20,665 Works

Structural insights into host cell adhesion by Toxoplasma gondii MIC4

Ben Cowper
Toxoplasma gondii is a highly pervasive protozoan parasite, capable of infecting almost all mammals, including humans. Infection can have fatal consequences for immuno-suppressed individuals, whilst transmission to a developing fetus can induce a spontaneous abortion in pregnant females. T. gondii is perceived to be a model organism in the study of its phylum, Apicomplexa, which includes the Plasmodium species which cause malaria. Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites, in which a strong host cell attachment is...

Capillary Zone Electrophoresis–Based Protein Size Determination and Development of an Offline CZE/EVV-2DIR Interface Platform for Proteome-on-Chip Applications

Christian B Loeffeld
The development of an offline interface platform for continuous fraction collection from capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is presented. The platform is specified for Proteome-On-Chip applications that employ the protein quantification and differentiation technology Electron-Vibration-Vibration Two-Dimensional Infrared (EVV-2DIR) spectroscopy as the primary protein analysis tool. It is demonstrated that the interface platform facilitates preservation of an initial CZE separation effort and enables generation of single and multi-component tracks that are accessible to examination using EVV-2DIR spectroscopy...

A systems-based bottom-up mathematical modelling framework for investigating the effect of drugs on solid tumours

Cong Liu
Understanding the effect of drugs on solid tumours presents a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the blood flow and drug transport, as well as the highly complex biochemical networks involved in the cellular response with characteristics of high non-linearity of signal transduction. It is imperative to develop a bottom-up systematic computational framework that is able to disentangle the multiple layers of complexity, to present mechanistic and predictive descriptions of drug effect on...

Source assessment of metals for catchment management under the EU Water Framework Directive

Ho-SIk Chon
The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) (WFD), enacted to monitor and recover the quality of water bodies, is a good example of catchment management requiring a wider scope of understanding with regard to the chemical, ecological and quantitative status of river catchments. It has caused water management to shift from a local to a river basin scale and therefore requires a better understanding of emission sources of dangerous substances and their contribution...

Partial Oxidative Cracking of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds under Supercritical Water Conditions for Heavy Hydrocarbons Upgrading

Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad Daud
Heavy hydrocarbon upgrading is attracting more interest amidst growing supply of heavier crudes. These materials, often distinguished by high aromatic and asphaltene contents generate larger volumes of residue upon processing. The present study investigates the potential of partial oxidative cracking in water as an alternative to the conventional thermal cracking or hydrocracking upgrading routes. Sub and supercritical water partial oxidative cracking experiments have been carried out in a batch micro-bomb reactor using model compounds of...

On The Black Hole / Qubit Correspondence

William Rubens
We present the evidence for and intriguing black hole / qubit correspondence. This correspondence will map the entanglement classification of three and four qubits over to the BPS and extremal classification of black holes in the STU model. We will start by looking at BPS black holes and use a variety of means to classify them and calculate their orbits. We will discover that three qubits, or more accurately, three real qubits will exhibit exactly...

Theoretical and Experimental Constraints on Modified Gravity

Ali Mozaffari
In this thesis, we consider techniques to characterise a Solar System test for modified gravity theories with an inherent preferred acceleration scale (reducing to MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) in its non-relativistic limit). We further explore the use of measurements from the forthcoming LISA Pathfinder mission to test these theories. Employing gravitational wave techniques such as the expected signal-to-noise ratio as well as considering effects from a variety of instrumental noise models, saddle trajectories and systematics...

Numerical general relativity in exotic settings

Alexander Adam
In this thesis, we discuss applications of numerical relativity in a variety of complex settings. After introducing aspects of black hole physics, extra dimensions, holography, and Einstein-Aether theory we discuss how one can frame the problem of solving the static Einstein equations as an elliptic boundary value problem by inclusion of a DeTurck gauge fixing term. Having setup this background, we turn to our simplest application of numerical relativity, namely fractionalisation in holographic condensed matter....

Solid oxide fuel cell microstructure and performance modeling

Khalil Rhazaoui
The fundamental operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) relies on the liberation of electrons at reaction sites within porous electrodes. These reaction sites, or triple-phase boundary (TPB) points, must be percolated to allow for reactants and products to flow to and from these sites. Due to the fact that electrochemical reactions in composite electrodes are dependent on the presence of TPB sites, a direct link exists between SOFC electrode microstructures and electrochemical performance. Recently,...

A study of virulence mechanisms by highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in the avian host

Jason Long
The study of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) seeks to understand the pathogenic nature of these viruses. Belonging to the H5 or H7 subtype, HPAI causes significant economic loss in poultry and in recent years has also led to die offs in wild birds. In addition, the zoonotic nature of H5N1 has caused human infection associated with high mortality, although these viruses have not yet evolved to cause a pandemic. Mechanisms of virulence by HPAI...

Perspectives on the role of bioenergy for distributed heat and power generation

Antonio Marco Pantaleo
The thesis assesses the potential of bioenergy to serve the heat and power demands through a series of case studies in bioenergy systems modelling, and proposing a holistic approach to draw general conclusions about the drivers, threats and trends of bioenergy for stationary applicatons. The overarching aim is the assessment of the key factors for the penetration of bioenergy into energy systems, with a specific focus on urban areas. For this purpose, a generic framework...

Oxidation and oxygen transport in a commercial polycrystalline Ni-based superalloy under static and loading conditions

Benjamin Foss
The current demands of the aviation industry for increased gas-turbine efficiency pushes polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy turbine discs to their operational limits. This drive for improved efficiency necessitates higher turbine entry temperatures, requiring that alloys exhibit superior oxidation resistance. The synergistic effects of oxidation and high mechanical stresses pose a complex issue and can be responsible for a reduction in the fatigue life of these components. The principal aim of this thesis is to examine the...

Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Grassland Ecosystems

Mark Lee
Grassland ecosystems extend across a substantial area of the world’s surface, providing many valuable ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, biodiversity preservation and food provision. Global and local environmental changes are anticipated in the future, including shifts in climatic conditions and changes to the composition of the atmosphere. This thesis adds to our understanding of how grassland communities respond to air pollution and climate change using two key methodologies. Firstly, a suite of environmental variables were...

Dispersal and the distributions of mammals: moving towards improved predictions

Sarah Louise Whitmee
Climate change is predicted to become a major cause of species loss in the coming century. Shifts in distribution as a response to changing conditions have already been observed for many terrestrial organisms. A species’ capacity to respond to climate change will depend greatly on its ability to track suitable conditions; those unable to track optimum conditions will be under increased threat of local extinction. There is, therefore, a need to include dispersal parameters in...

Presenting academic research in an exhibition: the case of the Portsmouth Block Mills

Maria Katariina Mauranen
This dissertation is based on a poster exhibition of the Portsmouth Block Mills, a steampowered workshop at Portsmouth Naval Dockyard, designed to produce the wooden pulley blocks used to manage a sailing ship’s rigging. The exhibition is presented as a kind of experiment, intended to discover whether academic history can be communicated to a wide audience in a museum environment. In designing the exhibition I drew upon a range of academic literature. The key aim...

Imaging Molecular Recognition by the Inhibitory Human Natural Killer Cell Receptor KIR2DL1

Sophie Victoria Pageon
Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that identify and kill virus-infected and tumour cells dependent on recognition via numerous activating and inhibitory surface receptors. The mechanisms by which NK cells can integrate activating and inhibitory signals at the immune synapse remain unclear, although a correlation has been established between a cell’s response and the organisation of receptors into specific molecular patterns at the synapse. Here, I used three novel imaging techniques to investigate the spatial...

Applications of almgren-pitts min-max theory

Nicolau Sarquis Aiex Marini Ferreira
We develop an application of Almgren-Pitts min-max theory to the study of minimal hypersurfaces in dimension 3 ≤ m + 1 ≤ 7 as well as computing the k-width of the round 2-sphere for k = 1,...,8. We show that the space of minimal hypersurfaces is non-compact for an analytic metric of positive curvature and construct a min-max unstable closed geodesic in S^2 with multiplicity 2.

The role of miRNA deregulation in non-genotoxic chemical induced carcinogenesis

Mariana Flores Torres
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-protein coding RNAs. These small-RNAs can regulate gene expression by either inhibiting translation or promoting mRNA degradation, they are also involved in diverse physiological and pathological events. Previous data from our group, showed that phenobarbital (PB, a CAR activator), induces dysregulation of the hepatic miRNAome in rat livers. In this study, we aim to determine if non-genotoxic rodent carcinogens can deregulate miRNA expression. Thus, the liver miRNAome associated with a novel...

Modelling the contribution of hormonal and inflammatory pathways to term and preterm labour in the mouse

Roberta Migale
Labour onset results from a complex interplay between hormonal and inflammatory signals. Untimely activation of these pathways can cause preterm labour (PTL) and premature birth (<37 weeks of gestation), the primary cause of infant mortality. Throughout gestation, uterine quiescence is maintained by progesterone and its withdrawal at term induces pro-labour genes and activation of uterine contractions. Infection and inflammation are frequently associated with PTL. Recognition of bacteria by the maternal innate immune system involves activation...

Control theory for infinite dimensional dynamical systems and applications to falling liquid film flows

Susana Noronha Moreira Antunes Gomes
In this thesis, we study the problem of controlling the solutions of various nonlinear PDE models that describe the evolution of the free interface in thin liquid films flowing down inclined planes. We propose a control methodology based on linear feedback controls, which are proportional to the deviation between the current state of the system and a prescribed desired state. We first derive the controls for weakly nonlinear models such as the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation and...

Control of Membrane Excitability by Potassium and Chloride Leak Conductances

Georgina Louise MacKenzie
The permeability of the neuronal membrane to different ions determines both resting membrane potential (RMP) and input conductance. These parameters determine the cells response to synaptic input. In this thesis I have examined how the molecular properties of potassium and chloride ion channels can influence neuronal excitability in ways that have not previously been considered. For example, two‐pore domain potassium (K2P) channels open at rest to generate a persistent potassium ion efflux. In addition to...

Dynamic Modelling of Irregular Times, Prices and Volumes at High Frequencies

Nikhil Shenai
This thesis undertakes an investigation into time series at high frequency. The three main channels of information in high frequency data - irregular time intervals (durations), prices and volumes - are all explored and modelled to improve current understanding, while accounting for the long memory property, a crucial stylised fact found in the literature. In doing so, we make use of the theory of point processes, econometric techniques such as Whittle estimation and Kalman Filter...

Patent Foramen Ovale in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Zarrin F Shaikh
The objective of this thesis was to determine the impact of right to left shunting (RLS) through patent foramen ovale (PFO) on oxygen saturation in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The first aim was to determine the prevalence of PFO in severe OSA and whether PFO closure improves nocturnal oxygen saturation. The data showed that PFO with large shunts were more prevalent, however overall prevalence was not statistically different when...

Surface analysis of simulant UK high level waste glass

Nor Ezzaty Ahmad
Simulated waste glasses which were 25 wt% Magnox glass, 36 wt% Magnox glass and International Simple Glass (ISG) were subjected to aqueous corrosion in static mode with deionised water at 90 °C for 7 to 28 days. Magnox glass is Mg- and Al- rich while ISG has only 6 components but no Mg in the composition. These glasses were assessed before and after corrosion using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy X-Ray...

An executable formal semantics of PHP with applications to program analysis

Daniele Filaretti
Nowadays, many important activities in our lives involve the web. However, the software and protocols on which web applications are based were not designed with the appropriate level of security in mind. Many web applications have reached a level of complexity for which testing, code reviews and human inspection are no longer sufficient quality-assurance guarantees. Tools that employ static analysis techniques are needed in order to explore all possible execution paths through an application and...

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