76 Works

Morphoecological characteristics of grasses used to restore degraded semi-arid African rangelands

Kevin Mganga, Eric Kaindi, Aphaxard Ndathi, Luwieke Bosma, Theophilus Kioko, Nancy Kadenyi, Steven Wambua, Frank Van Steenbergen & Nashon Musimba
Progressive loss of productivity and plant diversity has been a major concern for land managers of global arid and semi-arid rangelands. This is often attributed to heavy grazing by large livestock herds and wildlife leading to land degradation threatening millions of livelihoods that rely on rangeland resources. Consequently, combating land degradation has increasingly become important global agenda. Active restoration technologies such as indigenous grass reseeding has been identified as a viable ecological solution for restoring...

Data from: Multidimensional plasticity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly: larval performance is temperature, host and family specific

Nadja Verspagen, Suvi Ikonen, Marjo Saastamoinen & Erik Van Bergen
Variation in environmental conditions during development can lead to changes in life-history traits with long-lasting effects. Here, we study how variation in temperature and host plant, i.e. the consequences of potential maternal oviposition choices, affects a suite of life-history traits in pre-diapause larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We focus on offspring survival, larval growth rates and relative fat reserves, and pay specific attention to intraspecific variation in the responses (GxExE). Globally, thermal performance and...

Genomic and chemical evidence for local adaptation in resistance to different herbivores in Datura stramonium

Ivan M. De-La-Cruz, Juha Merila, Pedro Luis Valverde, Cesar Mateo Flores-Ortiz & Juan Núñez-Farfán
Since most species are collections of genetically variable populations distributed to habitats differing in their abiotic/biotic environmental factors and community composition, the pattern and strength of natural selection imposed by species on each others' traits are also expected to be highly spatially variable. Here, we used genomic and quantitative genetic approaches to understand how spatially variable selection operates on the genetic basis of plant defenses to herbivores. To this end, an F2 progeny was generated...

Stone-Stacking as a Looming Threat to Rock-Dwelling Biodiversity

Ricardo Rocha, Paulo A. V. Borges, Pedro Cardoso, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, Jose Luis Martin-Esquivel, Dilia Menezes, Mario Mota-Ferreira, Sara F. Nunes, Ines Orfao, Catarina Serra-Goncalves, Manuela Sim-Sim, Pedro Sepulveda, Dinarte Teixeira & Anna Traveset
This letter to the editor describes the surge of “photo-friendly” stacks of stones as an emerging tourism-associated threat to rock-dwelling biodiversity.

Cultural Evolution of Sustainable Behaviours: Landscape of Affordances Model

Roope Oskari Kaaronen & Nikita Strelkovskii
This NetLogo model illustrates the cultural evolution of pro-environmental behaviour patterns. It illustrates how collective behaviour patterns evolve from interactions between agents and agents (in a social network) as well as agents and the affordances (action opportunities provided by the environment) within a niche. More specifically, the cultural evolution of behaviour patterns is understood in this model as a product of: The landscape of affordances provided by the material environment, Individual learning and habituation, Social...

Temporal biodiversity change following disturbance varies along an environmental gradient

Elina Kaarlejärvi, Maija Salemaa, Tiina Tonteri, Päivi Merilä & Anna-Liisa Laine
Aim The diversity and composition of natural communities are rapidly changing due to anthropogenic disturbances. Magnitude of this compositional reorganization varies across the globe, but reasons behind the variation remain largely unknown. Disturbances induce temporal turnover by stimulating species colonizations, causing local extinctions, altering dominance structure, or all of these. We test which of these processes drive temporal community changes, and whether they are constrained by natural environmental gradients. Moreover, we assess to what degree...

Dynamics of a host-parasitoid interaction clarified by modelling and DNA sequencing

Marko Mutanen, Otso Ovaskainen, Gergely Várkonyi, Juhani Itämies, Sean W. J. Prosser, Paul D. N. Hebert & Ilkka Hanski
It has been hypothesized that the 2-year oscillations in abundance of Xestia moths are mediated by interactions with 1-year Ophion parasitoid wasps. We tested this hypothesis by modelling a 35-year time series of Xestia and Ophion from northern Finland. Additionally, we used DNA barcoding to ascertain the species diversity of Ophion and targeted amplicon sequencing of their gut contents to confirm their larval hosts. Modelling of the time-series data strongly supported the hypothesized host–parasitoid dynamics...

Time spent in distinct life-history stages has sex-specific effects on reproductive fitness in wild Atlantic salmon

Kenyon Mobley, Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Mikko Ellmen, Panu Orell, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
In species with complex life cycles, life history theory predicts that fitness is affected by conditions encountered in previous life history stages. Here, we use a four-year pedigree to investigate if time spent in two distinct life history stages has sex-specific reproductive fitness consequences in anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We determined the amount of years spent in fresh water as juveniles (freshwater age, FW, measured in years), and years spent in the marine environment...

Unexpectedly diverse forest dung beetle communities in degraded rainforest landscapes in Madagascar

Kaisa Torppa, Helena Wirta & Ilkka Hanski
Tropical forests, which harbor high levels of biodiversity, are being lost at an alarming speed. Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot, has lost more than half of its original forest cover. Most of the remaining forests are small fragments of primary and secondary forest with differing degrees of human impact. These forests, as well as coffee and fruit plantations, may be important in supporting the forest dependent biodiversity in Madagascar but this has been little studied. In...

A major locus controls a biologically active pheromone component in Heliconius melpomene

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Jamie Musgrove, Diana Abondano Almeida, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Marek Kučka, Yingguang Frank Chan, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
Understanding the production, response, and genetics of signals used in mate choice can inform our understanding of the evolution of both intraspecific mate choice and reproductive isolation. Sex pheromones are important for courtship and mate choice in many insects, but we know relatively little of their role in butterflies. The butterfly Heliconius melpomene uses a complex blend of wing androconial compounds during courtship. Electroantennography in H. melpomene and its close relative H. cydno showed that...

Using genomic information for management planning of an endangered perennial, Viola uliginosa

Kyung Min Lee, Pertti Ranta, Jarmo Saarikivi, Lado Kutnar, Branko Vreš, Maxim Dzhus, Marko Mutanen & Laura Kvist
Species occupying habitats subjected to frequent natural and/or anthropogenic changes are a challenge for conservation management. We studied one such species, Viola uliginosa, an endangered perennial wetland species typically inhabiting sporadically flooded meadows alongside rivers/lakes. In order to estimate genomic diversity, population structure and history, we sampled five sites in Finland, three in Estonia, and one each in Slovenia, Belarus, and Poland using genomic SNP data with double-digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). We...

Towards a taxonomically unbiased EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030

Stefano Mammola, Nicoletta Riccardi, Vincent Prié, Ricardo Correia, Pedro Cardoso, Manuel Lopes-Lima & Ronaldo Sousa
Through the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the LIFE projects financial investments, Europe has been the world’s experimental arena for biological conservation. With an estimated budget of €20 billion/year, the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 has set an ambitious goal of reaching 30% Protected Areas and ensure no deterioration in conservation trends and status of all protected species. We analyzed LIFE projects focused on animals from 1992 to 2018 and we found that investment towards vertebrates...

Data from: Elements of metacommunity structure of diatoms and macroinvertebrates within stream networks differing in environmental heterogeneity

Siwen He, Kai Chen, Janne Soininen, Jani Heino, Ning Ding & Beixin Wang
Aim: Idealized metacommunity structures (i.e. checkerboard, random, quasi-structures, nested, Clementsian, Gleasonian, and evenly spaced) have recently gained increasing attention, but their relationships with environmental heterogeneity and how they vary with organism groups remain poorly understood. Here we tested two main hypotheses: (1) gradient-driven patterns (Clementsian and Gleasonian) occur frequently in heterogeneous environments, and (2) small organisms (here, diatoms) are more likely to exhibit gradient-driven patterns than large organisms (here, macroinvertebrates). Location: Streams in three regions...

An unusual amino acid substitution within hummingbird cytochrome c oxidase alters a key proton-conducting channel

Cory Dunn, Bala Ani Akpinar & Vivek Sharma
Hummingbirds in flight exhibit the highest metabolic rate of all vertebrates. The bioenergetic requirements associated with sustained hovering flight raise the possibility of unique amino acid substitutions that would enhance aerobic metabolism. Here, we have identified a non-conservative substitution within the mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) that is fixed within hummingbirds, yet exceedingly rare among other vertebrates. This unusual change is also rare among metazoans, but can be identified in several clades with...

Hybridization selects for prime-numbered life cycles in Magicicada: an individual-based simulation model of a structured periodical cicada population

Jaakko Toivonen & Lutz Fromhage
We investigate competition between separate periodical cicada populations each possessing different life cycle lengths. We build an individual-based model to simulate the cicada life cycle and allow random migrations to occur between patches inhabited by the different populations. We show that if hybridization between different cycle lengths produces offspring that have an intermediate life-cycle length, then predation acts disproportionately to select against the hybrid offspring. This happens because they emerge in low densities without the...

Data from: Biocultural approaches to sustainability: a systematic review of the scientific literature

Jan Hanspach, L. Jamila Haider, Elisa Oteris-Rozas, Anton Stahl Olafsson, Natalie Gulsrud, Chris Raymond, Mario Torralba, Berta Martín-López, Claudia Bieling, María García Martín, Christian Albert, Thomas Beery, Nora Fagerholm, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Annika Drews-Shambroom & Tobias Plieninger
Current sustainability challenges demand approaches that acknowledge a plurality of human-nature interactions and worldviews, for which biocultural approaches are considered appropriate and timely. This systematic review analyses the application of biocultural approaches to sustainability in scientific journal articles published between 1990 and 2018 through a mixed methods approach combining qualitative content analysis and quantitative multivariate methods. The study identifies seven distinct biocultural lenses, i.e. different ways of understanding and applying biocultural approaches, which to different...

The effects of functional response and host abundance fluctuations on genetic rescue in parasitoids with single-locus sex determination

Etsuko Nonaka & Veijo Kaitala
Many parasitoids have single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), which produces sterile or inviable males when homozygous at the sex determining locus. A previous study theoretically showed that small populations have elevated risks of extinction due to positive feedback between inbreeding and small population size, referred to as the diploid male vortex. A few modeling studies have suggested that the diploid male vortex may not be as common because balancing selection at sex determining loci tends...

Life history genomic regions explain differences in Atlantic salmon marine diet specialization

Tutku Aykanat, Martin Rasmussen, Mikhail Ozerov, Eero Niemelä, Lars Paulin, Juha-Pekka Vaha, Kjetil Hindar, Vidar Wennevik, Torstein Pedersen, Martin Svenning & Craig Primmer
Abstract 1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that co-varies with efficiency along the ontogeny...

Data collected by fruit body– and DNA-based survey methods yield consistent species-to-species association networks in wood-inhabiting fungal communities

Sonja Saine, Otso Ovaskainen, Panu Somervuo & Nerea Abrego
Inferring interspecific interactions indirectly from community data is of central interest in community ecology. Data on species communities can be surveyed using different methods, each of which may differ in the amount and type of species detected, and thus produce varying information on interaction networks. Since fruit bodies reflect only a fraction of the woodinhabiting fungal diversity, there is an ongoing debate in fungal ecology on whether fruit body– based surveys are a valid method...

Pooled whole genome sequencing from year 2004 and Early-Late SNP data from year 2014

Jonna Kulmuni, Pierre Nouhaud, Lucy Pluckrose, Kishor Dhaygude & Roger Butlin
Speciation underlies the generation of novel biodiversity. Yet, there is much to learn about how natural selection shapes genomes during speciation. Selection is assumed to act against gene flow at barrier loci, promoting reproductive isolation. However, evidence for gene flow and selection is often indirect and we know very little about the temporal stability of barrier loci. Here we utilize haplodiploidy to identify candidate male barrier loci in hybrids between two wood ant species. As...

Butterfly species diversity and their floral preferences in the Rupa wetland of Nepal

Hari Adhikari
The diversity of butterflies is known to some extent in Nepal, but the study of their interactions with nectar plant sources and floral attributes is limited. This study was conducted along the periphery of Rupa Wetland, a Ramsar site, from February to November 2019 to assess butterfly species diversity and to identify the factors influencing their foraging choices at nectar plants. We assessed the number of butterfly species, their abundance, and their floral foraging behavior,...

A large wild salmon stock shows genetic and life history differentiation within, but not between, rivers

Antti Miettinen, Stefan Palm, Johan Dannewitz, Emma Lind, Craig R. Primmer, Atso Romakkaniemi, Johan Östergren & Victoria L. Pritchard
Anadromous salmonid fishes frequently exhibit strong geographic population structuring. However, population genetic differentiation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at fine geographic scales differs across equivalent spatial extents in different regions. So far, fine-scale genetic differentiation has not been assessed in rivers of the Baltic Sea, a region that contains an evolutionarily distinct Atlantic salmon lineage. Thus, Baltic salmon are currently managed on the river level, without focus on potential genetic structure and diversity within rivers....

Virus infections in 27 Plantago lanceolata populations in the Åland Islands in 2015

Hanna Susi & Anna-Liisa Laine
Human alteration of natural habitats may change the processes governing species interactions in wild communities. Wild populations are increasingly impacted by agricultural intensification, yet it is unknown whether this alters biodiversity mediation of disease dynamics. We investigated the association between plant diversity (species richness, diversity) and infection risk (virus richness, prevalence) in populations of Plantago lanceolata in natural landscapes as well as those occurring at the edges of cultivated fields. Altogether 27 P. lanceolata populations...

Threats from the air: damselfly predation on diverse prey taxa

Eero J. Vesterinen, Kari Kaunisto, , Mark Forbes, Andre Morrill, Anna Puisto, Ilari Sääksjärvi & Thomas Lilley
1. To understand the diversity and strength of predation in natural communities, researchers must quantify the total amount of prey species in the diet of predators. Metabarcoding approaches have allowed widespread characterization of predator diets with high taxonomic resolution. To determine the wider impacts of predators, researchers should combine DNA techniques with estimates of population size of predators using mark-release-recapture (MRR) methods, and with accurate metrics of food consumption by individuals. 2. Herein, we estimate...

Data for: Temperature-mediated male condition shapes female fitness and oviposition preference in a butterfly

Elena Rosa
Habitat choice by ovipositing females critically shapes fitness in species lacking parental care. We aimed at manipulating female oviposition choosiness using the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) as study species. We tested whether female choosiness is influenced by individual condition and/or that of the mating partner, which was manipulated experimentally by subjecting adults to night temperatures warmer than usual. Against our prediction, female life expectancy was not altered by the treatment and impacted her fitness...

Registration Year

  • 2020

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  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Oulu
  • University of Turku
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Cambridge
  • The Arctic University of Norway
  • Finnish Environment Institute
  • Kristianstad University
  • Technische Universität Braunschweig