85 Works

Data from: Admixture of eastern and western European red deer lineages as a result of postglacial re-colonisation of the Czech Republic (Central Europe)

Jarmila Krojerová-Prokešová, Miroslava Barančeková & Petr Koubek
Due to a restriction of the distributional range of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) during the Quaternary and subsequent recolonization of Europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial DNA markers. In Central Europe, 2 distinct, eastern and western, lineages of European red deer are present; however, admixture between them has not yet been studied in detail. We used mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b...

Data from: Wolves at the crossroad: fission-fusion range biogeography in the Western Carpathians and Central Europe

Pavel Hulva, Barbora Černá Bolfíková, Vendula Woznicová, Milena Jindřichová, Markéta Benešová, Robert W. Myslajek, Sabina Nowak, Maciej Szewczyk, Natalia Niedzwiecka, Michał Figura, Andrea Hájková, Atilla D. Sándor, Vladimír Zyka, Dušan Romportl, Miroslav Kutal, Slavomír Finďo & Vladimír Antal
Aim: Population fragmentation represents a leitmotif of conservation biology, but the impact of population reconnection is less well studied. The recent recolonization of large carnivores in Europe is a good model for studying this phenomenon. We aim to show novel data regarding distribution and population genetic structure of the grey wolf in Central Europe, a region considered a frequent crossroad and contact zone of different phylogeographic lineages, in a biogeographic context. Location: Western Carpathians, Central...

Data from: Fine scale waterbody data improve prediction of waterbird occurrence despite coarse species data

Petra Šímová, Vítězslav Moudrý, Jan Komárek, Karel Hrach & Marie-Josée Fortin
While modelling habitat suitability and species distribution, ecologists must deal with issues related to the spatial resolution of species occurrence and environmental data. Indeed, given that the spatial resolution of species and environmental datasets range from centimeters to hundreds of kilometers, it underlines the importance of choosing the optimal combination of resolutions to achieve the highest possible modelling prediction accuracy. We evaluated how the spatial resolution of land cover/waterbody datasets (meters to 1 km) affect...

Data from: Ramalina sarahae (Ramalinaceae), a new species from the Channel Islands of California, U.S.A.

Kerry Knudsen, James C. Lendemer & Jana Kocourková
Ramalina sarahae is described as new to science and considered to be closely related to the widespread R. lacera. It has a cortex without chondroid strands but differs from R. lacera in having a densely caespitose thallus of thin branches with only pseudocyphellae. The species is considered to be naturally rare, occurring in a small area of San Miguel Island in southern California, and on San Nicolas Island. Currently eight species of Ramalina are known...

Data from: Active farmsteads are year-round strongholds for farmland birds

Martin Šálek, Miroslav Bažant & Michał Żmihorski
1. Farmland birds have experienced substantial declines over recent decades and various conservation measures have been designed to halt their massive decrease. The effectiveness of these measures is however limited, due to inappropriate identification of crucial breeding and wintering habitats. Identification of appropriate habitats, like farmsteads, and understanding seasonal changes in species richness and abundance of farmland birds within these habitats may therefore be key for farmland bird conservation. 2. We investigated the effect of...

Data from: Impact of male condition on his spermatophore and consequences for female reproductive performance in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Anne Duplouy, Luisa Woestmann, Juan Gallego-Zamorano, Marjo Saastamoinen & Juan Gallego Zamorano
In butterflies, male reproductive success is highly related to the quality and the size of the spermatophore transferred to the female. The spermatophore is a capsule produced by the male during copulation, which in many species contains sperm in addition to a nuptial gift, and which is digested by the female after copulation. The nuptial gift may contribute to egg production and offspring quality, and in some cases also to female body maintenance. The production...

Data from: The local impact of macrofauna and land-use intensity on soil nutrient concentration and exchangeability in lowland tropical Peru

Cecilia A. L. Dahlsjö, Petr Stiblik, Jana Jaklová, Matěj Zídek, Juan Wicman Huaycama, Bohdan Lojka & Jakub Houška
Agricultural expansion is a major driver of deforestation which has negative consequences for biodiversity and stability. While sustainable farming is known to be beneficial for biodiversity and crop resilience, little is known about the impact of macrofauna and land-use intensity on soil quality. In this study, we examine the relative effects of (1) soil macrofauna and (2) land-use (primary forest, agroforestry, annual crop) on element depletion rates, concentration, and exchangeability in standardised soil. We used...

Data from: Contribution of European forests to safeguard wild honey bee populations

Fabrice Requier, Yoan Paillet, Fabien Laroche, Benjamin Rutschmann, Jie Zhang, Fabio Lombardi, Miroslav Svoboda & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Recent studies reveal the use of tree cavities by wild honey bee colonies in European forests. This highlights the conservation potential of forests for a highly threatened component of the native entomofauna in Europe, but currently no estimate of potential wild honey bee population sizes exists. Here, we analysed the tree cavity densities of 106 forest areas across Europe and inferred an expected population size of wild honey bees. Both forest and management types affected...

Comparative phylogeography reveals consistently shallow genetic diversity in a mitochondrial marker in Antarctic bdelloid rotifers

Diego Fontaneto, Zeyneb Vildan Cakil, Giuseppe Garlasché, Nataliia Iakovenko, Andrea Di Cesare, Ester M. Eckert, Roberto Guidetti, Lina Hamdan, Karel Janko, Dzmitry Lukashanets, Lorena Rebecchi, Stefano Schiaparelli, Tommaso Sforzi, Eva Štefková Kašparová, Alejandro Velasco-Castrillón & Elizabeth Walsh
Aim: The long history of isolation of the Antarctic continent, coupled with the harsh ecological conditions of freezing temperatures could affect the patterns of genetic diversity in the organisms living there. We aim (1) to test whether such pattern can be seen in a mitochondrial marker of bdelloid rotifers, a group of microscopic aquatic and limno-terrestrial animals, and (2) to speculate on the potential mechanisms driving the pattern. Location: focus on Antarctica. Taxon: Rotifera Bdelloidea....

Tree canopy accession strategy changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperate Northeast Asia

Jan Altman, Pavel Janda, Olga Ukhvatkina, Anna Vozmishcheva, Alexander Omelko, Jiří Doležal, Pavel Krestov, Alexander Zhmerenetsky & Jong-Suk Song
Aim: Understanding how natural forest disturbances control tree regeneration is key to predict the consequences of globally accelerating forest diebacks on carbon stocks and forest biodiversity. Tropical cyclones (TCs) are important drivers of forest dynamics in Eastern Asia and it is predicted that their importance will increase. However, little is known about TC impact on forest regeneration. Location: Latitudinal gradient from south Korea (33°N) to the Russian Far East (45°N). Time period: Last 300 years....

Assessing environmental DNA metabarcoding and camera trap surveys as complementary tools for biomonitoring of remote desert water bodies

Luca Fumagalli, Eduard Mas-Carrió, Judith Schneider, Battogtokh Nasanbat, Samiya Ravchig, Mmabaled Buxton, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Céline Stoffel, Claudio Augugliaro, Francisco Ceacero, Pierre Taberlet, Olivier Glaizot & Philippe Christe
Biodiversity assessments are indispensable tools for planning and monitoring conservation strategies. Camera traps (CT) are widely used to monitor wildlife and have proven their usefulness. Environmental DNA (eDNA)-based approaches are increasingly implemented for biomonitoring, combining sensitivity, high taxonomic coverage and resolution, non-invasiveness and easiness of sampling, but remain challenging for terrestrial fauna. However, in remote desert areas where scattered water bodies attract terrestrial species, which release their DNA into the water, this method presents a...

Longitudinal evidence for immunosenescence and inflammaging in free-living great tits

Martin Těšický, Tereza Krajzingrová, Zuzana Świderská, Kamila Syslová, Barbora Bílková, Jiří Eliáš, Hana Velová, Jana Svobodová, Petra Bauerová, Tomáš Albrecht & Vinkler Michal
The first-line effector mechanisms of immune defence, including inflammation and oxidative burst, contribute significantly to host-pathogen resistance. Whether these immune responses undergo age-related changes in birds remains unknown. Here, we tracked selected inflammatory parameters in 54 free-living great tits (Parus major) of known age, captured repeatedly over three consecutive years, with the aims to investigate long-term repeatability and age-dependent changes in cellular oxidative burst responsiveness upon in vitro stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and to...

Natural disturbance impacts on trade-offs and co-benefits of forest biodiversity and carbon

Martin Mikoláš, Marek Svitok, Radek Bače, Garrett Meigs, William Keeton, Heather Keith, Arne Buechling, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Kurt Bollmann, Krešimir Begovič, Vojtěch Čada, Oleh Chaskovskyy, Dheeraj Ralhan, Martin Dušátko, Matej Ferenčík, Michal Frankovič, Rhiannon Gloor, Jeňýk Hofmeister, Pavel Janda, Ondrej Kameniar, Daniel Kozák, Jana Lábusová, Linda Majdanová, Thomas Nagel, Jakob Pavlin … & Miroslav Svoboda
With accelerating environmental change, understanding the influence of forest disturbances and trade-offs between biodiversity and carbon dynamics is of high socio-economic importance. Most studies, however, have assessed immediate or short-term effects of disturbance, while long-term impacts remain poorly understood. Here, using a tree-ring-based approach, we modelled the effect of 250 years of disturbances on present-day biodiversity indicators and carbon dynamics in well-preserved European temperate primary forests. Our results indicated that disturbance legacies spanning centuries shaped...

Habitats as predictors in species distribution models: Shall we use continuous or binary data?

Lukáš Gábor, Petr Keil, Alejandra Zarzo-Arias, Charles Marsh, Petra Šímová, Duccio Rocchini, Marco Malavasi, Bartak & Vitezslav Moudry
The representation of a land cover type (i.e., habitat) within an area is often used as an explanatory variable in species distribution models. However, it is possible that a simple binary presence/absence of the suitable habitat might be the most important determinant of the presence/absence of some species and, thus, be a better predictor of species occurrence than the continuous parameter (area). We hypothesize that the binary predictor is more suitable for relatively rare habitats...

Data from: Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes

Guillaume Chapron, Petra Kaczensky, John D. C. Linnell, Manuela Von Arx, Djuro Huber, Henrik Andrén, José Vicente López-Bao, Michal Adamec, Francisco Álvares, Ole Anders, Linas Balčiauskas, Vaidas Balys, Péter Bedő, Ferdinand Bego, Juan Carlos Blanco, Urs Breitenmoser, Henrik Brøseth, Luděk Bufka, Raimonda Bunikyte, Paolo Ciucci, Alexander Dutsov, Thomas Engleder, Christian Fuxjäger, Claudio Groff, Katja Holmala … & Luigi Boitani
The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success...

Data from: Taxonomic revision of genus Ablattaria Reitter (Coleoptera, Silphidae) employing geometric morphometrics

Jarin Qubaiová, Jan Růžička & Hana Šípková
The genus Ablattaria Reitter, 1884 (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae) is revised. Four taxa are recognized as valid species: Ablattaria arenaria (Kraatz, 1876), A. cribrata (Ménétries, 1832), A. laevigata (Fabricius, 1775) and A. subtriangula Reitter, 1905. Ablattaria laevigata var. meridionalis Ganglbauer, 1899 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of A. laevigata. Lectotypes are designated for Phosphuga arenaria Kraatz, 1876, Ablattaria arenaria var. punctigera Reitter, 1884, Ablattaria arenaria var. alleoni Portevin, 1926, Silpha cribrata Ménétries, 1832,...

Data from: Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats

Janosch Sedlacek, Andrés J. Cortés, Julia Wheeler, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Jaroslav Klápště, Christian Lexer, Christian Rixen, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg & Mark Van Kleunen
Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers....

Data from: Higher genetic diversity in recolonized areas than in refugia of Alnus glutinosa triggered by continent-wide lineage admixture

Alena Havrdová, Jan Douda, Karol Krak, Petr Vít, Věroslava Hadincová, Petr Zákravský & Bohumil Mandák
Genetic admixture is supposed to be an important trigger of species expansions because it can create the potential for selection of genotypes suitable for new climatic conditions. Up until now, however, no continent-wide population genetic study has performed a detailed reconstruction of admixture events during natural species expansions. To fill this gap, we analysed the postglacial history of Alnus glutinosa, a keystone species of European swamp habitats, across its entire distribution range using two molecular...

Data from: Vertical root distribution of individual species in a mountain grassland community: does it respond to neighbours?

Tomas Herben, Tereza Vozábová, Věra Hadincová, František Krahulec, Hana Mayerová, Sylvie Pecháčková, Hana Skálová & Karol Krak
1.Vertical differentiation in root placement is one of the potential mechanisms of plant niche differentiation. It can be due to the remarkable plasticity of roots in response to nutrients and neighbours, but most data on it come from pot or garden experiments. The roles of vertical differentiation and of plasticity in it in the field are thus not well known. 2.We examined species-specific root vertical distribution in a montane grassland using quantitative Real-Time PCR. We...

Data from: The evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism is associated with increased body size plasticity in males

Patrick T. Rohner, Tiit Teder, Toomas Esperk, Stefan Lüpold & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
1.Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) can vary drastically across environments, demonstrating pronounced sex-specific plasticity. In insects, females are usually the larger and more plastic sex. However, the shortage of taxa with male-biased SSD hampers the assessment of whether the greater plasticity in females is driven by selection on size or represents an effect of the female reproductive role. Here we specifically address the role of sex-specific plasticity of body size in the evolution of SSD reversals...

Population history explains the performance of an annual herb - within and beyond its European species range

Jan Douda, Jana Doudová, Eva Hodková, Petr Vít, Karol Krak & Bohumil Mandák
1. The centre-periphery hypothesis (CPH) predicts a decrease in population performance from the centre of the species range towards the edge, hindering further species expansion. To overcome ecological limitation, local adaptation of peripheral populations is assumed necessary to extend niche space and thus to potentially facilitate species’ range expansion. However, adaptive changes do not necessarily correspond to current ecological marginality. Instead, population history may provide a fuller context for understanding patterns of local adaptation within...

Data from: Earthworms affect growth and competition between ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants

Jan Frouz, Jabbar Moradi, David Püschel & Jana Rydlová
Previous research showed that during intermediate stages of primary succession, when vegetation is dominated by ectomycorrhizal (EcM) shrubs and trees, site colonization by earthworms substantially alters plant communities. Research has also shown that EcM shrubs and trees suppress arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants in the understory. To determine whether earthworm activity reduces this asymmetric competition, we conducted a full factorial laboratory experiment in which we grew EcM Betula pendula and AM Tripleurospermum inodorum, together or apart,...

Mind the outgroup and bare branches in total-evidence dating: a case study of Pimpliform Darwin Wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae)

Tamara Spasojevic, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Masato Ito, Stanislav Korenko, Seraina Klopfstein, Gavin R. Broad & Martin Schwarz
Taxon sampling is a central aspect of phylogenetic study design, but it has received limited attention in the context of total-evidence dating, a widely used dating approach that directly integrates molecular and morphological information from extant and fossil taxa. We here assess the impact of commonly employed outgroup sampling schemes and missing morphological data in extant taxa on age estimates in a total-evidence dating analysis under the uniform tree prior. Our study group is Pimpliformes,...

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

Termite dispersal is influenced by their diet

Simon Hellemans, Jan Šobotník, Gilles Lepoint, Martin Mihaljevič, Yves Roisin & Thomas Bourguignon
Termites feed on vegetal matter at various stages of decomposition. Lineages of wood- and soil-feeding termites are distributed across terrestrial ecosystems located between 45°N and 45°S of latitude, a distribution they acquired through many transoceanic dispersal events. While wood-feeding termites often live in the wood on which they feed and are efficient at dispersing across oceans by rafting, soil-feeders are believed to be poor dispersers. Therefore, their distribution across multiple continents requires an explanation. Here,...

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