46 Works

Data from: Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web

Eero J. Vesterinen, Helena K. Wirta, Peter A. Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Claus Rasmussen, Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels M. Schmidt, Olivier Gilg & Tomas Roslin
How food webs are structured has major implications for their stability and dynamics. While poorly studied to date, arctic food webs are commonly assumed to be simple in structure, with few links per species. If this is the case, then different parts of the web may be weakly connected to each other, with populations and species united by only a low number of links. We provide the first highly resolved description of trophic link structure...

Data from: Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction

Heini Törnqvist, Sanni Somppi, Aija Koskela, Christina M. Krause, Outi Vainio & Miiamaaria V. Kujala
Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human...

Data from: Environmental fluctuations restrict eco-evolutionary dynamics in predator-prey system

Teppo Hiltunen, Gökçe B. Ayan & Lutz Becks
Environmental fluctuations, species interactions and rapid evolution are all predicted to affect community structure and their temporal dynamics. Although the effects of the abiotic environment and prey evolution on ecological community dynamics have been studied separately, these factors can also have interactive effects. Here we used bacteria–ciliate microcosm experiments to test for eco-evolutionary dynamics in fluctuating environments. Specifically, we followed population dynamics and a prey defence trait over time when populations were exposed to regular...

Data from: Migration and isolation during the turbulent Ponto-Caspian Pleistocene create high diversity in the crustacean Paramysis lacustris

Asta Audzijonyte, Laima Baltrūnaitė, Risto Väinölä & Kęstutis Arbačiauskas
The Ponto-Caspian brackish-water fauna inhabits estuaries and rivers of the Black, Azov and Caspian seas and is fragmented by higher salinity waters and a major interbasin watershed. The fauna is known for the high levels of endemism, complex zoogeographic histories, and as a recent source of successful invasive species. It remains debated whether the Black and Azov Sea brackish-water populations survived unfavourable Pleistocene conditions in multiple separate refugia or whether the two seas were (repeatedly)...

Data from: Novel R pipeline for analyzing Biolog phenotypic microarray data

Minna Vehkala, Mikhail Shubin, Thomas R. Connor, Nicholas R. Thomson & Jukka Corander
Data produced by Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays are longitudinal measurements of cells’ respiration on distinct substrates. We introduce a three-step pipeline to analyze phenotypic microarray data with novel procedures for grouping, normalization and effect identification. Grouping and normalization are standard problems in the analysis of phenotype microarrays defined as categorizing bacterial responses into active and non-active, and removing systematic errors from the experimental data, respectively. We expand existing solutions by introducing an important assumption that active...

Data from: Genetic divergence between the sympatric queen morphs of the ant Myrmica rubra

Jenni Leppänen, Perttu Seppä, Kari Vepsäläinen & Riitta Savolainen
Pairs of obligate social parasites and their hosts, where some of the parasites have recently diverged from their host through intraspecific social parasitism, provide intriguing systems for studying the modes and processes of speciation. Such speciation, probably in sympatry, has also been propounded in the ant Myrmica rubra and its intraspecific social parasite. In this species, parasitism is associated with queen size dimorphism, and the small microgyne has become a social parasite of the large...

Data from: Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions

Anniina L. K. Mattila
Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at...

Data from: Understanding the dominant controls on litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, Bjorn Berg, Daniel S. Maynard, William R. Wieder & Stephen A. Wood
Litter decomposition is a biogeochemical process fundamental to element cycling within ecosystems, influencing plant productivity, species composition and carbon storage. Climate has long been considered the primary broad-scale control on litter decomposition rates, yet recent work suggests that plant litter traits may predominate. Both decomposition paradigms, however, rely on inferences from cross-biome litter decomposition studies that analyse site-level means. We re-analyse data from a classical cross-biome study to demonstrate that previous research may falsely inflate...

Data from: Genetic variability and structuring of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia

Takahito Shikano, Antero Järvinen, Paula Marjamäki, Kimmo K. Kahilainen & Juha Merilä
Variation in presumably neutral genetic markers can inform us about evolvability, historical effective population sizes and phylogeographic history of contemporary populations. We studied genetic variability in 15 microsatellite loci in six native landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia, where this species is considered near threatened. We discovered that all populations were genetically highly (mean FST ≈ 0.26) differentiated and isolated from each other. Evidence was found for historical, but not for recent...

Data from: Ethnicity- and sex-based discrimination and the maintenance of self-esteem

Jan-Erik Lönnqvist, Heike Hennig-Schmidt & Gari Walkowitz
The psychological underpinnings of labor market discrimination were investigated by having participants from Israel, the West Bank and Germany (N = 205) act as employers in a stylized employment task in which they ranked, set wages, and imposed a minimum effort level on applicants. State self-esteem was measured before and after the employment task, in which applicant ethnicity and sex were salient. The applicants were real people and all behavior was monetarily incentivized. Supporting the...

Data from: Photosynthetic and phenological responses of dwarf shrubs to the depth and properties of snow

Timo Saarinen, Sirpa Rasmus, Robin Lundell, Olli-Kalle Kauppinen & Heikki Hänninen
Snow is known to have a major impact on vegetation in arctic ecosystems, but little is known about how snow affects plants in boreal forests, where the snowpack is uneven due to canopy impact. The responses of two dwarf shrubs, the evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the deciduous V. myrtillus, to snow conditions were studied in a snow manipulation experiment in southern Finland. The thermal insulation of the snowpack was expected to decrease with partial removal...

Data from: Wolbachia infection in a natural parasitoid wasp population

Anne Duplouy, Christelle Couchoux, Ilkka Hanski & Saskya Van Nouhuys
The maternally transmitted bacterium Wolbachia pipientis is well known for spreading and persisting in insect populations through manipulation of the fitness of its host. Here, we identify three new Wolbachia pipientis strains, wHho, wHho2 and wHho3, infecting Hyposoter horticola, a specialist wasp parasitoid of the Glanville fritillary butterfly. The wHho strain (ST435) infects about 50% of the individuals in the Åland islands in Finland, with a different infection rate in the two mitochondrial (COI) haplotypes...

Data from: I’m sexy and I glow it: female ornamentation in a nocturnal capital breeder

Juhani Hopkins, Gautier Baudry, Ulrika Candolin & Arja Kaitala
In many species, males rely on sexual ornaments to attract females. Females, by contrast, rarely produce ornaments. The glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) is an exception where wingless females glow to attract males that fly in search of females. However, little is known about the factors that promote the evolution of female ornaments in a sexual selection context. Here, we investigated if the female ornament of the glow-worm is a signal of fecundity used in male mate...

Data from: Signatures of selection in the three-spined stickleback along a small scale brackish water - freshwater transition zone

Nellie Konijnendijk, Takahito Shikano, Dorien Daneels, Filip A. M. Volckaert, Joost A. M. Raeymaekers & Filip A.M. Volckaert
Local adaptation is often obvious when gene flow is impeded, such as observed at large spatial scales and across strong ecological contrasts. However, it becomes less certain at small scales such as between adjacent populations or across weak ecological contrasts, when gene flow is strong. While studies on genomic adaptation tend to focus on the former, less is known about the genomic targets of natural selection in the latter situation. In this study, we investigate...

Data from: Flight-induced changes in gene expression in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Jouni Kvist, Anniina I. K. Mattila, Panu Somervuo, Virpi Ahola, Patrik Koskinen, Lars Paulin, Leena Salmela, Toby Fountain, Pasi Rastas, Annukka Ruokolainen, Minna Taipale, Liisa Holm, Petri Auvinen, Rainer Lehtonen, Mikko J. Frilander, Ilkka Hanski & Anniina L. K. Mattila
Insect flight is one of the most energetically demanding activities in the animal kingdom, yet for many insects flight is necessary for reproduction and foraging. Moreover, dispersal by flight is essential for the viability of species living in fragmented landscapes. Here, working on the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), we use transcriptome sequencing to investigate gene expression changes caused by 15 min of flight in two contrasting populations and the two sexes. Male butterflies and...

Data from: The evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting extends from genes to populations

Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, Andrew R. Whiteley, Anna Kuparinen, Shuichi Matsumura, Paul A. Venturelli, Christian Wolter, Jon Slate, Craig R. Primmer, Thomas Meinelt, Shaun S. Killen, David Bierbach, Giovanni Polverino, Arne Ludwig & Robert Arlinghaus
Size-selective harvesting is assumed to alter life histories of exploited fish populations, thereby negatively affecting population productivity, recovery, and yield. However, demonstrating that fisheries-induced phenotypic changes in the wild are at least partly genetically determined has proved notoriously difficult. Moreover, the population-level consequences of fisheries-induced evolution are still being controversially discussed. Using an experimental approach, we found that five generations of size-selective harvesting altered the life histories and behavior, but not the metabolic rate, of...

Data from: Experimental evidence for sex-specific plasticity in adult brain

Gabor Herczeg, Abigél Gonda, Gergely Balázs, Kristina Noreikiene & Juha Merilä
Background: Plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain regions during early ontogeny is known from many vertebrate taxa, but less is known about plasticity in the brains of adults. In contrast to mammals and birds, most parts of a fish’s brain continue to undergo neurogenesis throughout adulthood, making lifelong plasticity in brain size possible. We tested whether maturing adult three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) reared in a stimulus-poor environment exhibited brain plasticity in...

Data from: Quantitative genetic analysis of brain size variation in sticklebacks: support for the mosaic model of brain evolution

Kristina Noreikiene, Gábor Herczeg, Abigél Gonda, Gergely Balázs, Arild Husby & Juha Merilä
The mosaic model of brain evolution postulates that different brain regions are relatively free to evolve independently from each other. Such independent evolution is possible only if genetic correlations among the different brain regions are less than unity. We estimated heritabilities, evolvabilities and genetic correlations of relative size of the brain, and its different regions in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We found that heritabilities were low (average h2 = 0.24), suggesting a large plastic...

Data from: The de novo genome assembly and annotation of a female domestic dromedary of North African origin

Robert R. Fitak, Elmira Mohandesan, Jukka Corander & Pamela A. Burger
The single-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) is the most numerous and widespread of domestic camel species and is a significant source of meat, milk, wool, transportation and sport for millions of people. Dromedaries are particularly well adapted to hot, desert conditions and harbour a variety of biological and physiological characteristics with evolutionary, economic and medical importance. To understand the genetic basis of these traits, an extensive resource of genomic variation is required. In this study, we...

Data from: The dual role of rivers in facilitating or hindering movements of the false heath fritillary butterfly

Mar Cabeza, Henna Fabritius, Joona Lehtomäki, Otso Ovaskainen, Katja Rönkä & Niklas Wahlberg
Background: Species movement responses to landscape structures have been studied using a variety of methods, but movement research is still in need of simple methods that help predicting and comparing movements across structurally different landscapes. We demonstrate how habitat-specific movement models can be used to disentangle causes of differentiated movement patterns in structurally different landscapes and to predict movement patterns in altered and artificial landscapes. In our case study, we studied the role of riparian...

Data from: Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird

Marcel E. Visser, Phillip Gienapp, Arild Husby, Michael Morrisey, Iván De La Hera, Francisco Pulido & Christiaan Both
Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first...

Data from: Ants medicate to fight disease

Nick Bos, Liselotte Sundström, Siiri Fuchs & Dalial Freitak
Parasites are ubiquitous, and the ability to defend against these is of paramount importance. One way to fight diseases is self-medication, which occurs when an organism consumes biologically active compounds to clear, inhibit or alleviate disease symptoms. Here, we show for the first time that ants selectively consume harmful substances (Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS) upon exposure to a fungal pathogen, yet avoid these in the absence of infection. This increased intake of ROS, while harmful...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

Data from: Crown asymmetry in high latitude forests: disentangling the directional effects of tree competition and solar radiation

Tuomas Aakala, Ichiro Shimatani, Toshihiro Abe, Yasuhiro Kubota & Timo Kuuluvainen
Light foraging by trees is a fundamental process shaping forest communities. In heterogeneous light environments this behavior is expressed as plasticity of tree growth and the development of structural asymmetries. We studied the relative influence of neighborhood structure and directional solar radiation on horizontal asymmetry of tree crowns in late-successional high latitude (67–68°N) forests in northern Fennoscandia. We described crown asymmetries as crown vectors (i.e. horizontal vectors from stem center to crown center), which we...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    46

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    46

Affiliations

  • University of Helsinki
    46
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    6
  • University of Jyväskylä
    6
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
    4
  • University of Eastern Finland
    3
  • Eötvös Loránd University
    3
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • Finnish Environment Institute
    2
  • Australian National University
    2