20,427 Works

Prestressed cold-formed steel beams

Nicolaos Hadjipantelis
A novel concept, whereby prestressing techniques are utilised to enhance the load-carrying capacity and serviceability performance of cold-formed steel beams, is proposed. The prestressing is applied by means of a high-strength steel cable located within the bottom hollow flange of the cold-formed steel beam at an eccentric location with respect to its strong geometric axis. Since the initial stresses generated by the prestressing are opposite in sign to those induced during the subsequent imposed vertical...

Spatially-resolved and temporally-explicit global wind energy potentials as inputs to assessment models

Jonathan Bosch
Several decarbonisation scenarios indicate that renewable energy will be a key supply route to mitigate carbon emissions this century. To better represent the implications of such an energy transition, it is important that energy systems models (ESMs) can realistically characterise the technical and economic potential of renewable energy resources. This thesis presents a temporally-explicit and geospatially-resolved methodology for estimating the global wind energy potential, i.e. the annual terawatt-hour (TWh/yr) production potential of wind farms, assuming...

GPU-accelerated wavelet transforms for the analysis of high frequency data

Julian Mark Waton
This thesis describes new methodologies for wavelet analysis of high frequency data, and presents fast, GPU-accelerated implementations in a new R package, WaveCUDA. We address two main features of high frequency data, namely their large size and also the irregular spacing of their time values. To deal with the size issue, we provide an R package with new parallel algorithms to perform wavelet transforms with the Lifting Scheme. We factorise the Coiflet 6 and Least...

Micromanipulator on the tip of a fibre: fabrication and analysis

Maura Power
The development of microrobots is motivated by their potential to enable therapies and procedures that are currently not possible. Miniaturising conventional robot designs to micro-scales, however, is not feasible due to scaling laws and the difficulties in fabrication and assembly. MEMS (Microelectromechanical System) fabrication techniques are the gold standard for devices such as microgrippers, although they are rarely intended for in vivo applications due to constraints on their form-factor. A common embodiment of medical microrobots...

Temperatures and composition of cratonic lithosphere from seismic velocity and heat flow modelling

Thomas Christian Eeken
The cause of the stability of cratons, the old cores of continents, is still an enigma. Seismic studies have found that velocities within the cratonic lithosphere are quite variable laterally and in depth. Understanding the nature of this variability may provide information on how cratons are formed and stabilised. In this thesis, I perform a search of plausible thermal and compositional structures of cratonic lithosphere based on heat flow and xenolith constraints to model (using...

Multi-level optimisation models for transmission expansion planning under uncertainty

Alexandre Moreira Da Silva
The significant integration of renewable energy sources to electricity grids poses unprecedented challenges to power systems planning. Each of these challenges is implied by a particular circumstance faced by the system planner when devising the expansion plan, which should be tailored to address the needs and objectives of the system under consideration. Within this context, this thesis is dedicated to propose methodologies to address three timely situations that may arise when planning the expansion of...

The conservation of doped-fabric aircraft at the Science Museum, London

Benjamin Matthew Regel
The aim of this research is to improve the approaches used in the conservation of tears in doped-fabric skins of historic aircraft. Conservation at the Science Museum in London has been based upon traditional methods of repair, adhering a fabric patch with several coats of a chemical compound called ‘dope’ over torn areas. This dope is not only an adhesive, but also causes the patch to shrink and thus re-stretch the doped-fabric around the tear,...

Regulation of a biennial host plant population by an autoecious, demicyclic rust fungus: Puccinia hysterium on Tragopogon pratensis in the Park Grass Experiment

Nabeil Khairy Gad Salama
Models developed in continuous-time have been used to study the epidemiology and population dynamics of plant hosts, usually in cultivated systems. Here discrete-time SIR–type models are developed which contain parameters representing characteristics of an uncultivated, biennial host plant – systemic, castrating pathogen system. This thesis presents 4 epidemiological model forms representing a generic SIR model, a constant pathogen-induced mortality model, a variable pathogen-induced mortality model, and a model which has an additional phase representing a...

The control of mRNA deadenylation by MAPKAP kinase 2 and tristetraprolin

Francesco Paolo Marchese
The abundance of a given mRNA is a function of its rates of synthesis and degradation. The regulation of mRNA stability is therefore an important means of modulating gene expression. Control of mRNA stability is mediated by cisacting sequences within 5’ or 3’ untranslated regions (UTR), such as adenosine/uridine-rich elements (ARE) contained in the 3’ UTRs of many inflammatory mediator mRNAs, and by the action of trans-acting RNA-binding factors that interact with these cis-acting elements....

Modified poly-y-glutamic acid scaffolds for tissue engineering

Jessica Rose May
The PhD thesis concerns the development of scaffolds inspired by biology for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. This was accomplished by chemical modification of poly- DLy-glutamic acid (y-PGA) to reduce its water solubility for use in regenerative medicine applications. A series of water-insoluble modified y-PGA polymers were synthesised, yielding materials with varying hydrophilicity and dissolution rates. All polymers were fully characterised using techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, size-exclusion chromatography, wide-angle x-ray scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform...

Methodological and empirical challenges in modelling residential location choices

Alireza Zolfaghari
The modelling of residential locations is a key element in land use and transport planning. There are significant empirical and methodological challenges inherent in such modelling, however, despite recent advances both in the availability of spatial datasets and in computational and choice modelling techniques. One of the most important of these challenges concerns spatial aggregation. The housing market is characterised by the fact that it offers spatially and functionally heterogeneous products; as a result, if...

Molecular vibrations and chemical reactivity in complex environments

Lee Michael Thompson
In this thesis the hybrid method ONIOM is applied to computing the reaction pathways and vibrational modes of molecules embedded within complex environments. ONIOM combines different levels of theory in order to treat the most chemically important regions of the molecule at a sufficiently high level of theory, while simultaneously including the steric and electronic effects of the remainder of the molecule such that the calculation remains affordable. Normal mode analysis also allows characterisation of...

Resolving Inflammation after Stroke through Modulation of Formyl Peptide Receptor 2/The Lipoxin Receptor

Helen Katherine Smith
Stroke kills 15 million people a year and causes disabilities in many more millions who survive. Most strokes are caused by a blood clot, yet only seven percent of patients qualify for early pharmacological clot removal. Damage is frequently exacerbated even as blood reperfuses an ischaemic brain region, through a concomitant inflammatory response to the damaged tissue. Following the continual failure in clinical trials of drugs intended to tackle both initial excitotoxic cell death and...

Synthesis and properties of high porosity macroporous polymer beads as delivery vehicles for crush release

Dan Cegla
The work reported in this thesis was part of the larger EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) and dstl (Defence Science and Technology Laboratory) funded project called CRASHCOMPS with the main aim to establish approaches for crack arrest and self healing in composites. The aim of this subproject was to produce macroporous polymer beads with either open pore or closed-cell structures, which can be utilised as delivery vehicles for crush-release of self-healing agents but...

Remote sensing methods for biodiversity monitoring with emphasis on vegetation height estimation and habitat classification

Zisis Petrou
Biodiversity is a principal factor for ecosystem stability and functioning, and the need for its protection has been identified as imperative globally. Remote sensing can contribute to timely and accurate monitoring of various elements related to biodiversity, but knowledge gap with user communities hinders its widespread operational use. This study advances biodiversity monitoring through earth observation data by initially identifying, reviewing, and proposing state-of-the-art remote sensing methods which can be used for the extraction of...

Interfacial fluid dynamics in the presence of electric fields

Alex Wray
Thin film flows are of central importance to a variety of industrial and scientific processes such as heat and mass transfer, micro- and nanotechnological settings such a lab-on-a-chip devices, and geophysical flows. Understanding their behaviour is thus of central importance. While they have been subjected to a great deal of analysis, there are still regimes in which this behaviour is only partially understood, especially in highly nonlinear free surface flows, and particularly in the presence...

Active and Merging Galaxies

Caroline Scott
Galaxy close pairs are studied to investigate the effects of gravitational interactions on star formation and black hole accretion processes in merger progenitors. We derive star formation rates from near-ultraviolet luminosities; this is a new method for studying mergers and provides unique insight into recent star formation rates. A range of progenitor masses are considered, as well as the separation between merging galaxies and the environment they inhabit. Star formation enhancements in major versus minor...

A personalised and adaptive insulin dosing decision support system for type 1 diabetes

Peter Pesl
People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) rely on exogenous insulin to maintain stable glucose levels. Despite the advent of diabetes technologies such as continuous glucose monitors and insulin infusion pumps, the majority of people with T1D do not manage to bring back glucose levels into a healthy target after meals. In addition to patient compliance, this is due to the complexity of the decision-making on how much insulin is required. Commercial insulin bolus calculators exist...

Generation and characterisation of anti-dengue monoclonal antibodies in a case of severe primary dengue infection

Catherine Roberts
Introduction Dengue is one of the most important emerging infections with 50% of the world’s population living in dengue endemic countries. The clinical spectrum of disease can range from asymptomatic to a severe haemorrhagic illness. Those with secondary infection with a second serotype are most at risk of severe disease. This has lead to the theory that a primed immune response ineffectively clears a secondary infection and enhances infection. Teasing out immunology to dengue has...

The role of the Toll-like receptors in systemic inflammatory response to cardiac surgery

Hatam Naase
Background: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can lead to a spectrum of post-operative complications as a result of activation of systemic inflammatory responses. Cellular injury can lead to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as mitochondria DNA (mtDNA), which act as a ligand activating leukocytes and endothelial cells via innate immunity receptors such as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). However, the contributions of DAMPs to inflammatory responses to CPB are unknown. Aim: This...

Cosmochemistry of iron meteorites; trace element composition of metal and sulfide phases

Marlene Leclerc
Trace elements composition of the metal and sulfide phases in iron meteorites have been studied in 42 iron meteorites and 2 pallasites. 19 iron meteorites thick sections containing sulfide inclusions have been mapped and their mineralogy, tex- ture and major and minor element compositions analyzed by SEM and EPMA and their trace elements composition measured using LA-ICP-MS. A highly homoge- neous fragment of Cape York troilite has been found suitable to be used as a...

New ultimetallic assemblies as photoluminescent materials

Andre Duerrbeck
During the last few decades significant progress has been made in the area of supramolecular polymers, where monomers are held together by non-covalent interactions. In particular, the formation of macromolecular assemblies by employing a metal-ion induced self-assembly process in solution is of significant interest. These supramolecular metallo-polymers combine common features of traditional covalently-bound polymers with the unique characteristics introduced by metal ions. So far, the research in this area has mainly focused on the metal-induced...

Tobacco shoot regeneration from calli in temporary immersion culture for biosynthesis of heterologous biopharmaceuticals

Sherwin Savio Barretto
‘Molecular farming’, the use of transgenic plants to produce biopharmaceutical proteins is emerging as a new biotechnological paradigm. Transgenic plants offer several advantages over conventional microbial and mammalian cell host technologies. In particular, transplastomic plants, with transformed plastid genomes, are capable of massive expression of foreign proteins and represent a promising platform for biopharmaceutical synthesis. The main theme of this PhD thesis is the investigation of in vitro regeneration of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) shoots from...

Functionalised silica nanoparticles for biomedical imaging

Sarah Jane Percival
Magnetic resonance imaging is one of the most widely used diagnostic techniques in the clinic as it affords many of the attributes sought from a non-invasive imaging modality. The main limitation of MRI is its inherent insensitivity, and as a result only large-scale abnormalities can be detected from a scan. With an increasing demand for earlier cancer diagnosis there has been a move towards imaging the molecular biomarkers that are present from the beginning of...

All-scale structural analysis of biomolecules through dynamical graph partitioning

Antoine Pierre Valere Delmotte
From femtosecond bond vibrations to millisecond domain motions, the dynamics of biomolecules spans a wide range of time and length scales. This hierarchy of overlapping scales links the molecular and biophysical details to key aspects of their functionality. However, the span of scales combined with their intricate coupling rapidly drives atomic simulation methods to their limits, thereby often resulting in the need for coarse-graining techniques which cannot take full account of the biochemical details. To...

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