2,544 Works

The direct and indirect effects of environmental toxicants on the health of bumble bees and their microbiomes

Jason Rothman, Kaleigh Russell, Laura Leger, Quinn McFredderick & Peter Graystock
Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important and widespread insect pollinators, but the act of foraging on flowers can expose them to harmful pesticides and chemicals such as oxidizers and heavy metals. How these compounds directly influence bee survival and indirectly affect bee health via the gut microbiome is largely unknown. As toxicants in floral nectar and pollen take many forms, we explored the genomes of bee-associated microbes for their potential to detoxify cadmium, copper, selenate,...

The Horizon 2020 Project SURE: Deliverable 7.1 - Report on Water Jet Drilling Modelling

Jiansheng Xiang, Bin Chen, John-Paul Latham & Ado Farsi
The aim of this research is to investigate the failure mechanism for different types of rock in the context of water jet drilling and to predict the jet-ability or assess the radial jet drilling (RJD) performance prior to drilling and at the well petrophysical analysis stage. The main approach is to numerically simulate the water jet drilling for different types of rock using ICL’s in-house fluid-solid coupling codes. The rock properties, CT-scan data and jetting...

A large-scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human-modified Amazonian forests

Joseph Hawes, Ima Vieira, Luiz Magnago, Erika Berenguer, Joice Ferreira, Luiz Aragão, Amanda Cardoso, Alexander Lees, Gareth Lennox, Joseph Tobias, Anthony Waldron & Jos Barlow
1. Quantifying the impact of habitat disturbance on ecosystem function is critical for understanding and predicting the future of tropical forests. Many studies have examined post-disturbance changes in animal traits related to mutualistic interactions with plants, but the effect of disturbance on plant traits in diverse forests has received much less attention. 2. Focusing on two study regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, we used a trait-based approach to examine how seed dispersal functionality within...

Data from: Sleep, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer’s disease: a Mendelian randomisation study

Jian Huang, Verena Zuber, Paul Matthews, Paul Elliott, Joanna Tzoulaki & Abbas Dehghan
Objective To explore the causal relationships between sleep, major depressive disorder (MDD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods We conducted bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses. Genetic associations were obtained from the largest genome-wide association studies currently available in UK Biobank (N=446,118), the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (N=18,759), and the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project (N=63,926). We used the inverse variance weighted Mendelian randomisation method to estimate the causal effects, and the weighted median and MR-Egger for sensitivity...

Data from: Adaptive estimation for epidemic renewal and phylogenetic skyline models

Kris Varun Parag & Christl Ann Donnelly
Estimating temporal changes in a target population from phylogenetic or count data is an important problem in ecology and epidemiology. Reliable estimates can provide key insights into the climatic and biological drivers influencing the diversity or structure of that population and evidence hypotheses concerning its future growth or decline. In infectious disease applications, the individuals infected across an epidemic form the target population. The renewal model estimates the effective reproduction number, R, of the epidemic...

Insecticide exposure during brood or early-adult development reduces brain growth and impairs adult learning in bumblebees

Richard Gill, Dylan Bob Smith, Andres Arce, Ana Ramos Rodrigues, Philipp Bischoff, Daisy Burris & Farah Ahmed
For social bees, an understudied step in evaluating pesticide risk is how contaminated food entering colonies affects residing offspring development and maturation. For instance, neurotoxic insecticide compounds in food could affect central nervous system development predisposing individuals to become poorer task performers later-in-life. Studying bumblebee colonies provisioned with neonicotinoid spiked nectar substitute, we measured brain volume and learning behaviour of 3 or 12-day old adults that had experienced in-hive exposure during brood and/or early-stage adult...

Data from: Climate oscillation and alien species invasion influences oceanic seabird distribution

Julian Perez-Correa, Peter Carr, Jessica Meeuwig, Heather Koldewey & Tom B. Letessier
Spatial and temporal distribution of seabird transiting and foraging at sea is an important consideration for marine conservation planning. Using at-sea observations of seabirds (n = 317), collected during the breeding season from 2012 to 2016, we built boosted regression tree (BRT) models to identify relationships between numerically dominant seabird species (red-footed booby, brown noddy, white tern and wedge-tailed shearwater), geomorphology, oceanographic variability, and climate oscillation in the Chagos Archipelago. We documented positive relationships between...

Data from: Evolution and epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil

Darlan S. Candido, Ingra M. Claro, Jaqueline G. De Jesus, William M. Souza, Filipe R. R. Moreira, Simon Dellicour, Thomas A. Mellan, Louis Du Plessis, Rafael H. M. Pereira, Flavia C. S. Sales, Erika R. Manuli, Julien Thézé, Luiz Almeida, Mariane T. Menezes, Carolina M. Voloch, Marcilio J. Fumagalli, Thaís M. Coletti, Camila A. M. Da Silva, Mariana S. Ramundo, Mariene R. Amorim, Henrique H. Hoeltgebaum, Swapnil Mishra, Mandev S. Gill, Luiz M. Carvalho, Lewis F. Buss … & Nuno R. Faria
Brazil currently has one of the fastest growing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in the world. Owing to limited available data, assessments of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on virus spread remain challenging. Using a mobility-driven transmission model, we show that NPIs reduced the reproduction number from >3 to 1–1.6 in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Sequencing of 427 new genomes and analysis of a geographically representative genomic dataset identified >100 international virus introductions in Brazil....

Conservation genetics of native and European-introduced Chinese Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis)

Vincent Savolainen
The Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis) belongs to a relatively early-divergence lineage of Cervidae and is thought to have retained some ancestral features of the group. This species is classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List (accessed 2020), and populations in its native range have declined drastically in recent years. However, a number of individuals were introduced to the UK about a century ago; these have flourished and now make up over 40% of...

Association of insularity to cloacal bacteria prevalence and body condition in a small shorebird

Jose Valdebenito, Josué Martínez-De La Puente, Macarena Castro, Alejandro Pérez-Hurtado, Gustavo Tejera, Tamás Székely, Naerhulan Halimubieke, Julia Schroeder & Jordi Figuerola
Do islands harbour less diverse disease communities than mainland? The island biogeography theory predicts more diverse communities on mainland than on islands due to more niches, more diverse habitats and availability of greater range of hosts. We compared bacteria prevalences of Campylobacter, Chlamydia and Salmonella in cloacal samples of a small shorebird, the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) between two island populations of Macaronesia and two mainland locations in the Iberian Peninsula. Bacteria were found in...

Geomechanical and discrete fracture networks in Thomas et al. 2020, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth

Robin Thomas & Adriana Paluszny
Data supporting 'Effective permeability tensors of three-dimensional numerically grown geomechanical discrete fracture networks with evolving geometry and mechanical apertures', submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. Authors: Robin N Thomas (corresponding, robin.thomas11@imperial.ac.uk), Adriana Paluszny, Robert W Zimmerman. Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London. Contents: For each GDFN, the geometry at each growth step. Additionally, for GDFN E, the data shown in the paper (aperture and flow distributions, figures 6 and...

Financing Community Energy Case Studies : Green Energy Mull

Iain Cairns, Matthew Hannon, Timothy Braunholtz-Speight, Jeffrey Hardy, Carly McLachlan, Sarah Mander, Edward Manderson & Maria Sharmina
This report presents the second of four case studies of UK community energy organisations conducted during 2018/19. These will later be included as part of a synthesis briefing alongside a series of sector-level interviews. The case study makes use of a combination of qualitative (e.g. interviews, organisation reports) and quantitative (e.g. financial reports) data. Summary of key lessons: Government subsidy is the cornerstone to securing both community and private finance. By providing a substantial long-term...

Dataset for paper: \"Induced neural stem cell differentiation on a drawn fiber scaffold—toward peripheral nerve regeneration\"

Dominic Wales
This dataset contains the raw data and raw images that were used for the journal publication "Induced neural stem cell differentiation on a drawn fiber scaffold—toward peripheral nerve regeneration". A .txt file is included that states the contents of this dataset.

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) – carbon nanostructure (CNS) composites: synthesis and application in base-catalysed condensation reactions

Nicolas Morales Vega
The activity and selectivity produced by novel Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) supported in both multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and graphene oxide (GO) was investigated for a set of base-catalysed aldol condensation reactions. The MWNT/LDH composites were studied in the self-condensation of acetone and retroaldolization of diacetone alcohol (DAA), while the GO/LDH materials were used in the latter reaction, as well as the benzaldehyde-acetone condensation, where the material was activated in-situ. The effect of carbon content...

Molecular diversity of neurons in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta

Eleanor Jane Paul
Neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are central to motivation and reward processing. These nuclei contain three core neuronal cell types: dopamine, GABA and glutamate (as well as combinatorial neurons). Dopamine neurons - the largest population - have been intensely studied, but little is known about the GABA neurons- the second largest population. They provide local inhibitory control of dopamine neurons with behavioural consequences, as well as sending...

Identification and characterisation of novel T3SS effector proteins of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

Alexander Matthew Patrick Byrne
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a Gram-negative, intracellular, human pathogen that is the causative agent of typhoid fever, responsible for 200,000 deaths worldwide, per year. Central to S. enterica pathogenesis are two type III secretion systems (T3SS), that are used to translocate up to 40 effector proteins to enable invasion, replication and manipulation of host immune responses. These proteins have been largely characterised in other S. enterica serovars and many are pseudogenes or...

Chemical and morphological stability of Perovskite and organic solar cells

Sebastian Andrew Victor Pont
The stability of perovskite and organic solar cells remains a major challenge to realise their potential. To overcome the numerous degradation mechanisms, it is important to understand the underlying causes. This thesis will present device and material characterisation on two areas: firstly, elucidating perovskite environmental stability and, secondly, the effects of PCBM dimerisation in organic solar cells. The first results chapter investigates the environmental stability of methylammonium lead iodide. In this thesis, degradation under light...

Statistical methods for elucidating copy number variation in high-throughput sequencing studies

Evangelos Bellos
Copy number variation (CNV) is pervasive in the human genome and has been shown to contribute significantly to phenotypic diversity and disease aetiology. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have allowed for the systematic investigation of CNV at an unprecedented resolution. HTS studies offer multiple distinct features that can provide evidence for the presence of CNV. We have developed an integrative statistical framework that jointly analyses multiple sequencing features at the population level to achieve sensitive and...

Identification of genes involved in reprogramming-induced senescence

Patrizia Beolchi
Senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest first described in human fibroblasts when they undergo serial passage in vitro. Senescence can also occur in response to different stresses, such as replicative exhaustion, DNA damage or overexpression of oncogenes. The growth arrest associated with senescence is implemented by the activation of the p53/p21Cip1 and p16INK4a/Rb pathways. The expression in somatic cells of a combination of pluripotency-associated transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc (OSKM) has...

Tonsillectomy and acute throat infections in children

Elizabeth Koshy
Background: Tonsillectomy is among the most common operations performed on children in the UK. Yet little was known about the socio-demographic profile of children who undergo the operation and how the recent decline in tonsillectomy rates has influenced the rates of severe acute throat infections (ATI). Many children with mild ATI disease also undergo tonsillectomy despite a lack of evidence of its benefit in this group, particularly in the longer-term. The aims of this thesis...

Evaluation of transgenic insects for use in the control of insect-borne disease

Peter Winskill
The burden of many vector-borne diseases remains high and for some, such as dengue fever, continues to rise. It is estimated that up to half of the global population is at risk from dengue. Treatment of dengue fever is currently limited to case management and there are, at present, no licensed vaccines available. As a result, the front-line defence against dengue fever remains vector control. Modern approaches to vector control are attempting to push forward...

Barriers to effectiveness: artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and the health system

Bhargavi Rao
As international funding for malaria programmes plateaus, it is critical to better understand how to implement interventions such as first-line Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) most effectively through an existing health system. This thesis presents an expansion of a mathematical model of malaria transmission to provide insight to the role of health systems factors as barriers to the effectiveness of ACTs, and interventions to overcome them; considering dimensions of access to care, different sectors through which...

Exploring and improving the escalation of care process for deteriorating patients on surgical wards in UK hospitals

Maximilian Joseph Johnston
Despite impressive progress in technical skills, the rate of adverse events in surgery remains unfavourably high. The variation seen in surgical outcomes may be dependent on the quality of ward-based surgical care provided to post-operative patients with complications, specifically, the recognition, communication and response to patient deterioration. This process can be termed escalation of care and is an under-explored area of surgical research. This thesis demonstrates the impact of delays in the escalation of care...

Incorporation of expert beliefs in the two-parameter bayesian logistic dose response model

Nelson Maxwell Kinnersley
Logistic regression models are often proposed to describe dose-response relationships in dose-escalation clinical trials to determine the maximum tolerated dose. In a Bayesian setting, the 1-parameter continual reassessment method and the 2-parameter escalation with overdose control designs have been implemented assuming acceptable tolerability thresholds of between 20% and 35%. The literature is sparse on the operating characteristics of 2-parameter Bayesian logistic regression models (BLRM) when sample sizes are small (i.e. <50); response rates <20% or...

Titin: an analysis of genetic variation and cardiac phenotype

Angharad Margaret Roberts
Non ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an important cause of heart failure leading to chronic morbidity and death and as such is a major health burden. DCM is familial in up to 50% of cases but is genetically heterogeneous, hindering both genotype-phenotype studies and the application of genetic information for stratified patient management. TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) cause severe and familial DCM, but sometimes occur in healthy individuals, posing challenges for the interpretation of these...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • Imperial College London
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