16,163 Works

Data from: How can we get close to zero?: the potential contribution of biomedical prevention and the investment framework towards an effective response to HIV

John G. Stover, Timothy B. Hallett, Zunyou Wu, Mitchell Warren, Chaitra Gopalappa, Carel Pretorius, Peter D. Ghys, Julio Montaner, Bernhard Schwartländer & John Stover
Background: In 2011 an Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half. However, it also estimated a leveling in the number of new infections at about 1 million annually after 2015....

Data from: Is HIV short-sighted? Insights from a multistrain nested model

Katrina Abigail Lythgoe, Lorenzo Pellis & Christophe Fraser
An important component of pathogen evolution at the population level is evolution within hosts. Unless evolution within hosts is very slow compared to the duration of infection, the composition of pathogen genotypes within a host is likely to change during the course of an infection, thus altering the composition of genotypes available for transmission as infection progresses. We develop a nested modeling approach that allows us to follow the evolution of pathogens at the epidemiological...

Data from: A comparative analysis of the mechanisms underlying speciation on Lord Howe Island

Alexander S. T. Papadopulos, Zuzana Price, Celine Devaux, Helen Hipperson, Carole M. Smadja, Ian Hutton, William J. Baker, Roger K. Butlin & Vincent Savolainen
On Lord Howe Island, speciation is thought to have taken place in situ in a diverse array of distantly related plant taxa (Metrosideros, Howea and Coprosma; Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 2011, 13188). We now investigate whether the speciation processes were driven by divergent natural selection in each genus by examining the extent of ecological and genetic divergence. We present new and extensive, ecological and genetic data for all three genera. Consistent with ecologically...

Microstructure control in Ti-6246

Abigail Ackerman
Titanium alloys are widely used in gas turbine engines due to their high specific fatigue strength and ability to retain that strength up to temperatures in the range of 600°C. The alloy Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo is used in the intermediate pressure compressor of the gas turbine engine, with a yield strength of around 1.1GPa. It has a microstructure of primary α laths within a β matrix. Between the primary α are much finer secondary α laths, creating...

On tilts of certain infinite level shimura varieties

Raffael Singer
Scholze's Siegel modular varieties $\cX_{\Gamma(p^\infty)}$ over a mixed characteristic perfectoid field are known to be perfectoid, yet their tilt remains somewhat elusive. We give two different methods to describe the tilt of spaces related to $\cX_{\Gamma(p^\infty)}$. The first, following an idea of Lurie, uses Drinfeld level structures to construct integral perfectoid models of infinite level Shimura curves. For the second method we show how to recover the Tate module of the universal family of abelian...

Efficient numerical modelling of the ultrasonic scattering from complex surface-breaking defects

Richard Phillips
Ultrasonic testing is routinely used in the nuclear power generation industry to assess the structural integrity of plant components. The regulatory nature of the industry means that ultrasonic inspection procedures require substantiation through experimental trials and semi-analytical simulation, which can be costly and time-consuming. Furthermore, due to the complex defect and component geometries that are commonly encountered in the industry, the generation of evidence that accurately represents real inspections can be challenging. Numerical modelling techniques...

The impact of human immunodeficiency virus-1 viral replicative capacity on infection of human cervical and rectal tissue explants ex vivo

Robert Kipyegon Langat
Characterization of the targets and kinetics of HIV infection within rectal and genital tissues is central to the assessment of novel prevention agents. The ex vivo models available are helpful for studying the initial stages of HIV‐1 infection, such as defining the primary HIV target cells and the factors that influence viral replication kinetics. Five HIV-1 clade C, 1 clade A and 1 clade A/D HIV-1 TF variants were isolated from IAVI Protocol C; a...

Organic Esters for detailed NMR Analysis

Henry Rzepa
1H NMR Spectra

Elastic wave propagation in polycrystals

Ming Huang
Scattering occurs as elastic waves propagate through a random polycrystalline medium, exhibiting scattering-induced attenuation and velocity dispersion. These behaviours carry bulk information about microstructure and can therefore be used for microstructure characterisation. The purpose of this thesis is to gain knowledge about the behaviour of elastic waves in polycrystals in order to facilitate the characterisation of microstructure. This thesis contributes mainly in six aspects. First, a theoretical second-order approximation (SOA) model is developed to calculate...

Cumyl ethyl malonate

Henry Rzepa
Ethyl malonyl chloride (234mg, 1.56mmole) was added in one go to a stirred solution of cumyl acohol (227mg, 1.67mmole) and N,N-dimethylaniline (164mg, 1.36mmole) in diethyl ether (2ml). The reaction was exothermic and the mixture went cloudy. After stirring at room temperature over the weekend, the supernatant of the reaction was applied to a column of silica gel and the product eluted with hexane : ethyl acetate (5 : 1) as a sweet-smelling, colourless oil (248mg).

Laser-based measurements of liquid-liquid mixing in horizontal pipes by transverse jets

Stuart Fraser Wright
Low pipeline velocities lead to stratification of liquid-liquid flows, resulting in phase slip where the in situ phase fractions differ from the input fractions. This prevents samples being obtained that are representative of these flow’s phase fractions, and thus, mixing is used to overcome stratification. This work investigates pipeline jet mixers, obtaining measurements for comparison with theory. A review of jets for mixing is presented which establishes that few studies have been published on liquid-liquid...

Effects of strain-rate and temperature on ductile damage and Fracture of metallic materials

Alexander Sancho Garcia
Ductile damage appears in metallic materials when they undergo sufficiently high plastic strain. It is caused by voids and produces degradation on the mechanical properties that eventually leads to the ductile fracture of the material. Like other properties, this behaviour is affected by the temperature and velocity of material deformation. This thesis investigates the effects that temperature and strain-rate have on ductile damage from an experimental and a modelling point of view, and explores innovative...

Multiple poles of the motivic zeta functions and the monodromy property

Luigi Lunardon
This thesis summarizes the results of my research during the years of my Ph. D. at Imperial College London. I was mostly concerned with questions involving the motivic zeta function for degenerating Calabi-Yau varieties and the monodromy properties for these degenerations; in parallel to this research, I had a small side project on simplicial contractions. The first question we investigated is related to the monodromy property for K3 surfaces which admits triple-points-free models. These Calabi-Yau...

Optimising synthetic biosynthesis of natural products by yeast genome engineering

Glen Oliver Gowers
The sustainable manufacturing of products is a cornerstone of society’s move towards a sustainable circular economy. Many industrial specialty and bulk chemicals that are normally derived from fossil fuel can also be made by engineering microbes with biosynthetic pathways. However, augmenting these microbes to reach industrial scale remains a bottleneck in adoption of biological manufacturing practices. Many new synthetic biology tools are being developed to address this bottleneck, leveraging the application of engineering principles to...

Fe(+)C trigonal, quad pinned back, quad

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

Advances in network visualisation with an application to serious games

Jonathan Xiang-Sheng Zheng
This thesis concerns the visualisation of networks, through an in-depth study into the node-link diagram representation. Three subtopics are explored within this space. The first is the problem of node layout, where the optimisation of a popular energy function, known as stress, is improved through an algorithm known as stochastic gradient descent. The second is the method of edge bundling, where the idea of hierarchical edge bundling is explored in the absence of a known...

IDOZOQ, NBO = triple 1-105

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

TISQOE Re-O(+)

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

TISQOE Re-O(+)

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

TISQOE W-O

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

TISQOE Os-O(2+)

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

MPV 1, b3lyp+GD3BJ/Def2-SVPP, SCRF=THF, reactant t-butyl, , G = -1712.715051

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

MPV 1, b3lyp+GD3BJ/Def2-SVPP, SCRF=THF, reactant perfluoro-t-butyl, G = -2605.305170

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

MPV 1, b3lyp+GD3BJ/3-21G, SCRF=THF, TS, G = -1548.478051 (epimer, G = -1548.473944, DG = 2.6)

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

GAJXOH, Molybdenum

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

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