76 Works

Threats from the air: damselfly predation on diverse prey taxa

Eero J. Vesterinen, Kari Kaunisto, , Mark Forbes, Andre Morrill, Anna Puisto, Ilari Sääksjärvi & Thomas Lilley
1. To understand the diversity and strength of predation in natural communities, researchers must quantify the total amount of prey species in the diet of predators. Metabarcoding approaches have allowed widespread characterization of predator diets with high taxonomic resolution. To determine the wider impacts of predators, researchers should combine DNA techniques with estimates of population size of predators using mark-release-recapture (MRR) methods, and with accurate metrics of food consumption by individuals. 2. Herein, we estimate...

Genomic signatures of domestication in Old World camels

Robert Fitak, Elmira Mohandesan, Jukka Corander, Adiya Yadamsuren, Battsetseg Chuluunbat, Omer Abdelhadi, Abdul Raziq, Peter Nagy, Chris Walzer, Bernard Faye & Pamela Burger
Domestication begins with the selection of animals showing less fear of humans. In most domesticates, selection signals for tameness have been superimposed by intensive breeding for economical or other desirable traits. Old World camels, conversely, have maintained high genetic variation and lack these secondary bottlenecks associated with breed development. By re-sequencing multiple genomes from dromedaries, Bactrian camels, and their endangered wild relatives, we show that positive selection for candidate genes underlying traits collectively referred to...

Data from: Seasonality determines patterns of growth and age structure over a geographic gradient in an ectothermic vertebrate

Juha Merilä, Mårten B. Hjernquist, Fredrik Söderman, K. Ingemar Jönsson, Gábor Herczeg & Anssi Laurila
Environmental variation connected with sea- sonality is likely to affect the evolution of life-history strategies in ectotherms, but there is no consensus as to how important life-history traits like body size are influ- enced by environmental variation along seasonal gradients. We compared adult body size, skeletal growth, mean age, age at first reproduction and longevity among 11 common frog (Rana temporaria) populations sampled along a 1,600-km-long latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. Mean age, age at first...

Data from: Thermal tolerance in two wood ant species and their hybrids

Elisa Nygård, Pierre Nouhaud, Raphael Martin-Roy & Jonna Kulmuni
Local populations can cope with rising temperatures, if they have adaptive potential to face the new thermal regime. Hybridization with a closely related lineage is one potential source of adaptive genetic variability and an outstanding question is whether hybridization could help contemporary populations to adapt in the face of current environmental change. We investigate thermal adaptation by testing for differences in cold and heat tolerances between Finnish populations of two mound-building wood ants, Formica polyctena...

Predator community and resource use jointly modulate the inducible defense response in body height of crucian carp

Ilaria De Meo, Kjartan Østbye, Kimmo Kahilainen, Brian Hayden, Christian Fagertun & Antonio Poléo
Phenotypic plasticity can be expressed as changes in body shape in response to environmental variability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius), a widespread cyprinid, displays remarkable plasticity in body morphology and increases body depth when exposed to cues from predators, suggesting the triggering of an anti-predator defense mechanism. However, these morphological changes could also be related to resource use and foraging behavior, as an indirect effect of predator presence. In order to determine whether phenotypic plasticity in...

Data for: Temperature-mediated male condition shapes female fitness and oviposition preference in a butterfly

Elena Rosa
Habitat choice by ovipositing females critically shapes fitness in species lacking parental care. We aimed at manipulating female oviposition choosiness using the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) as study species. We tested whether female choosiness is influenced by individual condition and/or that of the mating partner, which was manipulated experimentally by subjecting adults to night temperatures warmer than usual. Against our prediction, female life expectancy was not altered by the treatment and impacted her fitness...

Data from: Effects of ambient temperatures on evolutionary potential of reproductive timing in boreal passerines

Emma Vatka, Markku Orell, Seppo Rytkönen & Juha Merilä
1. Many populations need to adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as warming climate. Changing conditions generate directional selection for traits critical for fitness. For evolutionary responses to occur, these traits need to be heritable. However, changes in environmental conditions can alter the amount of heritable variation a population expresses, making predictions about expected responses difficult. 2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ambient temperatures on evolutionary potential and strength...

Data from: An analysis of travel reports of the Finnish botanical expeditions to Russian Lapland (Murmansk Region and Northern Karelia) in 1861 and 1863

Alexander Sennikov & Mikhail Kozhin
Finnish botanical expeditions, which were made to Russian Lapland (present-day Murmansk Region and northern Karelia, Russia) in 1861 and 1863, published travel reports with preliminary information, which contained numerous floristic novelties and phytogeographical observations but have been overlooked in present-day studies. Two reports appeared in print, by Gustav Selin on the expedition made in 1861, and by Nils Isak Fellman on the expedition made in 1863. We analysed mentions of vascular plant species published in...

Clustering of loci controlling species differences in male chemical bouquets of sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Diana Abondano Almeida, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
The degree to which loci promoting reproductive isolation cluster in the genome – i.e. the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation - can influence the tempo and mode of speciation. Tight linkage between these loci can facilitate speciation in the face of gene flow. Pheromones play a role in reproductive isolation in many Lepidoptera species, and the role of endogenously-produced compounds as secondary metabolites decreases the likelihood of pleiotropy associated with many barrier loci. Heliconius butterflies...

Stone-Stacking as a Looming Threat to Rock-Dwelling Biodiversity

Ricardo Rocha, Paulo A. V. Borges, Pedro Cardoso, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, Jose Luis Martin-Esquivel, Dilia Menezes, Mario Mota-Ferreira, Sara F. Nunes, Ines Orfao, Catarina Serra-Goncalves, Manuela Sim-Sim, Pedro Sepulveda, Dinarte Teixeira & Anna Traveset
This letter to the editor describes the surge of “photo-friendly” stacks of stones as an emerging tourism-associated threat to rock-dwelling biodiversity.

Cultural Evolution of Sustainable Behaviours: Landscape of Affordances Model

Roope Oskari Kaaronen & Nikita Strelkovskii
This NetLogo model illustrates the cultural evolution of pro-environmental behaviour patterns. It illustrates how collective behaviour patterns evolve from interactions between agents and agents (in a social network) as well as agents and the affordances (action opportunities provided by the environment) within a niche. More specifically, the cultural evolution of behaviour patterns is understood in this model as a product of: The landscape of affordances provided by the material environment, Individual learning and habituation, Social...

Using genomic information for management planning of an endangered perennial, Viola uliginosa

Kyung Min Lee, Pertti Ranta, Jarmo Saarikivi, Lado Kutnar, Branko Vreš, Maxim Dzhus, Marko Mutanen & Laura Kvist
Species occupying habitats subjected to frequent natural and/or anthropogenic changes are a challenge for conservation management. We studied one such species, Viola uliginosa, an endangered perennial wetland species typically inhabiting sporadically flooded meadows alongside rivers/lakes. In order to estimate genomic diversity, population structure and history, we sampled five sites in Finland, three in Estonia, and one each in Slovenia, Belarus, and Poland using genomic SNP data with double-digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). We...

An unusual amino acid substitution within hummingbird cytochrome c oxidase alters a key proton-conducting channel

Cory Dunn, Bala Ani Akpinar & Vivek Sharma
Hummingbirds in flight exhibit the highest metabolic rate of all vertebrates. The bioenergetic requirements associated with sustained hovering flight raise the possibility of unique amino acid substitutions that would enhance aerobic metabolism. Here, we have identified a non-conservative substitution within the mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) that is fixed within hummingbirds, yet exceedingly rare among other vertebrates. This unusual change is also rare among metazoans, but can be identified in several clades with...

Data from: Elements of metacommunity structure of diatoms and macroinvertebrates within stream networks differing in environmental heterogeneity

Siwen He, Kai Chen, Janne Soininen, Jani Heino, Ning Ding & Beixin Wang
Aim: Idealized metacommunity structures (i.e. checkerboard, random, quasi-structures, nested, Clementsian, Gleasonian, and evenly spaced) have recently gained increasing attention, but their relationships with environmental heterogeneity and how they vary with organism groups remain poorly understood. Here we tested two main hypotheses: (1) gradient-driven patterns (Clementsian and Gleasonian) occur frequently in heterogeneous environments, and (2) small organisms (here, diatoms) are more likely to exhibit gradient-driven patterns than large organisms (here, macroinvertebrates). Location: Streams in three regions...

Dynamics of a host-parasitoid interaction clarified by modelling and DNA sequencing

Marko Mutanen, Otso Ovaskainen, Gergely Várkonyi, Juhani Itämies, Sean W. J. Prosser, Paul D. N. Hebert & Ilkka Hanski
It has been hypothesized that the 2-year oscillations in abundance of Xestia moths are mediated by interactions with 1-year Ophion parasitoid wasps. We tested this hypothesis by modelling a 35-year time series of Xestia and Ophion from northern Finland. Additionally, we used DNA barcoding to ascertain the species diversity of Ophion and targeted amplicon sequencing of their gut contents to confirm their larval hosts. Modelling of the time-series data strongly supported the hypothesized host–parasitoid dynamics...

Time spent in distinct life-history stages has sex-specific effects on reproductive fitness in wild Atlantic salmon

Kenyon Mobley, Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Mikko Ellmen, Panu Orell, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
In species with complex life cycles, life history theory predicts that fitness is affected by conditions encountered in previous life history stages. Here, we use a four-year pedigree to investigate if time spent in two distinct life history stages has sex-specific reproductive fitness consequences in anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We determined the amount of years spent in fresh water as juveniles (freshwater age, FW, measured in years), and years spent in the marine environment...

Hybridization selects for prime-numbered life cycles in Magicicada: an individual-based simulation model of a structured periodical cicada population

Jaakko Toivonen & Lutz Fromhage
We investigate competition between separate periodical cicada populations each possessing different life cycle lengths. We build an individual-based model to simulate the cicada life cycle and allow random migrations to occur between patches inhabited by the different populations. We show that if hybridization between different cycle lengths produces offspring that have an intermediate life-cycle length, then predation acts disproportionately to select against the hybrid offspring. This happens because they emerge in low densities without the...

A major locus controls a biologically active pheromone component in Heliconius melpomene

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Jamie Musgrove, Diana Abondano Almeida, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Marek Kučka, Yingguang Frank Chan, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
Understanding the production, response, and genetics of signals used in mate choice can inform our understanding of the evolution of both intraspecific mate choice and reproductive isolation. Sex pheromones are important for courtship and mate choice in many insects, but we know relatively little of their role in butterflies. The butterfly Heliconius melpomene uses a complex blend of wing androconial compounds during courtship. Electroantennography in H. melpomene and its close relative H. cydno showed that...

Unexpectedly diverse forest dung beetle communities in degraded rainforest landscapes in Madagascar

Kaisa Torppa, Helena Wirta & Ilkka Hanski
Tropical forests, which harbor high levels of biodiversity, are being lost at an alarming speed. Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot, has lost more than half of its original forest cover. Most of the remaining forests are small fragments of primary and secondary forest with differing degrees of human impact. These forests, as well as coffee and fruit plantations, may be important in supporting the forest dependent biodiversity in Madagascar but this has been little studied. In...

Virus infections in 27 Plantago lanceolata populations in the Åland Islands in 2015

Hanna Susi & Anna-Liisa Laine
Human alteration of natural habitats may change the processes governing species interactions in wild communities. Wild populations are increasingly impacted by agricultural intensification, yet it is unknown whether this alters biodiversity mediation of disease dynamics. We investigated the association between plant diversity (species richness, diversity) and infection risk (virus richness, prevalence) in populations of Plantago lanceolata in natural landscapes as well as those occurring at the edges of cultivated fields. Altogether 27 P. lanceolata populations...

Butterfly species diversity and their floral preferences in the Rupa wetland of Nepal

Hari Adhikari
The diversity of butterflies is known to some extent in Nepal, but the study of their interactions with nectar plant sources and floral attributes is limited. This study was conducted along the periphery of Rupa Wetland, a Ramsar site, from February to November 2019 to assess butterfly species diversity and to identify the factors influencing their foraging choices at nectar plants. We assessed the number of butterfly species, their abundance, and their floral foraging behavior,...

Life history genomic regions explain differences in Atlantic salmon marine diet specialization

Tutku Aykanat, Martin Rasmussen, Mikhail Ozerov, Eero Niemelä, Lars Paulin, Juha-Pekka Vaha, Kjetil Hindar, Vidar Wennevik, Torstein Pedersen, Martin Svenning & Craig Primmer
Abstract 1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that co-varies with efficiency along the ontogeny...

Pooled whole genome sequencing from year 2004 and Early-Late SNP data from year 2014

Jonna Kulmuni, Pierre Nouhaud, Lucy Pluckrose, Kishor Dhaygude & Roger Butlin
Speciation underlies the generation of novel biodiversity. Yet, there is much to learn about how natural selection shapes genomes during speciation. Selection is assumed to act against gene flow at barrier loci, promoting reproductive isolation. However, evidence for gene flow and selection is often indirect and we know very little about the temporal stability of barrier loci. Here we utilize haplodiploidy to identify candidate male barrier loci in hybrids between two wood ant species. As...

The effects of functional response and host abundance fluctuations on genetic rescue in parasitoids with single-locus sex determination

Etsuko Nonaka & Veijo Kaitala
Many parasitoids have single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), which produces sterile or inviable males when homozygous at the sex determining locus. A previous study theoretically showed that small populations have elevated risks of extinction due to positive feedback between inbreeding and small population size, referred to as the diploid male vortex. A few modeling studies have suggested that the diploid male vortex may not be as common because balancing selection at sex determining loci tends...

A large wild salmon stock shows genetic and life history differentiation within, but not between, rivers

Antti Miettinen, Stefan Palm, Johan Dannewitz, Emma Lind, Craig R. Primmer, Atso Romakkaniemi, Johan Östergren & Victoria L. Pritchard
Anadromous salmonid fishes frequently exhibit strong geographic population structuring. However, population genetic differentiation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at fine geographic scales differs across equivalent spatial extents in different regions. So far, fine-scale genetic differentiation has not been assessed in rivers of the Baltic Sea, a region that contains an evolutionarily distinct Atlantic salmon lineage. Thus, Baltic salmon are currently managed on the river level, without focus on potential genetic structure and diversity within rivers....

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • University of Helsinki
    76
  • University of Oulu
    8
  • University of Turku
    8
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
    7
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    7
  • University of Cambridge
    4
  • The Arctic University of Norway
    3
  • Finnish Environment Institute
    3
  • Kristianstad University
    2
  • Technische Universität Braunschweig
    2