Anna-Liisa Laine & A.-L. Laine
The sexual stage of pathogens governs recombination patterns and often also provides means of surviving the off-season. Despite its importance for evolutionary potential and between-season epidemiology, sexual systems have not been carefully investigated for many important pathogens, and what generates variation in successful sexual reproduction of pathogens remains unexplored. We surveyed the sexually produced resting structures (chasmothecia) across 86 natural populations of fungal pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis (Ascomycota) naturally infecting Plantago lanceolata in the Åland archipelago,...

Data from: Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas

Hanna M. Laakkonen, Dmitry L. Lajus, Petr Strelkov & Risto Väinölä
Background: The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations...

Data from: Local adaptation to salinity in the three-spined stickleback?

Jacquelin DeFaveri & Juha Merilä
Different lines of evidence suggest that the occurrence and extent of local adaptation in high gene flow marine environments – even in mobile and long-lived vertebrates with complex life cycles – may be more widespread than earlier thought. We conducted a common garden experiment to test for local adaptation to salinity in Baltic Sea sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish from three different native salinity regimes (high, mid and low) were subjected to three salinity treatments (high,...

Data from: Evidence for adaptive phenotypic differentiation in Baltic Sea sticklebacks

Jacquelin DeFaveri & Juha Merilä
The evidence for adaptive phenotypic differentiation in mobile marine species remains scarce, partly due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative genetic data to demonstrate the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic differentiation. Using a combination of phenotypic and molecular genetic approaches, we elucidated the relative roles of natural selection and genetic drift in explaining lateral plate number differentiation in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) across the entire Baltic Sea basin (ca. 392 000 km2). We found...

Data from: Distribution and bioinformatic analysis of the cerato-platanin protein family in Dikarya

Hongxin Chen, Andriy Kovalchuk, Susanna Keriö & Fred O. Asiegbu
The cerato-platanin family is a group of small cysteine-rich fungal proteins new to science. They usually are abundantly secreted extracellularly and are involved in fungus-host interactions. With the advance of available fungal genome sequences, we performed a genomewide study of the distribution of this family in fungi and analyzed the common characteristics of the protein sequences. A total of 55 fungal genomes, including 27 from Ascomycota and 28 from Basidiomycota, were used. A total of...

Data from: Rapidly fluctuating environments constrain coevolutionary arms races by impeding selective sweeps

Ellie Harrison, Anna-Liisa Laine, Mikael Hietala, Michael A. Brockhurst & A.-L. Laine
Although pervasive, the impact of temporal environmental heterogeneity on coevolutionary processes is poorly understood. Productivity is a key temporally heterogeneous variable, and increasing productivity has been shown to increase rates of antagonistic arms race coevolution, and lead to the evolution of more broadly resistant hosts and more broadly infectious parasites. We investigated the effects of the grain of environmental heterogeneity, in terms of fluctuations in productivity, on bacteria–phage coevolution. Our findings demonstrate that environmental heterogeneity...

Data from: The impact of spatial scale and habitat configuration on patterns of trait variation and local adaptation in a wild plant parasite

Ayco J. M. Tack, Richard Felix Horns, Anna-Liisa Laine & Felix Horns
Theory indicates that spatial scale and habitat configuration are fundamental for coevolutionary dynamics and how diversity is maintained in host–pathogen interactions. Yet, we lack empirical data to translate the theory to natural host–parasite systems. In this study, we conduct a multiscale cross-inoculation study using the specialist wild plant pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis on its host plant Plantago lanceolata. We apply the same sampling scheme to a region with highly fragmented (Åland) and continuous (Saaremaa) host populations....

Data from: Maternal antibodies contribute to sex based difference in hantavirus transmission dynamics

Eva R. Kallio, Heikki Henttonen, Esa Koskela, Åke Lundkvist, Tapio Mappes, Olli Vapalahti & A. Lundkvist
Individuals often differ in their ability to transmit disease and identifying key individuals for transmission is a major issue in epidemiology. Male hosts are often thought to be more important than females for parasite transmission and persistence. However, the role of infectious females, particularly the transient immunity provided to offspring through maternal antibodies (MatAbs), has been neglected in discussions about sex-biased infection transmission. We examined the effect of host sex upon infection dynamics of zoonotic...

Data from: Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae), a new species from Kyrgyzstan

Alexander Sennikov & Georgy Lazkov
Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of A. sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from A. spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of...

Data from: Genetic and life-history changes associated with fisheries-induced population collapse

Lilian Pukk, Anna Kuparinen, Leili Järv, Riho Gross & Anti Vasemägi
Over the recent years, growing number of studies suggests that intensive size-selective fishing can cause evolutionary changes in life-history traits in the harvested population, which can have drastic negative effects on populations, ecosystems and fisheries. However, most studies to date have overlooked the potential role of immigration of fish with different phenotypes as an alternative plausible mechanism behind observed phenotypic trends. Here, we investigated the evolutionary consequences of intensive fishing simultaneously at phenotypic and molecular...

Data from: Artificial selection on relative brain size reveals a positive genetic correlation between brain size and proactive personality in the guppy

Alexander Kotrschal, Eva J. P. Lievens, Josefin Dahlbom, Andreas Bundsen, Svetlana Semenova, Maria Sundvik, Alexei A. Maklakov, Svante Winberg, Pertti Panula, Niclas Kolm & Eva JP Lievens
Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a ‘reactive’ personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a ‘proactive’ personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata),...

Data from: Bringing habitat information into statistical tests of local adaptation in quantitative traits: a case study of nine-spined sticklebacks

Markku Karhunen, Otso Ovaskainen, Gabor Herczeg & Juha Merilä
Detection of footprints of historical natural selection on quantitative traits in cross-sectional data sets is challenging, especially when the number of populations to be compared is small and the populations are subject to strong random genetic drift. We extend a recent Bayesian multivariate approach to differentiate between selective and neutral causes of population differentiation by the inclusion of habitat information. The extended framework allows one to test for signals of selection in two ways: by...

Data from: Heterogeneous genomic differentiation in marine threespine sticklebacks: adaptation along an environmental gradient

Jacquelin DeFaveri, Per R. Jonsson & Juha Merilä
Evolutionary divergence among populations occupying ecologically distinct environments can occur even in the face of on-going gene flow. However, the genetic underpinnings, as well as the scale and magnitude at which this differentiation occurs in marine habitats are not well understood. We investigated the patterns and degree of genomic heterogeneity in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by assessing genetic variability in 20 nongenic and 20 genic (associated with genes important for freshwater adaptation) microsatellite loci in...

Data from: High degree of genetic differentiation in marine three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Jacquelin DeFaveri, Takahito Shikano, Yukinori Shimada & Juha Merilä
Populations of widespread marine organisms are typically characterized by a low degree of genetic differentiation in neutral genetic markers, but much less is known about differentiation in genes whose functional roles are associated with specific selection regimes. To uncover possible adaptive population divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation in marine three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we used a candidate gene-based genome-scan approach to analyse variability in 138 microsatellite loci located within/close to (<6 kb) functionally important genes...

Data from: Family based guilds in the ant Pachycondyla inversa

Heikki Helanterä, Oliver Aehle, Maurice Roux, Jürgen Heinze & Patrizia D'Ettorre
High relatedness promotes the evolution of sociality because potentially costly cooperative behaviours are directed towards kin. However, societies, such as those of social insects, also benefit from genetic diversity, e.g. through enhanced disease resistance and division of labour. Effects of genetic diversity have been investigated in a few complex eusocial species. Here, we show that genetically based division of labour may also be important in ‘simple societies’, with fewer individuals and limited morphological caste differentiation....

Data from: Delimiting tropical mountain ecoregions for conservation

Philip J. Platts, Neil D. Burgess, Roy E. Gereau, Jon C. Lovett, Andrew R. Marshall, Colin J. McClean, Petri K. E. Pellikka, Ruth D. Swetnam & Rob Marchant
Ecological regions aggregate habitats with similar biophysical characteristics within well-defined boundaries, providing spatially consistent platforms for monitoring, managing and forecasting the health of interrelated ecosystems. A major obstacle to the implementation of this approach is imprecise and inconsistent boundary placement. For globally important mountain regions such as the Eastern Arc (Tanzania and Kenya), where qualitative definitions of biophysical affinity are well established, rule-based methods for landform classification provide a straightforward solution to ambiguities in region...

Data from: Butterfly survival on an isolated island by improved grip

Anne Duplouy & Ilkka Hanski
On small isolated islands, natural selection is expected to reduce the dispersal capacity of organisms, as short distances do not require a high rate of dispersal, which might lead to accidental emigration from the population. In addition, individuals foregoing the high cost of maintaining flight capacity may instead allocate resources to other functions. However, in butterflies and many other insects, flight is necessary not only for dispersal but also for most other activities. A weakly...

Data from: Quantitative trait loci for growth and body size in the nine-spined stickleback Pungitius pungitius L.

Veronika N. Laine, Takahito Shikano, Gábor Herczeg, Johanna Vilkki & Juha Merilä
Body size is an ecologically important trait shown to be genetically variable both within and among different animal populations as revealed by quantitative genetic studies. However, few studies have looked into underlying genetic architecture of body size variability in the wild using genetic mapping methods. With the aid of quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses based on 226 microsatellite markers, we mapped body size and growth rate traits in the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) using an...

Data from: QTL analysis of behavior in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius)

Veronika N. Laine, Gábor Herczeg, Takahito Shikano, Johanna Vilkki & Juha Merilä
The genetic architecture of behavioral traits is yet relatively poorly understood in most non-model organisms. Using an F2-intercross (n = 283 offspring) between behaviorally divergent nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, we tested for and explored the genetic basis of different behavioral traits with the aid of quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses based on 226 microsatellite markers. The behaviors were analyzed both separately (viz. feeding activity, risk-taking and exploration) and combined in order to map composite...

Data from: Life history of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in fragmented versus continuous landscapes

Anne Duplouy, Suvi Ikonen & Ilkka Hanski
Habitat loss and fragmentation threaten the long-term viability of innumerable species of plants and animals. At the same time, habitat fragmentation may impose strong natural selection and lead to evolution of life histories with possible consequences for demographic dynamics. The Baltic populations of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) inhabit regions with highly fragmented habitat (networks of small dry meadows) as well as regions with extensive continuous habitat (calcareous alvar grasslands). Here, we report the...

Data from: Characterizing genic and non-genic molecular markers: comparison of microsatellites and SNPs

Jacquelin DeFaveri, Heidi Viitaniemi, Erica Leder & Juha Merilä
The implications of transitioning to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) from microsatellite markers (MSs) have been investigated in a number of population genetics studies, but the effect of genomic location on the amount of information each type of marker reveals has not been explored in detail. We developed novel SNP markers flanking 1 kb regions of 13 genic (within gene or <1 kb away from gene) and 13 nongenic (>10 kb from annotated gene) MSs in...

Data from: Genetic variation and structure of house sparrow populations: is there an island effect?

Henrik Jensen, Rune Moe, Ingerid Hagen, Anna Holand, Jaana Kekkonen, Jarle Tufto, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Ingerid Julie Hagen, Anna Marie Holand & Bernt-Erik Saether
Population genetic structure and intrapopulation levels of genetic variation have important implications for population dynamics and evolutionary processes. Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats to biodiversity. It leads to smaller population sizes and reduced gene flow between populations and will thus also affect genetic structure. We use a natural system of island and mainland populations of house sparrows along the coast of Norway to characterize the different population genetic properties of fragmented populations....

Data from: Variation in age and size in Fennoscandian three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Jacquelin DeFaveri & Juha Merilä
Average age and maximum life span of breeding adult three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were determined in eight Fennoscandian localities with the aid of skeletochronology. The average age varied from 1.8 to 3.6 years, and maximum life span from three to six years depending on the locality. On average, fish from marine populations were significantly older than those from freshwater populations, but variation within habitat types was large. We also found significant differences in mean body...

Registration Year

  • 2013

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Turku
  • Eötvös Loránd University
  • Uppsala University
  • University of York
  • University of Twente
  • Estonian University of Life Sciences
  • University of Cambridge
  • Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre
  • University of Regensburg