95 Works

Data from: Systematics and macroevolution of extant and fossil scalopine moles (Mammalia, Talpidae)

Achim H. Schwermann, Kai He, Benjamin J. Peters, Thorsten Plogschties & Gabriele Sansalone
Scalopini is one of the two fully fossorial mole tribes in the family Talpidae, with remarkable adaptations to subterranean lifestyles. Most living Scalopini species are distributed in North America while a sole species occurs in China. On the other hand, scalopine fossils are found in both Eurasia and North America from upper Oligocene strata onwards, implying a complex biogeographical history. The systematic relationships of both extant and fossil Scalopini across North America and Eurasia are...

Dataset: Sanctions and international interaction improve cooperation to avert climate change

Gianluca Grimalda, Alexis Belianin, Heike Hennig-Schmidt, Till Requate & Marina Ryzhkova
Imposing sanctions on non-compliant parties to international agreements is advocated as a remedy for international cooperation failure. Nevertheless, sanctions are costly, and rational choice theory predicts their ineffectiveness in improving cooperation. We test sanctions effectiveness experimentally in international collective-risk social dilemmas simulating efforts to avoid catastrophic climate change. We involve individuals from countries where sanctions were shown to be effective (Germany) or ineffective (Russia) in increasing cooperation. Here we show that, while this result still...

Drought sensitivity of Empetrum nigrum shrub growth at the species’ southern lowland distribution range margin

Stef Weijers, Nils Hein, Julia Merkelbach & Katharina Zech
The ongoing warming of the Earth’s atmosphere is projected to cause a northward shift of species’ distributions, as they track their climatic optimum. In the rapidly warming Arctic, this has already led to an increase of shrubs in tundra ecosystems. While this northern expansion of woody biomass has been studied relatively extensively over the last decade, little research has been devoted to shrub growth responses at the southern margins of Northern Hemisphere shrubs. Here, we...

Facultative chemosynthesis in a deep-sea anemone from hydrothermal vents in the Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California

Shana Goffredi, Cambrie Motooka, David Fike, Luciana Gusmão, Ekin Tilic, Greg Rouse & Estefanía Rodríguez
Background Numerous deep-sea invertebrates have formed symbiotic associations with internal chemosynthetic bacteria in order to harness inorganic energy sources typically unavailable to most animals. Despite success in nearly all marine habitats and their well-known associations with photosynthetic symbionts, Cnidaria remain without a clear dependence on hydrothermal vents and chemosynthetic bacterial symbionts specifically. Results A new chemosynthetic symbiosis between the sea anemone Ostiactis pearseae (Daly & Gusmão, 2007) and intracellular bacteria was discovered at ~3700 m...

Modelled annual average percentage yield loss due to ozone damage for four global staple crops, 2010-2012 version 2

K. Sharps, G. Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
Modelled average percentage yield loss due to ground-level ozone pollution (per 1 degree by 1 degree grid cell) are presented for the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) for the period 2010-2012. Data are on a global scale, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) crop production data for the year 2000. Modelled...

A Formerly Unknown Fragment from the Hieroglyphic Stairway of La Amelia, Guatemala

Guido Krempel
This brief note is aimed to present a fragment of a hitherto unpublished Late Classic Maya relief carving (Figures 1 and 2) in the collection of La Ruta Maya Foundation, Guatemala (Registro de Bienes Culturales [Registry of Cultural Heritage] Inv.-No. 1.2.179.85).

JOM: A Possible Reading for the “Star War” Glyph?

Dimitrios Markianos-Daniolos
This research note is based on a chapter from my master’s thesis which discusses the possible readings of the Star War glyph. In that thesis, I attempt to provide the most up-to-date and complete examination of this sign. The insights gained from this investigation now allow us to draw new conclusions and re-evaluate our understanding of this enigmatic term. This article will discuss one of the new ideas that arose from this study, specifically a...

Second survey of heterobranch sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) from Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia - how much do we know after 12 years

Fontje Kaligis, Jan-Hendrik Eisenbarth, Dorothee Schillo, Till Schäberle, Nils Böhringer, Robert Bara, Gabriele M. König & Heike Wägele
Bunaken National Park (BNP) is one of the most famous marine national parks in Indonesia with an extraordinary diversity in marine life forms. However, this diversity is threatened by an increasing population on the islands, ongoing destructive fishing techniques and lately by an increase in tourism. Protecting and managing the future use of BNP resources will require the assessment of both, local marine biodiversity through monitoring efforts and the identification and subsequent reduction of any...

Marine Heterobranchia (Gastropoda, Mollusca) in Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia—A Follow-Up Diversity Study

Jan-Hendrick Eisenbarth, Nani Undap, Adelfia Papu, Dorothee Schillo, Fontje Kaligis, Robert Bara, Till Schäberle, Gabriele M. König, Nathalie Yonow & Heike Wägele
Bunaken National Park has been surveyed for a fourth time in 14 years, in an attempt to establish the species composition of heterobranch sea slugs in a baseline study for monitoring programs and protection of this special park. These molluscs are potentially good indicators of the health of an ecosystem, as many are species-specific predators on a huge variety of marine benthic and sessile invertebrates from almost every taxonomic group. Additionally, they are known to...

Raus aus der Minijobfalle

Tom Krebs & Martin Scheffel
Eine Reform zur Abschaffung der krisenanfälligen Minijobs sowie zur Reduktion der Sozialversicherungsbeiträge für untere Einkommensgruppen kennt viele Gewinner:innen: Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt würde bis 2030 um 7,2 Milliarden Euro wachsen, die Beschäftigung um 165.000 steigen. Das ist das Ergebnis einer Modellrechnung im Auftrag der Bertelsmann Stiftung.

Neue Methodenkombination aus dynamischer Festphasenextraktion, Gaschromatographie und Massenspektrometrie für den Einsatz in der forensisch-toxikologischen Haaranalytik

Dirk Lachenmeier
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird eine neue Methodenkombination aus dynamischer Festphasenextraktion (Headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction, HS-SPDE), Gaschromatographie (GC) und Massenspektrometrie (MS) oder Tandem-Massenspektrometrie (MS/MS) vorgestellt und ihre Leistungsfähigkeit für die forensisch-toxikologische Untersuchung von Betäubungsmitteln in Haarproben getestet. Mittels HS-SPDE erfolgt die Extraktion der Analyten sowie eine Aufkonzentrierung, Derivatisierung und die nachfolgende Injektion in ein GC/MS- oder GC/MS/MS-System für den selektiven und sensitiven Nachweis. Alle Einzelschritte, außer Waschen und Zerkleinern der Haarproben, d.h. auch der Probenaufschluß...

Data from: Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia)

Cathrin Pfaff, Thomas Martin & Irina Ruf
The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean species. The morphometric anatomy of the...

Data from: Convergent evolution of the ladder-like ventral nerve cord in Annelida

Conrad Helm, Patrick Beckers, Thomas Bartolomaeus, Stephan H. Drukewitz, Ioannis Kourtesis, Anne Weigert, Günter Purschke, Katrine Worsaae, Torsten H. Struck & Christoph Bleidorn
Background: A median, segmented, annelid nerve cord has repeatedly been compared to the arthropod and vertebrate nerve cords and became the most used textbook representation of the annelid nervous system. Recent phylogenomic analyses, however, challenge the hypothesis that a subepidermal rope-ladder-like ventral nerve cord (VNC) composed of a paired serial chain of ganglia and somata-free connectives represents either a plesiomorphic or a typical condition in annelids. Results: Using a comparative approach by combining phylogenomic analyses...

Data from: Structurally assisted super black in colorful peacock spiders

Dakota E. McCoy, Victoria E. McCoy, Nikolaj K. Mandsberg, Anna V. Shneidman, Joanna Aizenberg, Richard O. Prum & David Haig
Male peacock spiders (Maratus, Salticidae) compete to attract female mates using elaborate, sexually-selected displays. They evolved both brilliant color and velvety black. Here we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hyperspectral imaging, and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) optical modeling to investigate the deep black surfaces of peacock spiders. We found that super black regions reflect <0.5% of light (for a 30° collection angle) in Maratus speciosus (0.44%) and Maratus karrie (0.35%) due to microscale structures. Both species...

Data from: Resolution of the ordinal phylogeny of mosses using targeted exons from organellar and nuclear genomes

Yang Liu, Matthew G. Johnson, Cymon J. Cox, Rafael Medina, Nicolas Devos, Alain Vanderpoorten, Lars Hedenäs, Neil E. Bell, James R. Shevock, Blanka Aguero, Dietmar Quandt, Norman J. Wickett, A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet
Mosses are a highly diverse lineage of land plants, whose diversification, spanning at least 400 million years, remains phylogenetically ambiguous due to the lack of fossils, massive early extinctions, late radiations, limited morphological variation, and conflicting signal among previously used markers. Here, we present phylogenetic reconstructions based on complete organellar exomes and a comparable set of nuclear genes for this major lineage of land plants. Our analysis of 142 species representing 29 of the 30...

Digital methods in difficult ethnographic fields: studying knowledge flows as complex networks through a Facebook analysis

Lisa Jenny Krieg & Julia Poerting
Zeitschrift für digitale Geisteswissenschaften

Data from: Bayesian adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation of genetic parameters

Boby Mathew, Andrea M. Bauer, Petri Koistinen, Tobias C. Reetz, Jens Léon & Mikko J. Sillanpää
Accurate and fast estimation of genetic parameters that underlie quantitative traits using mixed linear models with additive and dominance effects is of great importance in both natural and breeding populations. Here we propose a new fast adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithm for the estimation of genetic parameters in the linear mixed model with several random effects. In the learning phase of our algorithm, we use the hybrid Gibbs sampler to learn the...

Data from: Genomic and morphological evidence converge to resolve the enigma of Strepsiptera

Oliver Niehuis, Gerrit Hartig, Sonja Grath, Hans Pohl, Jörg Lehmann, Hakim Tafer, Alexander Donath, Veiko Krauss, Carina Eisenhardt, Jana Hertel, Malte Petersen, Christoph Mayer, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S. Peters, Peter F. Stadler, Rolf G. Beutel, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Duane D. McKenna & Bernhard Misof
The phylogeny of insects, one of the most spectacular radiations of life on earth, has received considerable attention. However, the evolutionary roots of one intriguing group of insects, the twisted-wing parasites (Strepsiptera), remain unclear despite centuries of study and debate. Strepsiptera exhibit exceptional larval developmental features, consistent with a predicted step from direct (hemimetabolous) larval development to complete metamorphosis that could have set the stage for the spectacular radiation of metamorphic (holometabolous) insects. Here we...

Data from: Increased levels of perceived competition decrease juvenile kin-shoaling preferences in a cichlid fish

Timo Thünken, Saskia Hesse & Denis Meuthen
Inclusive fitness theory predicts that individuals can increase their indirect fitness by grouping with kin. However, kin-grouping also increases competition between kin, which potentially outweighs its benefits. The level of kin-competition is contingent on environmental conditions and thus highly variable. Hence, individuals should benefit from plastically adjusting kin-discrimination according to the expected level of kin competition. Here, we investigate whether perceived high competition affects juvenile kin-shoaling preferences in the cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus. Juveniles were given...

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

Digital field methods in geoscience education and outreach

Gösta Hoffmann , Valeska Decker , Sabine Kummer , Edouard Grigowski & Rosalie Kunkel
The scientific discipline "geology" has relied on outcrops as the primary source of information since its beginnings. The initial equipment to analyse the rocks in these outcrops was simple: hammer, hand lens, compass, and diluted HCL. Topographic maps proved useful to find the location of the outcrop. Fieldbooks and material for sketching were – and are – used to document the findings. The documentation was further improved by cameras which became available for everyone in...

Multituberculate mammals from the Middle Jurassic of Western Siberia, Russia, and the origin of Multituberculata

Alexander O. Averianov, Thomas Martin, Alexey V. Lopatin, Julia A. Schultz, Rico Schellhorn, Sergei Krasnolutskii, Pavel Skutschas & Stepan Ivantsov
Tashtykia primaeva gen. et sp. nov. and Tagaria antiqua gen. et sp. nov. (Multituberculata incertae sedis) are described based on isolated teeth from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) Itat Formation from the Berezovsk coal mine in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Western Siberia, Russia. Tashtykia primaeva gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by a P5 with three rows of cusps (cusp formula 2B:4M:6L) and a high sectorial p4 with two triangular lobes, five serrations associated with labial and lingual...

Data from: Presence of same-sex kin promotes explorative behavior in subadult cichlid fish

Simon Vitt, Iris Madge Pimentel & Timo Thünken
While the importance of kin discrimination, i.e. kin recognition and subsequent differential treatment of kin and non-kin, is well established for kin-directed cooperation or altruism, the role of kin discrimination in the context of kin competition and kin avoidance is largely unexplored. Theory predicts that individuals avoiding competition with kin should be favored by natural selection due to indirect fitness benefits. Using an experimental approach, we investigated whether the presence of same-sex kin affects avoidance...

Carbon and nitrogen flux, meteorological, management and soil data from a grazed, cut and fertilised temperate grassland in south east Scotland

S.K. Jones, C. Helfter, M. Anderson, M. Coyle, C. Campbell, D. Famulari, C. Di Marco, N. Van Dijk, Y.S. Tang, C.F.E. Topp, R. Kiese, R. Kindler, J. Siemens, M. Schrumpf, K. Kaiser, E. Nemitz, P.E. Levy, R.M. Rees, M.A. Sutton & U.M. Skiba
This dataset contains measured daily values of precipitation, air and soil temperature, soil water content, measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes using eddy covariance, calculated gross primary production (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net biome production (NBP) fluxes using an online tool (http://www.bgc-jena.mpg.de/~MDIwork/eddyproc/upload.php), measured fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide using static chambers and measured fluxes of nitrous oxide using eddy covariance, measured fluxes of nitrogen oxides (NOx) using automatic chambers, measured nitrogen and...

Personale Identitätsbildung in der digitalen Mediengesellschaft : theoretisch-methodologische Annäherungen aus sozialpsychologischer und theologisch-ethischer Perspektive

Lars Schäfers
Medialisierung gilt als eine zentrale Entwicklung aktueller gesellschaftlicher Modernisierungsprozesse – sie ist ein gesamtgesellschaftliches Phänomen. In der Soziologie spricht man daher schon lange von einer Mediengesellschaft als einer den Einfluss der Medien konstitutiv mitberücksichtigenden gesellschaftstheoretischen Basistheorie. Die Herausbildung der persönlichen, individuellen Identität eines Menschen findet in einer solchen Gesellschaft zu einem großen Teil medieninduziert statt. Die Studie analysiert die wesentlichen Merkmale einer Mediengesellschaft als der hier verwendeten Rahmentheorie. In einem weiteren Schritt wird die Kategorie...

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