55 Works

Data from: Disturbance history is a key driver of tree lifespan in temperate primary forests

Jakob Pavlin, Thomas A. Nagel, Marek Svitok, Joseph L. Pettit, Krešimir Begović, Stjepan Mikac, Abdulla Dikku, Elvin Toromani, Momchil Panayotov, Tzvetan Zlatanov, Ovidiu Haruta, Sorin Dorog, Oleh Chaskovskyy, Martin Mikoláš, Pavel Janda, Michal Frankovič, Ruffy Rodrigo, Ondřej Vostarek, Michal Synek, Martin Dušátko, Tomáš Kníř, Daniel Kozák, Ondrej Kameniar, Radek Bače, Vojtěch Čada … & Miroslav Svoboda
AIMS We examined differences in lifespan among the dominant tree species (spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), fir (Abies alba Mill.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.)) across primary mountain forests of Europe. We ask how disturbance history, lifetime growth patterns, and environmental factors influence lifespan. LOCATIONS Balkan mountains, Carpathian mountains, Dinaric mountains. METHODS Annual ring widths from 20,600 cores from primary forests were used to estimate tree life spans, growth trends,...

Interplay of above- and belowground resource limitations: a competition-facilitation shift maintains species coexistence

Jan Douda
Forest ecosystems are commonly characterised by a hierarchy of resources. During a disturbance of a forest community, increased light availability in the understorey can support competitive interactions at the expense of facilitation. This may overwhelm the role of belowground resource heterogeneity in maintaining species coexistence and so result in biotic homogenisation of a site. We re-surveyed species composition while estimating interspecific interactions along a microtopographic (moisture) gradient of a temperate swamp forest after increasing the...

Data from: Breaking the cipher: ant eavesdropping on the variational trail pheromone of its termite prey

Xiao-Lan Wen, Ping Wen, Cecilia A. L. Dahlsjӧ, David Sillam-Dussès & Jan Šobotník
Predators may eavesdrop on their prey using innate signals of varying nature. In regards to social prey, most of the prey signals are derived from social communication and may therefore be highly complex. The most efficient predators select signals that provide the highest benefits. Here, we showed the use of eusocial prey signals by the termite-raiding ant Odontoponera transversa. O. transversa selected the trail pheromone of termites as kairomone in several species of fungus-growing termites...

Expanding the mutualistic niche: parallel symbiont turnover along climatic gradients

Gregor Rolshausen, Uwe Hallman, Francesco Dal Grande, Juergen Otte, Kerry Knudsen & Imke Schmitt
Keystone mutualisms, such as corals, lichens, or mycorrhizae sustain fundamental ecosystem functions. Range dynamics of these symbioses are, however, inherently difficult to predict because host species may switch between different symbiont partners in different environments, thereby altering the range of the mutualism as a functional unit. Biogeographic models of mutualisms thus have to consider both, the ecological amplitudes of various symbiont partners, and the abiotic conditions that trigger symbiont replacement. To address this challenge, we...

Data from: Population-specific responses to an invasive species

Martin Reichard, Karel Douda, Mirosław Przybyłski, Oana P. Popa, Eva Karbanová, Klára Matasová, Kateřina Rylková, Matej Polačik, Radim Blažek & Carl Smith
Predicting the impacts of non-native species remains a challenge. As populations of a species are genetically and phenotypically variable, the impact of non-native species on local taxa could crucially depend on population-specific traits and adaptations of both native and non-native species. Bitterling fishes are brood parasites of unionid mussels and unionid mussels produce larvae that parasitize fishes. We used common garden experiments to measure three key elements in the bitterling–mussel association among two populations of...

Data from: Response of mountain Picea abies forests to stand-replacing bark beetle outbreaks: neighbourhood effects lead to self-replacement

Thorsten Zeppenfeld, Miroslav Svoboda, Robert Justin DeRose, Marco Heurich, Jörg Müller, Pavla Čížková, Martin Starý, Radek Bače & Daniel C. Donato
1. Large, severe disturbances drive many forest ecosystems over the long term, but pose management uncertainties when human experience with them is limited. Recent continent-scale outbreaks of bark beetles across the temperate Northern Hemisphere have raised major concerns as to whether coniferous forests will regenerate back towards pre-outbreak condition and meet possible reforestation objectives. To date, however, analyses of post-outbreak regeneration across broad spatial and temporal scales have been rare, and entirely lacking for many...

Data from: Towards a better understanding of the Chenopodium album aggregate (Amaranthaceae) in the Middle East: a karyological, cytometric and morphometric investigation

Farzaneh Habibi, Petr Vit, Mohammadreza Rahiminejad & Bohumil Mandak
The study of variation in nuclear genome size, especially when combined with common garden experiments, significantly contributes to disentangling interspecies relationships within taxonomically complicated plant groups. The Chenopodium album aggregate is among the morphologically most variable groups and consists of many weakly differentiated cosmopolitan entities. We analysed nuclear genome size variation in diploid and polyploid species of the aggregate from Iran using flow cytometry of 282 accessions from 88 populations of 7 species. To this...

Eiders, nutrients and eagles: Bottom-up and top-down population dynamics in a marine bird_dataset

Federico Morelli, Karsten Laursen, Marek Svitok, Yanina Benedetti & Anders Pape Møller
The main objective of this long-term study (1978-2016) was to find the underlying factors behind the declining trends of eider Somateria mollissima in the Baltic/Wadden Sea. Specifically, we aimed at quantifying the bottom-up effect of nutrients, through mussel stocks, on reproduction and abundance of eider, and the top-down effects caused by white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla predation. Bottom-up effects increase marine primary productivity with subsequent effects on food availability for a major mussel predator. Top-down effects...

What defines insularity for plants in edaphic islands?

Francisco Emmanuel Méndez Castro, Luisa Conti, Milan Chytrý, Borja Jimenez-Alfaro, Michal Hajek, Michal Horsák, David Zeleny, Marco Malavasi & Gianluigi Ottaviani
The Theory of Island Biogeography postulates that size and isolation are key drivers of biodiversity on islands. This theory has been applied not only to true (e.g. oceanic) islands but also to terrestrial island-like systems (e.g. edaphic islands). Recently, a debate has opened as to whether terrestrial island-like systems function like true islands. However, identifying the effect of insularity in terrestrial systems is conceptually and methodologically challenging because recognizing species source(s) and measuring isolation is...

Mind the outgroup and bare branches in total-evidence dating: a case study of Pimpliform Darwin Wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae)

Tamara Spasojevic, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Masato Ito, Stanislav Korenko, Seraina Klopfstein, Gavin R. Broad & Martin Schwarz
Taxon sampling is a central aspect of phylogenetic study design, but it has received limited attention in the context of total-evidence dating, a widely used dating approach that directly integrates molecular and morphological information from extant and fossil taxa. We here assess the impact of commonly employed outgroup sampling schemes and missing morphological data in extant taxa on age estimates in a total-evidence dating analysis under the uniform tree prior. Our study group is Pimpliformes,...

Population history explains the performance of an annual herb - within and beyond its European species range

Jan Douda, Jana Doudová, Eva Hodková, Petr Vít, Karol Krak & Bohumil Mandák
1. The centre-periphery hypothesis (CPH) predicts a decrease in population performance from the centre of the species range towards the edge, hindering further species expansion. To overcome ecological limitation, local adaptation of peripheral populations is assumed necessary to extend niche space and thus to potentially facilitate species’ range expansion. However, adaptive changes do not necessarily correspond to current ecological marginality. Instead, population history may provide a fuller context for understanding patterns of local adaptation within...

Data from: Higher genetic diversity in recolonized areas than in refugia of Alnus glutinosa triggered by continent-wide lineage admixture

Alena Havrdová, Jan Douda, Karol Krak, Petr Vít, Věroslava Hadincová, Petr Zákravský & Bohumil Mandák
Genetic admixture is supposed to be an important trigger of species expansions because it can create the potential for selection of genotypes suitable for new climatic conditions. Up until now, however, no continent-wide population genetic study has performed a detailed reconstruction of admixture events during natural species expansions. To fill this gap, we analysed the postglacial history of Alnus glutinosa, a keystone species of European swamp habitats, across its entire distribution range using two molecular...

Data from: Taxonomic revision of genus Ablattaria Reitter (Coleoptera, Silphidae) employing geometric morphometrics

Jarin Qubaiová, Jan Růžička & Hana Šípková
The genus Ablattaria Reitter, 1884 (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae) is revised. Four taxa are recognized as valid species: Ablattaria arenaria (Kraatz, 1876), A. cribrata (Ménétries, 1832), A. laevigata (Fabricius, 1775) and A. subtriangula Reitter, 1905. Ablattaria laevigata var. meridionalis Ganglbauer, 1899 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of A. laevigata. Lectotypes are designated for Phosphuga arenaria Kraatz, 1876, Ablattaria arenaria var. punctigera Reitter, 1884, Ablattaria arenaria var. alleoni Portevin, 1926, Silpha cribrata Ménétries, 1832,...

Data from: Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes

Guillaume Chapron, Petra Kaczensky, John D. C. Linnell, Manuela Von Arx, Djuro Huber, Henrik Andrén, José Vicente López-Bao, Michal Adamec, Francisco Álvares, Ole Anders, Linas Balčiauskas, Vaidas Balys, Péter Bedő, Ferdinand Bego, Juan Carlos Blanco, Urs Breitenmoser, Henrik Brøseth, Luděk Bufka, Raimonda Bunikyte, Paolo Ciucci, Alexander Dutsov, Thomas Engleder, Christian Fuxjäger, Claudio Groff, Katja Holmala … & Luigi Boitani
The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success...

Data from: Vertical root distribution of individual species in a mountain grassland community: does it respond to neighbours?

Tomas Herben, Tereza Vozábová, Věra Hadincová, František Krahulec, Hana Mayerová, Sylvie Pecháčková, Hana Skálová & Karol Krak
1.Vertical differentiation in root placement is one of the potential mechanisms of plant niche differentiation. It can be due to the remarkable plasticity of roots in response to nutrients and neighbours, but most data on it come from pot or garden experiments. The roles of vertical differentiation and of plasticity in it in the field are thus not well known. 2.We examined species-specific root vertical distribution in a montane grassland using quantitative Real-Time PCR. We...

Data from: The evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism is associated with increased body size plasticity in males

Patrick T. Rohner, Tiit Teder, Toomas Esperk, Stefan Lüpold & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
1.Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) can vary drastically across environments, demonstrating pronounced sex-specific plasticity. In insects, females are usually the larger and more plastic sex. However, the shortage of taxa with male-biased SSD hampers the assessment of whether the greater plasticity in females is driven by selection on size or represents an effect of the female reproductive role. Here we specifically address the role of sex-specific plasticity of body size in the evolution of SSD reversals...

Data from: Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats

Janosch Sedlacek, Andrés J. Cortés, Julia Wheeler, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Jaroslav Klápště, Christian Lexer, Christian Rixen, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg & Mark Van Kleunen
Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers....

Data from: Earthworms affect growth and competition between ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants

Jan Frouz, Jabbar Moradi, David Püschel & Jana Rydlová
Previous research showed that during intermediate stages of primary succession, when vegetation is dominated by ectomycorrhizal (EcM) shrubs and trees, site colonization by earthworms substantially alters plant communities. Research has also shown that EcM shrubs and trees suppress arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants in the understory. To determine whether earthworm activity reduces this asymmetric competition, we conducted a full factorial laboratory experiment in which we grew EcM Betula pendula and AM Tripleurospermum inodorum, together or apart,...

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

Data from: Host compatibility as a critical factor in management unit recognition: population-level differences in mussel-fish relationships

Karel Douda, Jerzy Sell, Lucie Kubíková-Peláková, Pavel Horký, Agnieszka Kaczmarczyk & Monika Mioduchowska
1. The recognition of management units (MUs) that respect inter-population distinctions in management needs is central to many biological applications addressing species conservation, biological invasions and ecosystem processes. 2. We present a methodological approach for the evaluation of population-level differences in the host compatibility of natural populations of affiliate (dependent) species. Two experiments were performed to diagnose the sources of variability in the relationships between an endangered freshwater mussel Unio crassus and its host fish...

Data from: Population biology of establishment in New Zealand hedgehogs inferred from genetic and historical data: conflict or compromise?

Barbora Bolfikova, Adam Konečný, Miriam Pfäffle, Jasmin Skuballa & Pavel Hulva
The crucial steps in biological invasions, related to the shaping of genetic architecture and the current evolution of adaptations to a novel environment, usually occur in small populations during the phases of introduction and establishment. However, these processes are difficult to track in nature due to invasion lag, large geographic and temporal scales compared with human observation capabilities, the frequent depletion of genetic variance, admixture and other phenomena. In this study, we compared genetic and...

Data from: Quantifying natural disturbances using a large-scale dendrochronological reconstruction to guide forest management

Vojtěch Čada, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Pavel Janda, Martin Mikolas, Radek Bace, Thomas Nagel, Robert Morrissey, Alan Tepley, Ondřej Vostarek, Krešimir Begović, Oleh Chaskovskyy, Martin Dušátko, Ondrej Kameniar, Daniel Kozák, Jana Lábusová, Jakub Málek, Peter Meyer, Joseph Pettit, Jonathan Schurman, Kristýna Svobodová, Michal Synek, Marius Teodosiu, Karol Ujházy & Miroslav Svoboda
Estimates of historical disturbance patterns are essential to guide forest management aimed at ensuring the sustainability of ecosystem functions and biodiversity. However, quantitative estimates of various disturbance characteristics required in management applications are rare in longer-term historical studies. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) quantify past disturbance severity, patch size, and stand proportion disturbed, and (2) test for temporal and sub-regional differences in these characteristics. We developed a comprehensive dendrochronological method to evaluate an approximately...

Data from: Crop-to-wild hybridization in cherries – empirical evidence from Prunus fruticosa

Lenka Macková, Petr Vít & Tomas Urfus
Crop cultivation can lead to genetic swamping of indigenous species and thus pose a serious threat for biodiversity. The rare Eurasian tetraploid shrub Prunus fruticosa (ground cherry) is suspected of hybridizing with cultivated allochthonous tetraploid P. cerasus and autochthonous diploid P. avium. Three Prunus taxa (447 individuals of P. fruticosa, 43 of P. cerasus and 73 of P. avium) and their hybrids (198 individuals) were evaluated using analysis of absolute genome size/ploidy level and multivariate...

Data from: Global pattern of nest predation is disrupted by climate change in shorebirds

Vojtěch Kubelka, Miroslav Šálek, Pavel Tomkovich, Zsolt Végvári, Robert P. Freckleton & Tamás Székely
Ongoing climate change is thought to disrupt trophic relationships, with consequences for complex interspecific interactions, yet the effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood, and such effects have not been documented at a global scale. Using a single database of 38,191 nests from 237 populations, we found that shorebirds have experienced a worldwide increase in nest predation over the past 70 years. Historically, there existed a latitudinal gradient in nest predation, with...

Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe

Miren Del Río, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Evy Ampoorter, Peter Annighöfer, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Gediminas Brazaitis, Lluis Coll, Lars össler, Marek Fabrika, David I. Forrester, Michael Heym, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylyak, Magnus Löf, Fabio Lombardi, Ekaterina Makrickiene, Bratislav Matovic, Frits Mohren, Renzo Motta, Jan Den Ouden, Maciej Pach, Quentin Ponette, Gerhard Schütze … & Lars Drössler
1.There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest...

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