75 Works

Finnish upper secondary school students' experiences with online courses

Liisa Ilomäki & Minna Lakkala

Data from: Metacommunity structure of stream insects across three hierarchical spatial scales

Siwen He, Janne Soininen, Guiping Deng & Beixin Wang
A major challenge in community ecology is to understand the underlying factors driving metacommunity (i.e. a set of local communities connected through species dispersal) dynamics. However, little is known about the effects of varying spatial scale on the relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e. dispersal related) factors in shaping metacommunities and on the relevance of different dispersal pathways. Using a hierarchy of insect metacommunities at three spatial scales (a small, within-stream scale, intermediate, among-stream...

Scale dependence of temporal biodiversity change in modern and fossil marine plankton

Aleksandra Lewandowska, Lukas Jonkers, Holger Auel, Jan Freund, Wilhelm Hagen, Michal Kucera & Helmut Hillebrand
Aim Biodiversity dynamics comprise evolutionary and ecological changes on multiple temporal scales from millions of years to decades, but they are often interpreted within a single time frame. Planktonic foraminifera communities offer a unique opportunity for analyzing the dynamics of marine biodiversity over different temporal scales. Our study aims to provide a baseline for assessments of biodiversity patterns over multiple time scales, which is urgently needed to interpret biodiversity responses to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Location...

The spread of a wild plant pathogen is driven by the road network

Elina Numminen & Anna-Liisa Laine
Spatial analyses of pathogen occurrence in their natural surroundings entail unique opportunities for assessing in vivo drivers of disease epidemiology. Such studies are however confronted by the complexity of the landscape driving epidemic spread and disease persistence. Since relevant information on how the landscape influences epidemiological dynamics is rarely available, simple spatial models of spread are often used. In the current study we demonstrate both how more complex transmission pathways could be incorpoted to epidemiological...

On the causes of geographically heterogeneous parallel evolution in sticklebacks

Bohao Fang, Petri Kemppainen, Paolo Momigliano, Xueyun Feng & Juha Merilä
The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an important model system for the study of parallel evolution in the wild, having repeatedly colonized and adapted to freshwater from the sea throughout the northern hemisphere. Previous studies identified numerous genomic regions showing consistent genetic differentiation between freshwater and marine ecotypes but these had typically limited geographic sampling and mostly focused on the Eastern Pacific region. We analysed population genomic data from global samples of the three-spined stickleback...

Habitat deterioration relaxes resource competition and sexual selection in the threespine stickleback

Eva Henriksson & Ulrika Candolin
The operation of sexual selection depends on ecological conditions. Thus, changes in environmental conditions because of human activities can alter the strength and direction of sexual selection, with implications for evolutionary trajectories and the viability of populations. We show that aquatic algal blooms can relax the operation of sexual selection by influencing which males are available to attract females. This is by influencing the ability of males to maintain a resource needed in mate attraction....

Evolution of chain migration in an aerial insectivorous bird, the common swift Apus apus

Susanne Akesson, Phil Atkinson, Ana Bermejo, Javier De La Puente, Mauro Ferri, Chris Hewson, Jan Holmgren, Erich Kaiser, Lyndon Kearsley, Raymond Klaassen, Heikki Kolunen, Gittan Matsson, Fausto Minelli, Gabriel Norevik, Hannu Pietiäinen, Navinder J Singh, Fernando Spina, Lukas Viktora & Anders Hedenstrom
Spectacular long-distance migration has evolved repeatedly in animals enabling exploration of resources separated in time and space. In birds, these patterns are largely driven by seasonality, cost of migration, and asymmetries in competition leading most often to leap-frog migration, where northern breeding populations winter furthest to the south. Here we show that the highly aerial common swift Apus apus, spending the non-breeding period on the wing, instead exhibits a rarely-found chain migration pattern, where the...

Diversity and distribution across a large environmental and spatial gradient: evaluating the taxonomic and functional turnover, transitions and environmental drivers of benthic diatom communities

Leena Virta, Janne Soininen & Alf Norkko
Aim: Global biodiversity loss has raised interest in understanding variation in diversity at different scales. Especially studies conducted across large spatial gradients are crucial, because they can increase perspectives on how ecological patterns change relative to environmental factors, and facilitate predictions of possible responses to environmental change. We explored the full extent of a brackish sea to test the hypotheses that (i) benthic communities are defined by species’ limited ranges, controlled by varying drivers along...

Data and R code for What you see is where you go: visibility influences movement decisions of a forest bird navigating a 3D structured matrix

Job Aben, Johannes Signer, Janne Heiskanen, Petri Pellikka & Justin Travis
Animal spatial behaviour is often presumed to reflect responses to visual cues. However, inference of behaviour in relation to the environment is challenged by the lack of objective methods to identify the information that effectively is available to an animal from a given location. In general, animals are assumed to have unconstrained information on the environment within a detection circle of a certain radius (the perceptual range; PR). However, visual cues are only available up...

Data from: Fungal communities are important determinants of bacterial community composition in deadwood

Iñaki Odriozola, Nerea Abrego, Vojtěch Tláskal, Petra Zrůstová, Daniel Kumazawa Morais, Tomáš Větrovský, Otso Ovaskainen & Petr Baldrian
Fungal-bacterial interactions play a key role in the functioning of many ecosystems. Thus, understanding their interactive dynamics is of central importance for gaining predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, it is challenging to disentangle the mechanisms behind species associations from observed co-occurrence patterns and little is known about the directionality of such interactions. Here we apply joint species distribution modelling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal and bacterial communities in deadwood to ask whether...

Data from: Genetic growth potential, rather than phenotypic size, predicts migration phenotype in Atlantic salmon

Paul Vincent Debes, Nikolai Piavchenko, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
Knowledge of the relative importance of genetic versus environmental determinants of major developmental transitions is pertinent to understanding phenotypic evolution. In salmonid fishes, a major developmental transition enables a risky seaward migration that provides access to feed resources. In Atlantic salmon, initiation of the migrant phenotype, and thus age of migrants, is presumably controlled via thresholds of a quantitative liability, approximated by body size expressed long before the migration. However, how well size approximates liability,...

Data from: Mapping molar shapes on signaling pathways

Wataru Morita, Naoki Morimoto & Jukka Jernvall
A major challenge in evolutionary developmental biology is to understand how genetic mutations underlie phenotypic changes. In principle, selective pressures on the phenotype screen the gene pool of the population. Teeth are an excellent model for understanding evolutionary changes in the genotype-phenotype relationship since they exist throughout vertebrates. Genetically modified mice (mutants) with abnormalities in teeth have been used to explore tooth development. The relationship between signaling pathways and molar shape, however, remains elusive due...

Data from: Carbonate shelf development and early Paleozoic benthic diversity in Baltica: A hierarchical diversity partitioning approach using brachiopod data

Amelia Penny, Olle Hints & Björn Kröger
The Ordovician–Silurian (~485–419 Ma) was a time of considerable evolutionary upheaval, encompassing both the largest evolutionary diversification and one of the first major mass extinctions. The Ordovician diversification coincided with global climatic cooling and paleocontinental collision, the ecological impacts of which were mediated by region-specific processes including substrate changes, biotic invasions, and tectonic movements. From the Sandbian–Katian (~453 Ma) onward, an extensive carbonate shelf developed in the eastern Baltic paleobasin in response to a tectonic...

Stone-Stacking as a Looming Threat to Rock-Dwelling Biodiversity

Ricardo Rocha, Paulo A. V. Borges, Pedro Cardoso, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, Jose Luis Martin-Esquivel, Dilia Menezes, Mario Mota-Ferreira, Sara F. Nunes, Ines Orfao, Catarina Serra-Goncalves, Manuela Sim-Sim, Pedro Sepulveda, Dinarte Teixeira & Anna Traveset
This letter to the editor describes the surge of “photo-friendly” stacks of stones as an emerging tourism-associated threat to rock-dwelling biodiversity.

Cultural Evolution of Sustainable Behaviours: Landscape of Affordances Model

Roope Oskari Kaaronen & Nikita Strelkovskii
This NetLogo model illustrates the cultural evolution of pro-environmental behaviour patterns. It illustrates how collective behaviour patterns evolve from interactions between agents and agents (in a social network) as well as agents and the affordances (action opportunities provided by the environment) within a niche. More specifically, the cultural evolution of behaviour patterns is understood in this model as a product of: The landscape of affordances provided by the material environment, Individual learning and habituation, Social...

Temporal biodiversity change following disturbance varies along an environmental gradient

Elina Kaarlejärvi, Maija Salemaa, Tiina Tonteri, Päivi Merilä & Anna-Liisa Laine
Aim The diversity and composition of natural communities are rapidly changing due to anthropogenic disturbances. Magnitude of this compositional reorganization varies across the globe, but reasons behind the variation remain largely unknown. Disturbances induce temporal turnover by stimulating species colonizations, causing local extinctions, altering dominance structure, or all of these. We test which of these processes drive temporal community changes, and whether they are constrained by natural environmental gradients. Moreover, we assess to what degree...

Dynamics of a host-parasitoid interaction clarified by modelling and DNA sequencing

Marko Mutanen, Otso Ovaskainen, Gergely Várkonyi, Juhani Itämies, Sean W. J. Prosser, Paul D. N. Hebert & Ilkka Hanski
It has been hypothesized that the 2-year oscillations in abundance of Xestia moths are mediated by interactions with 1-year Ophion parasitoid wasps. We tested this hypothesis by modelling a 35-year time series of Xestia and Ophion from northern Finland. Additionally, we used DNA barcoding to ascertain the species diversity of Ophion and targeted amplicon sequencing of their gut contents to confirm their larval hosts. Modelling of the time-series data strongly supported the hypothesized host–parasitoid dynamics...

Time spent in distinct life-history stages has sex-specific effects on reproductive fitness in wild Atlantic salmon

Kenyon Mobley, Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Mikko Ellmen, Panu Orell, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
In species with complex life cycles, life history theory predicts that fitness is affected by conditions encountered in previous life history stages. Here, we use a four-year pedigree to investigate if time spent in two distinct life history stages has sex-specific reproductive fitness consequences in anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We determined the amount of years spent in fresh water as juveniles (freshwater age, FW, measured in years), and years spent in the marine environment...

Unexpectedly diverse forest dung beetle communities in degraded rainforest landscapes in Madagascar

Kaisa Torppa, Helena Wirta & Ilkka Hanski
Tropical forests, which harbor high levels of biodiversity, are being lost at an alarming speed. Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot, has lost more than half of its original forest cover. Most of the remaining forests are small fragments of primary and secondary forest with differing degrees of human impact. These forests, as well as coffee and fruit plantations, may be important in supporting the forest dependent biodiversity in Madagascar but this has been little studied. In...

A major locus controls a biologically active pheromone component in Heliconius melpomene

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Jamie Musgrove, Diana Abondano Almeida, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Marek Kučka, Yingguang Frank Chan, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
Understanding the production, response, and genetics of signals used in mate choice can inform our understanding of the evolution of both intraspecific mate choice and reproductive isolation. Sex pheromones are important for courtship and mate choice in many insects, but we know relatively little of their role in butterflies. The butterfly Heliconius melpomene uses a complex blend of wing androconial compounds during courtship. Electroantennography in H. melpomene and its close relative H. cydno showed that...

Using genomic information for management planning of an endangered perennial, Viola uliginosa

Kyung Min Lee, Pertti Ranta, Jarmo Saarikivi, Lado Kutnar, Branko Vreš, Maxim Dzhus, Marko Mutanen & Laura Kvist
Species occupying habitats subjected to frequent natural and/or anthropogenic changes are a challenge for conservation management. We studied one such species, Viola uliginosa, an endangered perennial wetland species typically inhabiting sporadically flooded meadows alongside rivers/lakes. In order to estimate genomic diversity, population structure and history, we sampled five sites in Finland, three in Estonia, and one each in Slovenia, Belarus, and Poland using genomic SNP data with double-digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). We...

Towards a taxonomically unbiased EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030

Stefano Mammola, Nicoletta Riccardi, Vincent Prié, Ricardo Correia, Pedro Cardoso, Manuel Lopes-Lima & Ronaldo Sousa
Through the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the LIFE projects financial investments, Europe has been the world’s experimental arena for biological conservation. With an estimated budget of €20 billion/year, the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 has set an ambitious goal of reaching 30% Protected Areas and ensure no deterioration in conservation trends and status of all protected species. We analyzed LIFE projects focused on animals from 1992 to 2018 and we found that investment towards vertebrates...

Data from: Elements of metacommunity structure of diatoms and macroinvertebrates within stream networks differing in environmental heterogeneity

Siwen He, Kai Chen, Janne Soininen, Jani Heino, Ning Ding & Beixin Wang
Aim: Idealized metacommunity structures (i.e. checkerboard, random, quasi-structures, nested, Clementsian, Gleasonian, and evenly spaced) have recently gained increasing attention, but their relationships with environmental heterogeneity and how they vary with organism groups remain poorly understood. Here we tested two main hypotheses: (1) gradient-driven patterns (Clementsian and Gleasonian) occur frequently in heterogeneous environments, and (2) small organisms (here, diatoms) are more likely to exhibit gradient-driven patterns than large organisms (here, macroinvertebrates). Location: Streams in three regions...

An unusual amino acid substitution within hummingbird cytochrome c oxidase alters a key proton-conducting channel

Cory Dunn, Bala Ani Akpinar & Vivek Sharma
Hummingbirds in flight exhibit the highest metabolic rate of all vertebrates. The bioenergetic requirements associated with sustained hovering flight raise the possibility of unique amino acid substitutions that would enhance aerobic metabolism. Here, we have identified a non-conservative substitution within the mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) that is fixed within hummingbirds, yet exceedingly rare among other vertebrates. This unusual change is also rare among metazoans, but can be identified in several clades with...

Hybridization selects for prime-numbered life cycles in Magicicada: an individual-based simulation model of a structured periodical cicada population

Jaakko Toivonen & Lutz Fromhage
We investigate competition between separate periodical cicada populations each possessing different life cycle lengths. We build an individual-based model to simulate the cicada life cycle and allow random migrations to occur between patches inhabited by the different populations. We show that if hybridization between different cycle lengths produces offspring that have an intermediate life-cycle length, then predation acts disproportionately to select against the hybrid offspring. This happens because they emerge in low densities without the...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    75

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    69
  • Text
    4
  • Other
    1
  • Software
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Helsinki
    75
  • University of Oulu
    8
  • University of Turku
    8
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
    7
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    7
  • University of Cambridge
    4
  • The Arctic University of Norway
    3
  • Finnish Environment Institute
    3
  • Kristianstad University
    2
  • Technische Universität Braunschweig
    2