53 Works

Data from: Genomic evolution of bacterial populations under co-selection by antibiotics and phage

Johannes Cairns, Jens Frickel, Matti Jalasvuori, Teppo Hiltunen & Lutz Becks
Bacteria live in dynamic systems where selection pressures can alter rapidly, forcing adaptation to the prevailing conditions. In particular, bacteriophages and antibiotics of anthropogenic origin are major bacterial stressors in many environments. We previously observed that populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 exposed to the lytic bacteriophage SBW25Φ2 and a non-inhibitive concentration of the antibiotic streptomycin (co-selection) achieved higher levels of phage resistance compared to populations exposed to the phage alone. In addition, the...

Data from: A combined field survey and molecular identification protocol for comparing forest arthropod biodiversity across spatial scales

Brent C. Emerson, Juliane Casquet, Heriberto López, Pedro Cardoso, Paulo A. V. Borges, Noémy Mollaret, Pedro Oromí, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
Obtaining fundamental biodiversity metrics such as alpha, beta and gamma diversity for arthropods is often complicated by a lack of prior taxonomic information and/or taxonomic expertise, which can result in unreliable morphologically based estimates. We provide a set of standardized ecological and molecular sampling protocols that can be employed by researchers whose taxonomic skills may be limited, and where there may be a lack of robust a priori information regarding the regional pool of species....

Data from: Food limitation constrains host immune responses to nematode infections

Kristian M. Forbes, Tapio Mappes, Tarja Sironen, Tomas Strandin, Peter Stuart, Seppo Meri, Olli Vapalahti, Heikki Henttonen & Otso Huitu
Trade-offs in the allocation of finite-energy resources among immunological defences and other physiological processes are believed to influence infection risk and disease severity in food-limited wildlife populations. However, this prediction has received little experimental investigation. Here we test the hypothesis that food limitation impairs the ability of wild field voles (Microtus agrestis) to mount an immune response against parasite infections. We conducted a replicated experiment on vole populations maintained in large outdoor enclosures during boreal...

Data from: Genetic structure of native ant supercolonies varies in space and time

Eva Schultner, Jari Saramäki & Heikki Helanterä
Ant supercolonies are the largest cooperative units known in nature. They consist of networks of interconnected nests with hundreds of reproductive queens, where individuals move freely between nests, cooperate across nest boundaries and show little aggression towards non-nestmates. The combination of high queen numbers and free mixing of workers, queens and brood between nests results in extremely low nestmate relatedness. In such low-relatedness societies, cooperative worker behaviour appears maladaptive because it may aid random individuals...

Data from: The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

Yoshiaki Tsuda, Jun Chen, Michael Stocks, Thomas Källman, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, Laura Parducci, Vladimir Semerikov, Christoph Sperisen, Dmitry Politov, Tiina Ronkainen, Minna Väliranta, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramini, Mari Mette Tollefsrud, Martin Lascoux & Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin
Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct...

Data from: Different food sources elicit fast changes to bacterial virulence

Tarmo Ketola, L. Mikonranta, Jouni Laakso & Johanna Mappes
Environmentally transmitted, opportunistic bacterial pathogens have a life cycle that alternates between hosts and environmental reservoirs. Resources are often scarce and fluctuating in the outside-host environment, whereas overcoming the host immune system could allow pathogens to establish a new, resource abundant and stable niche within the host. We tested if shortterm exposure to different outside-host resource types and concentrations affect Serratia marcescens—(bacterium)’s virulence in Galleria mellonella (moth). As expected, virulence was mostly dictated by the...

Data from: Hybrid dysfunction expressed as elevated metabolic rate in male Ficedula flycatchers

S. Eryn McFarlane, Päivi Sirkiä, Murielle Ålund, Anna Qvarnstrom & Päivi M. Sirkiä
Studies of ecological speciation are often biased towards extrinsic sources of selection against hybrids, resulting from intermediate hybrid morphology, but the knowledge of how genetic incompatibilities accumulate over time under natural conditions is limited. Here we focus on a physiological trait, metabolic rate, which is central to life history strategies and thermoregulation but is also likely to be sensitive to mismatched mitonuclear interactions. We measured the resting metabolic rate of male collared, and pied flycatchers...

Data from: One fly to rule them all—muscid flies are the key pollinators in the Arctic

Mikko Tiusanen, Paul D.N. Hebert, Niels-Martin Schmidt, Tomas Roslin & Niels Martin Schmidt
Global change is causing drastic changes in the pollinator communities of the Arctic. While arctic flowers are visited by a wide range of insects, flies in family Muscidae have been proposed as a pollinator group of particular importance. To understand the functional outcome of current changes in pollinator community composition, we examined the role of muscids in the pollination of a key plant species, the mountain avens (Dryas). We monitored the seed set of Dryas...

Data from: A universal and reliable assay for molecular sex identification of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Elisavet-Aspasia Toli, Federico C. F. Calboli, Takahito Shikano & Juha Merilä
In heterogametic species, biological differences between the two sexes are ubiquitous, and hence, errors in sex identification can be a significant source of noise and bias in studies where sex-related sources of variation are of interest or need to be controlled for. We developed and validated a universal multi-marker assay for reliable sex identification of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The assay makes use of genotype scores from three sex-linked loci, and utilizes Bayesian probabilistic inference...

Data from: Competition-driven build-up of habitat isolation and selection favouring dispersal modification in a young avian hybrid zone

Jakub Rybinski, Päivi M. Sirkiä, S. Eryn McFarlane, Niclas Vallin, David Wheatcroft, Murielle Ålund & Anna Qvarnström
Competition-driven evolution of habitat isolation is an important mechanism of ecological speciation but empirical support for this process is often indirect. We examined how an on-going displacement of pied flycatchers from their preferred breeding habitat by collared flycatchers in a young secondary contact zone is associated with (a) access to an important food resource (caterpillar larvae), (b) immigration of pied flycatchers in relation to habitat quality, and (c) the risk of hybridization in relation to...

Data from: Evolving interactions between diazotrophic cyanobacterium and phage mediate nitrogen release and host competitive ability

Johannes Cairns, Sebastian Coloma, Kaarina Sivonen & Teppo Hiltunen
Interactions between nitrogen-fixing (i.e. diazotrophic) cyanobacteria and their viruses, cyanophages, can have large-scale ecosystem effects. These effects are mediated by temporal alterations in nutrient availability in aquatic systems owing to the release of nitrogen and carbon sources from cells lysed by phages, as well as by ecologically important changes in the diversity and fitness of cyanobacterial populations that evolve in the presence of phages. However, ecological and evolutionary feedbacks between phages and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are...

Data from: Deep sequencing of a candidate region harboring the SOX9 gene for the canine XX disorder of sex development

Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Izabela Szczerbal, Hubert Pausch, Sruthi Hundi, Marjo K. Hytönen, Adrian Grzemski, Krzysztof Flisikowski, Hannes Lohi, Marek Switonski & Maciej Szydlowski
A disorder of sex development (DSD) in dogs with female sex chromosomes (78, XX), a lack of the SRY gene and the presence of testes or ovotestes is commonly diagnosed in numerous breeds. The molecular background of DSD is not fully recognized but has been linked to the copy number variation in the region harboring the SOX9 gene. We applied a genome-wide association study and targeted next-generation sequencing techniques to compare DSD and normal female...

Data from: Carry-over effects of conditions at the wintering grounds on breeding plumage signals in a migratory bird: roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection

Pauliina E. Järvistö, Sara Calhim, Wiebke Schuett, Päivi Maria Sirkiä, William Velmala & Toni Laaksonen
To understand the consequences of ever-changing environment on the dynamics of phenotypic traits, distinguishing between selection processes and individual plasticity is crucial. We examined individual consistency/plasticity in several male secondary sexual traits expressed during the breeding season (white wing and forehead patch size, UV reflectance of white wing patch and dorsal melanin colouration) in a migratory pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population over an 11-year period. Furthermore, we studied carry-over effects of three environmental variables (NAO,...

Data from: An empirical comparison of models for the phenology of bird migration

Andreas Lindén, Kalle Meller & Jonas Knape
Bird migration phenology shows strong responses to climate change. Studies of trends and patterns in phenology are typically based on annual summarizing metrics, such as means and quantiles calculated from raw daily count data. However, with irregularly sampled data and large day-to-day variation, such metrics can be biased and noisy, and may be analysed using phenological functions fitted to the data. Here we use count data of migration passage from a Finnish bird observatory to...

Data from: Conjugation is necessary for a bacterial plasmid to survive under protozoan predation

Johannes Cairns, Matti Jalasvuori, Ville Ojala, Michael Brockhurst & Teppo Hiltunen
Horizontal gene transfer by conjugative plasmids plays a critical role in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Interactions between bacteria and other organisms can affect the persistence and spread of conjugative plasmids. Here we show that protozoan predation increased the persistence and spread of the antibiotic resistance plasmid RP4 in populations of the opportunist bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens. A conjugation-defective mutant plasmid was unable to survive under predation, suggesting that conjugative transfer is required for plasmid...

Data from: Shifting milestones of natural sciences: the ancient Egyptian discovery of Algol's period confirmed

Lauri Jetsu & Sebastian Porceddu
The Ancient Egyptians wrote Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days that assigned astronomically influenced prognoses for each day of the year. The best preserved of these calendars is the Cairo Calendar (hereafter CC) dated to 1244–1163 B.C. We have presented evidence that the 2.85 days period in the lucky prognoses of CC is equal to that of the eclipsing binary Algol during this historical era. We wanted to find out the vocabulary that represents Algol...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in cyclic populations of bank voles

Liina Voutilainen, Eva R. Kallio, Jukka Niemimaa, Olli Vapalahti & Heikki Henttonen
Understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir host populations is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human disease epidemics. The human infection risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is highest in northern Europe, where populations of the rodent host (bank vole, Myodes glareolus) undergo cyclic fluctuations. We conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture study to monitor seasonal and multiannual patterns of the PUUV infection rate in bank vole populations exhibiting a 3-year density cycle. Infected bank...

Data from: A linkage map and QTL analysis for pyrethroid resistance in the bed bug Cimex lectularius

Toby Fountain, Mark Ravinet, Richard Naylor, Klaus Reinhardt & Roger K. Butlin
The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance remains one of the biggest challenges in the control of medically and economically important pests. Insects have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms to reduce the efficacy of the commonly used classes of insecticides and finding the genetic basis of resistance is a major aid to management. In a previously unstudied population, we performed an F2 resistance mapping cross for the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, for which insecticide...

Data from: Altered trait variability in response to size-selective mortality

Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, Kai Lindström, Noora Parre, Robert Arlinghaus, Josep Alós & Anna Kuparinen
Changes in trait variability owing to size-selective harvesting have received little attention in comparison with changes in mean trait values, perhaps because of the expectation that phenotypic variability should generally be eroded by directional selection typical for fishing and hunting. We show, however, that directional selection, in particular for large body size, leads to increased body-size variation in experimentally harvested zebrafish (Danio rerio) populations exposed to two alternative feeding environments: ad libitum and temporarily restricted...

Data from: Interacting networks of resistance, virulence and core machinery genes identified by genome-wide epistasis analysis

Marcin J. Skwark, Nicholas J. Croucher, Santeri Puranen, Claire Chewapreecha, Maiju Pesonen, Ying Ying Xu, Paul Turner, Simon R. Harris, Stephen B. Beres, James M. Musser, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D. Bentley, Erik Aurell & Jukka Corander
Recent advances in the scale and diversity of population genomic datasets for bacteria now provide the potential for genome-wide patterns of co-evolution to be studied at the resolution of individual bases. Here we describe a new statistical method, genomeDCA, which uses recent advances in computational structural biology to identify the polymorphic loci under the strongest co-evolutionary pressures. We apply genomeDCA to two large population data sets representing the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and...

Data from: Quantifying uncertainty of taxonomic placement in DNA barcoding and metabarcoding

Panu Somervuo, Douglas W. Yu, Charles C.Y. Xu, YinQiu Ji, Jenni Hultman, Helena Wirta & Otso Ovaskainen
A crucial step in the use of DNA markers for biodiversity surveys is the assignment of Linnaean taxonomies (species, genus, etc.) to sequence reads. This allows the use of all the information known based on the taxonomic names. Taxonomic placement of DNA barcoding sequences is inherently probabilistic because DNA sequences contain errors, because there is natural variation among sequences within a species, and because reference data bases are incomplete and can have false annotations. However,...

Data from: Deciphering the genomic architecture of the stickleback brain with a novel multi-locus gene-mapping approach

Zitong Li, Baocheng Guo, Jing Yang, Gábor Herczeg, Abigél Gonda, Gergely Balázs, Takahito Shikano, Federico C.F. Calboli, Juha Merilä & Federico C. F. Calboli
Quantitative traits important to organismal function and fitness, such as brain size, are presumably controlled by many small-effect loci. Deciphering the genetic architecture of such traits with traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping methods is challenging. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of brain size (and the size of five different brain parts) in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) with the aid of novel multi-locus QTL mapping approaches based on a de-biased LASSO method. Apart from...

Data from: Population genomic evidence for adaptive differentiation in the Baltic Sea herring

Baocheng Guo, Zitong Li & Juha Merilä
Detecting and estimating the degree of genetic differentiation among populations of highly mobile marine fish having pelagic larval stages is challenging because their effective population sizes can be large, and thus, little genetic drift and differentiation is expected in neutral genomic sites. However, genomic sites subject to directional selection stemming from variation in local environmental conditions can still show substantial genetic differentiation, yet these signatures can be hard to detect with low-throughput approaches. Using a...

Data from: Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles

Tobin J. Hammer, Noah Fierer, Bess Hardwick, Asko Simojoki, Eleanor Slade, Juhani Taponen, Heidi Viljanen & Tomas Roslin
Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we...

Data from: Wolbachia increases the susceptibility of a parasitoid wasp to hyperparasitism

Saskya Van Nouhuys, Minna Kohonen & Anne Duplouy
The success of maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia, is directly linked to their host reproduction but in direct conflict with other parasites that kill the host before it reaches reproductive maturity. Therefore, symbionts that have evolved strategies to increase their host’s ability to evade lethal parasites may have high penetrance, while detrimental symbionts would be selected against, leading to lower penetrance or extinction from the host population. In a natural population of the...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Jyväskylä
  • University of Turku
  • University of Oslo
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • University of Oxford
  • Lund University
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Lausanne
  • Aarhus University