75 Works

Data from: Seasonality determines patterns of growth and age structure over a geographic gradient in an ectothermic vertebrate

Juha Merilä, Mårten B. Hjernquist, Fredrik Söderman, K. Ingemar Jönsson, Gábor Herczeg & Anssi Laurila
Environmental variation connected with sea- sonality is likely to affect the evolution of life-history strategies in ectotherms, but there is no consensus as to how important life-history traits like body size are influ- enced by environmental variation along seasonal gradients. We compared adult body size, skeletal growth, mean age, age at first reproduction and longevity among 11 common frog (Rana temporaria) populations sampled along a 1,600-km-long latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. Mean age, age at first...

Threats from the air: damselfly predation on diverse prey taxa

Eero J. Vesterinen, Kari Kaunisto, , Mark Forbes, Andre Morrill, Anna Puisto, Ilari Sääksjärvi & Thomas Lilley
1. To understand the diversity and strength of predation in natural communities, researchers must quantify the total amount of prey species in the diet of predators. Metabarcoding approaches have allowed widespread characterization of predator diets with high taxonomic resolution. To determine the wider impacts of predators, researchers should combine DNA techniques with estimates of population size of predators using mark-release-recapture (MRR) methods, and with accurate metrics of food consumption by individuals. 2. Herein, we estimate...

Data from: Thermal tolerance in two wood ant species and their hybrids

Elisa Nygård, Pierre Nouhaud, Raphael Martin-Roy & Jonna Kulmuni
Local populations can cope with rising temperatures, if they have adaptive potential to face the new thermal regime. Hybridization with a closely related lineage is one potential source of adaptive genetic variability and an outstanding question is whether hybridization could help contemporary populations to adapt in the face of current environmental change. We investigate thermal adaptation by testing for differences in cold and heat tolerances between Finnish populations of two mound-building wood ants, Formica polyctena...

Genomic signatures of domestication in Old World camels

Robert Fitak, Elmira Mohandesan, Jukka Corander, Adiya Yadamsuren, Battsetseg Chuluunbat, Omer Abdelhadi, Abdul Raziq, Peter Nagy, Chris Walzer, Bernard Faye & Pamela Burger
Domestication begins with the selection of animals showing less fear of humans. In most domesticates, selection signals for tameness have been superimposed by intensive breeding for economical or other desirable traits. Old World camels, conversely, have maintained high genetic variation and lack these secondary bottlenecks associated with breed development. By re-sequencing multiple genomes from dromedaries, Bactrian camels, and their endangered wild relatives, we show that positive selection for candidate genes underlying traits collectively referred to...

Data for: Temperature-mediated male condition shapes female fitness and oviposition preference in a butterfly

Elena Rosa
Habitat choice by ovipositing females critically shapes fitness in species lacking parental care. We aimed at manipulating female oviposition choosiness using the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) as study species. We tested whether female choosiness is influenced by individual condition and/or that of the mating partner, which was manipulated experimentally by subjecting adults to night temperatures warmer than usual. Against our prediction, female life expectancy was not altered by the treatment and impacted her fitness...

Data from: Effects of ambient temperatures on evolutionary potential of reproductive timing in boreal passerines

Emma Vatka, Markku Orell, Seppo Rytkönen & Juha Merilä
1. Many populations need to adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as warming climate. Changing conditions generate directional selection for traits critical for fitness. For evolutionary responses to occur, these traits need to be heritable. However, changes in environmental conditions can alter the amount of heritable variation a population expresses, making predictions about expected responses difficult. 2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ambient temperatures on evolutionary potential and strength...

Data from: An analysis of travel reports of the Finnish botanical expeditions to Russian Lapland (Murmansk Region and Northern Karelia) in 1861 and 1863

Alexander Sennikov & Mikhail Kozhin
Finnish botanical expeditions, which were made to Russian Lapland (present-day Murmansk Region and northern Karelia, Russia) in 1861 and 1863, published travel reports with preliminary information, which contained numerous floristic novelties and phytogeographical observations but have been overlooked in present-day studies. Two reports appeared in print, by Gustav Selin on the expedition made in 1861, and by Nils Isak Fellman on the expedition made in 1863. We analysed mentions of vascular plant species published in...

Clustering of loci controlling species differences in male chemical bouquets of sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Diana Abondano Almeida, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
The degree to which loci promoting reproductive isolation cluster in the genome – i.e. the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation - can influence the tempo and mode of speciation. Tight linkage between these loci can facilitate speciation in the face of gene flow. Pheromones play a role in reproductive isolation in many Lepidoptera species, and the role of endogenously-produced compounds as secondary metabolites decreases the likelihood of pleiotropy associated with many barrier loci. Heliconius butterflies...

Predator community and resource use jointly modulate the inducible defense response in body height of crucian carp

Ilaria De Meo, Kjartan Østbye, Kimmo Kahilainen, Brian Hayden, Christian Fagertun & Antonio Poléo
Phenotypic plasticity can be expressed as changes in body shape in response to environmental variability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius), a widespread cyprinid, displays remarkable plasticity in body morphology and increases body depth when exposed to cues from predators, suggesting the triggering of an anti-predator defense mechanism. However, these morphological changes could also be related to resource use and foraging behavior, as an indirect effect of predator presence. In order to determine whether phenotypic plasticity in...

Data from: Metacommunity structure of stream insects across three hierarchical spatial scales

Siwen He, Janne Soininen, Guiping Deng & Beixin Wang
A major challenge in community ecology is to understand the underlying factors driving metacommunity (i.e. a set of local communities connected through species dispersal) dynamics. However, little is known about the effects of varying spatial scale on the relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e. dispersal related) factors in shaping metacommunities and on the relevance of different dispersal pathways. Using a hierarchy of insect metacommunities at three spatial scales (a small, within-stream scale, intermediate, among-stream...

Finnish upper secondary school students' experiences with online courses

Liisa Ilomäki & Minna Lakkala

Scale dependence of temporal biodiversity change in modern and fossil marine plankton

Aleksandra Lewandowska, Lukas Jonkers, Holger Auel, Jan Freund, Wilhelm Hagen, Michal Kucera & Helmut Hillebrand
Aim Biodiversity dynamics comprise evolutionary and ecological changes on multiple temporal scales from millions of years to decades, but they are often interpreted within a single time frame. Planktonic foraminifera communities offer a unique opportunity for analyzing the dynamics of marine biodiversity over different temporal scales. Our study aims to provide a baseline for assessments of biodiversity patterns over multiple time scales, which is urgently needed to interpret biodiversity responses to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Location...

Data from: Mapping molar shapes on signaling pathways

Wataru Morita, Naoki Morimoto & Jukka Jernvall
A major challenge in evolutionary developmental biology is to understand how genetic mutations underlie phenotypic changes. In principle, selective pressures on the phenotype screen the gene pool of the population. Teeth are an excellent model for understanding evolutionary changes in the genotype-phenotype relationship since they exist throughout vertebrates. Genetically modified mice (mutants) with abnormalities in teeth have been used to explore tooth development. The relationship between signaling pathways and molar shape, however, remains elusive due...

Data from: Fungal communities are important determinants of bacterial community composition in deadwood

Iñaki Odriozola, Nerea Abrego, Vojtěch Tláskal, Petra Zrůstová, Daniel Kumazawa Morais, Tomáš Větrovský, Otso Ovaskainen & Petr Baldrian
Fungal-bacterial interactions play a key role in the functioning of many ecosystems. Thus, understanding their interactive dynamics is of central importance for gaining predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, it is challenging to disentangle the mechanisms behind species associations from observed co-occurrence patterns and little is known about the directionality of such interactions. Here we apply joint species distribution modelling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal and bacterial communities in deadwood to ask whether...

Data from: Carbonate shelf development and early Paleozoic benthic diversity in Baltica: A hierarchical diversity partitioning approach using brachiopod data

Amelia Penny, Olle Hints & Björn Kröger
The Ordovician–Silurian (~485–419 Ma) was a time of considerable evolutionary upheaval, encompassing both the largest evolutionary diversification, and one of the first major mass extinctions. The Ordovician diversification coincided with global climatic cooling and paleocontinental collision, whose ecological impacts were mediated by region-specific processes including substrate changes, biotic invasions, and tectonic movements. From the Sandbian–Katian (~453 Ma) onwards, an extensive carbonate shelf developed in the eastern Baltic paleobasin in response to a tectonic shift to...

Habitat deterioration relaxes resource competition and sexual selection in the threespine stickleback

Eva Henriksson & Ulrika Candolin
The operation of sexual selection depends on ecological conditions. Thus, changes in environmental conditions because of human activities can alter the strength and direction of sexual selection, with implications for evolutionary trajectories and the viability of populations. We show that aquatic algal blooms can relax the operation of sexual selection by influencing which males are available to attract females. This is by influencing the ability of males to maintain a resource needed in mate attraction....

Diversity and distribution across a large environmental and spatial gradient: evaluating the taxonomic and functional turnover, transitions and environmental drivers of benthic diatom communities

Leena Virta, Janne Soininen & Alf Norkko
Aim: Global biodiversity loss has raised interest in understanding variation in diversity at different scales. Especially studies conducted across large spatial gradients are crucial, because they can increase perspectives on how ecological patterns change relative to environmental factors, and facilitate predictions of possible responses to environmental change. We explored the full extent of a brackish sea to test the hypotheses that (i) benthic communities are defined by species’ limited ranges, controlled by varying drivers along...

Evolution of chain migration in an aerial insectivorous bird, the common swift Apus apus

Susanne Akesson, Phil Atkinson, Ana Bermejo, Javier De La Puente, Mauro Ferri, Chris Hewson, Jan Holmgren, Erich Kaiser, Lyndon Kearsley, Raymond Klaassen, Heikki Kolunen, Gittan Matsson, Fausto Minelli, Gabriel Norevik, Hannu Pietiäinen, Navinder J Singh, Fernando Spina, Lukas Viktora & Anders Hedenstrom
Spectacular long-distance migration has evolved repeatedly in animals enabling exploration of resources separated in time and space. In birds, these patterns are largely driven by seasonality, cost of migration, and asymmetries in competition leading most often to leap-frog migration, where northern breeding populations winter furthest to the south. Here we show that the highly aerial common swift Apus apus, spending the non-breeding period on the wing, instead exhibits a rarely-found chain migration pattern, where the...

Data and R code for What you see is where you go: visibility influences movement decisions of a forest bird navigating a 3D structured matrix

Job Aben, Johannes Signer, Janne Heiskanen, Petri Pellikka & Justin Travis
Animal spatial behaviour is often presumed to reflect responses to visual cues. However, inference of behaviour in relation to the environment is challenged by the lack of objective methods to identify the information that effectively is available to an animal from a given location. In general, animals are assumed to have unconstrained information on the environment within a detection circle of a certain radius (the perceptual range; PR). However, visual cues are only available up...

On the causes of geographically heterogeneous parallel evolution in sticklebacks

Bohao Fang, Petri Kemppainen, Paolo Momigliano, Xueyun Feng & Juha Merilä
The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an important model system for the study of parallel evolution in the wild, having repeatedly colonized and adapted to freshwater from the sea throughout the northern hemisphere. Previous studies identified numerous genomic regions showing consistent genetic differentiation between freshwater and marine ecotypes but these had typically limited geographic sampling and mostly focused on the Eastern Pacific region. We analysed population genomic data from global samples of the three-spined stickleback...

Data from: Genetic growth potential, rather than phenotypic size, predicts migration phenotype in Atlantic salmon

Paul Vincent Debes, Nikolai Piavchenko, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
Knowledge of the relative importance of genetic versus environmental determinants of major developmental transitions is pertinent to understanding phenotypic evolution. In salmonid fishes, a major developmental transition enables a risky seaward migration that provides access to feed resources. In Atlantic salmon, initiation of the migrant phenotype, and thus age of migrants, is presumably controlled via thresholds of a quantitative liability, approximated by body size expressed long before the migration. However, how well size approximates liability,...

The spread of a wild plant pathogen is driven by the road network

Elina Numminen & Anna-Liisa Laine
Spatial analyses of pathogen occurrence in their natural surroundings entail unique opportunities for assessing in vivo drivers of disease epidemiology. Such studies are however confronted by the complexity of the landscape driving epidemic spread and disease persistence. Since relevant information on how the landscape influences epidemiological dynamics is rarely available, simple spatial models of spread are often used. In the current study we demonstrate both how more complex transmission pathways could be incorpoted to epidemiological...

The roles of climate, geography and natural selection as drivers of genetic and phenotypic differentiation in a widespread amphibian Hyla annectans (Anura: Hylidae)

Shichao Wei, Zitong Li, Paolo Momigliano, Chao Fu, Hua Wu & Juha Merilä
The role of geological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations as drivers of current patterns of genetic variation in extant species has been a topic of continued interest among evolutionary biologists. Nevertheless, comprehensive studies of widely distributed species are still rare, especially from Asia. Using geographically extensive sampling of many individuals and a large number of nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we studied the phylogeography and historical demography of Hyla annectans populations in southern China. Thirty-five...

A brain and a head for a different habitat: size variation in four morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) in a deep oligotrophic lake

Ana Peris, Olivier Devineau, Kim Præbel, Kimmo K. Kahilainen & Kjartan Østbye
Adaptive radiation is the diversification of species to different ecological niches and has repeatedly occurred in different salmonid fish of postglacial lakes. In Lake Tinnsjøen, one of the largest and deepest lakes in Norway, the salmonid fish, Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)), has likely radiated within 9700 years after deglaciation into ecologically and genetically segregated Piscivore, Planktivore, Dwarf and Abyssal morphs in the pelagial, littoral, shallow-moderate profundal and deep-profundal habitats. We compared trait variation in...

Supplementary material for: Exploring the impact of unstable terminals on branch support values in paleontological data

Jorge R Flores, Samuli Lehtonen & Jaakko Hyvönen
The dataset consists of a PDF file and two plain-text TNT scripts (*.run files). The PDF includes supporting Figures for the additional analyses conducted by Flores et al. on paleontological datasets. The TNT scripts conduct two complementary sets of analyses: (a) evaluation of taxon instability relative to the incompleteness ("mc.run"), and (b) changes in branch support values after pruning unstable taxa ("avmc.run"). To properly run these files in TNT, the name of the matrix files...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
  • Other
  • Software


  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Oulu
  • University of Turku
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Cambridge
  • The Arctic University of Norway
  • Finnish Environment Institute
  • Kristianstad University
  • Technische Universität Braunschweig