67 Works

Harrison’s rule scales up to entire parasite assemblages but is determined by environmental factors

Renan Maestri, Maico Fiedler, Georgy Shenbrot, Elena Surkova, Sergei Medvedev, Irina Khokhlova & Boris Krasnov
Harrison’s rule states that parasite body size and the body size of their hosts tend to be positively correlated. After it was proposed a century ago, a number of studies have investigated this trend, but the support level has varied greatly between parasite/host associations. Moreover, while the rule has been tested at the individual species level, we still lack knowledge on whether Harrison’s rule holds at the scale of parasite and host communities. Here, we...

Data from: Impact of introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF test on tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in a city with high TB incidence in Brazil

Giovana Rodrigues Pereira, Márcia Silva Barbosa, Natan José Dutra Dias, Carlos Podalirio Borges De Almeida & Denise Rossato Silva
Background: Xpert MTB/RIF is increasingly used in many countries as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB). Few studies have evaluated the effect of Xpert on TB diagnosis under programmatic conditions in Brazil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF on TB diagnosis in a city with high TB incidence in Brazil. Methods: We included patients evaluated with conventional diagnostic tests during one year before Xpert...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: The effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of a top predator: loss of diversity and high differentiation among remnant populations of Atlantic Forest jaguars (Panthera onca)

Taiana Haag, Anelisie Santos, Denis Sana, Ronaldo Morato, , , Carlos De Angelo, Mario Di Bitetti, Francisco Salzano & Eduardo Eizirik
Habitat fragmentation may disrupt original patterns of gene flow and lead to drift-induced differentiation among local population units. Top predators such as the jaguar may be particularly susceptible to this effect, given their low population densities, leading to small effective sizes in local fragments. On the other hand, the jaguar's high dispersal capabilities and relatively long generation time might counteract this process, slowing the effect of drift on local populations over the time frame of...

Data from: Characteristics of patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a region with high TB and HIV prevalence

Leandro C. Campos, Marcus V. V. Rocha, Denise Maria Cunha Willers, Denise Rossato Silva & Marcos Vinícius Vieira Rocha
Introduction: Smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNPT) represents 30–60% of all pulmonary TB cases. The mortality of these patients can reach 25% in populations with high prevalence of HIV infection, and 10–20% of TB transmission at the population level are attributable to SNPT cases. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, and radiological characteristics of patients with SNPT and to compare these with patients who were diagnosed as having smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPT). All...

Data from: The role of chromosomal rearrangements and geographical barriers in the divergence of lineages in a South American subterranean rodent (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys minutus)

Carla M. Lopes, Simone S. F. Ximenes, Adriana Gava & Thales R. O. De Freitas
Identifying factors and the extent of their roles in the differentiation of populations is of great importance for understanding the evolutionary process in which a species is involved. Ctenomys minutus is a highly karyotype- polymorphic subterranean rodent, with diploid numbers ranging from 42 to 50 and autosomal arm numbers ranging from 68 to 80, comprising a total of 45 karyotypes described so far. This species inhabits the southern Brazilian coastal plain, which has a complex...

Data from: Geological and climatic changes in quaternary shaped the evolutionary history of Calibrachoa heterophylla, an endemic South-Atlantic species of petunia

Geraldo Mäder, Jéferson N. Fregonezi, Aline P. Lorenz-Lemke, Sandro L. Bonatto & Loreta B. Freitas
Background: The glacial and interglacial cycles that characterized the Quaternary greatly affected the distribution and genetic diversity of plants. In the Neotropics, few phylogeographic studies have focused on coastal species outside of the Atlantic Rainforest. Climatic and sea level changes during the Quaternary played an important role in the evolutionary history of many organisms found in coastal regions. To contribute to a better understanding of plant evolution in this environment in Southern South America, we...

Data from: Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales

André Luís Luza, Gislene Lopes Gonçalves & Sandra Maria Hartz
The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and...

Data from: De novo assembly and characterization of leaf and floral transcriptomes of the hybridizing bromeliad species (Pitcairnia spp.) adapted to Neotropical Inselbergs

C. Palma-Silva, M. Ferro, M. Bacci & A. C. Turchetto-Zolet
We present the leaf and floral transcriptomes of two hybridizing bromeliad species that differ in their major pollinator systems. Here we identified candidate genes responsible for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation in these two species. We searched for candidate genes involved in floral traits, such as color. Approximately 34 Gbp of cDNA sequence data were produced from both tissues and species, resulting in a total of 424,506,914 raw reads. The de novo-assembled transcriptomes consisted of...

Data from: Genomic signatures of paleodrainages in a freshwater fish along the southeastern coast of Brazil: genetic structure reflects past riverine properties

Andrea T. Thomaz, Luiz R. Malabarba & L. Lacey Knowles
Past shifts in connectivity in riverine environments (for example, sea-level changes) and the properties of current drainages can act as drivers of genetic structure and demographic processes in riverine population of fishes. However, it is unclear whether the same river properties that structure variation on recent timescales will also leave similar genomic signatures that reflect paleodrainage properties. By characterizing genetic structure in a freshwater fish species (Hollandichthys multifasciatus) from a system of basins along the...

Data from: Phylogenetic systematics of subtribe Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae: Cranichideae) based on nuclear and plastid DNA sequences of a nearly complete generic sample

Gerardo A. Salazar, Joao A.N. Batista, Lidia I. Cabrera, Cassio Van Den Berg, W. Mark Whitten, Eric C. Smidt, Cristiano R. Buzatto, Rodrigo B. Singer, Gunter Gerlach, Rolando Jimenez-Machorro, Jose A. Radins, Irma S. Insaurralde, Leonardo R.S. Guimaraes, Fabio De Barros, Francisco Tobar, Jose L. Linares, Ernesto Mujica, Robert L. Dressler, Mario A. Blanco, Eric Hagsater & Mark W. Chase
Subtribe Spiranthinae is the most species-rich lineage of terrestrial Neotropical orchids, encompassing > 500 species and 40 genera. We conducted maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data of plastid matK-trnK and trnL-trnF and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences for 36 genera and 182 species of Spiranthinae plus appropriate outgroups. The results strongly support monophyly of Spiranthinae (minus Discyphus, Discyphinae and Galeottiella, Galeottiellinae) and five major lineages, namely monospecific Cotylolabium (sister to the...

Data from: Local biodiversity erosion in South Brazilian grasslands under moderate levels of landscape habitat loss

Ingmar R. Staude, Eduardo Vélez-Martin, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana Regina Podgaiski, Ilsi I. Boldrini, , Valério D. Pillar & Gerhard E. Overbeck
1.Habitat loss is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, exerting negative effects on the ecological viability of natural vegetation remnants. The South Brazilian grasslands belong to one of the largest temperate grassland regions in the world, but have lost 50% of their natural extent in the past 35 years. To date, there is no empirical evidence for the effects of habitat loss on these grasslands’ biological diversity, undermining their conservation. 2.Using data from a...

Fast diversification through a mosaic of evolutionary histories characterizes the endemic flora of ancient Neotropical mountains

Thais Vasconcelos, Suzana Alcantara, Caroline Andrino, Félix Forest, Marcelo Reginato, Marcelo Simon & José Pirani
Mountains are among the most biodiverse areas on the globe. In young mountain ranges, exceptional plant species-richness is often associated to recent and rapid radiations linked to the mountain uplift itself. In ancient mountains, however, orogeny vastly precedes the evolution of vascular plants, so species-richness has been explained by species accumulation during long periods of low extinction rates. Here we evaluate these assumptions by analyzing plant diversification dynamicsin thecampo rupestre, an ecosystem associated to pre-Cambrian...

Female-driven intersexual coevolution in beetle genitalia

Bruno Genevcius, Joanna Baker, Filipe Bianchi & Adriana Marvaldi
Genital coevolution is a pervasive phenomenon as changes in one sex tend to impose fitness consequences on the other generating sexual conflict. Sexual conflict is often thought to cause stronger selection on males due to the Darwin-Bateman’s anisogamy paradigm. However, recent studies have demonstrated that female genitalia may be equally elaborated and perform diverse extra-copulatory functions. These characteristics suggest that female genitals can also be primary targets of selection, especially where natural selection acts on...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Data from: The influence of spatial sampling scales on ant-plant interaction network architecture

Wesley Dáttilo, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Vanderlei J. Debastiani, Pedro Jordano & Thiago J. Izzo
1.Despite great interest in metrics to quantify the structure of ecological networks, the effects of sampling and scale remain poorly understood. In fact, one of the most challenging issues in ecology is how to define suitable scales (i.e., temporal or spatial) to accurately describe and understand ecological systems. 2.Here, we sampled a series of ant‐plant interaction networks in the southern Brazilian Amazon rainforest in order to determine whether the spatial sampling scale, from local to...

Where are the bats? An environmental complementarity analysis in a megadiverse country

Ludmilla Aguiar, Maria João Ramos Pereira, Marlon Zortea, Ricardo Machado, Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar, Maria João R. Pereira, Marlon Zortéa & Ricardo B. Machado
Aim: Field surveys are necessary to overcome Wallacean shortfalls. The task is even more important when human pressure on tropical – megadiverse – ecosystems is considered. However, due to financial constraints, spatial and temporal prioritization is required. Here we used the concept of environmental complementarity to identify non-surveyed regions for bats that are environmentally different from other already surveyed regions. We highlighted regions in Brazil where field inventories could be conducted to locate new occurrences...

Extending the footprint record of Pareiasauromorpha to the Cisuralian: earlier appearance and wider palaeobiogeography of the group

Lorenzo Marchetti, Sebastian Voigt, Eudald Mujal, Spencer Lucas, Heitor Francischini, Josep Fortuny & Vincent Santucci
Pareiasauromorpha is one of the most important tetrapod groups of the Permian. Skeletal evidence suggests a late Kungurian origin in North America, whereas the majority of occurrences come from the Guadalupian and Lopingian of South Africa and Russia. Pareiasauromorpha footprints include the ichnogenus Pachypes, that is, however, unknown from strata older than late Guadalupian. A revision of several Pachypes-like footprints from the Cisuralian–Guadalupian of Europe and North America confirm the occurrence of this ichnogenus and...

Data from “Climate and large-sized trees, but not diversity, drive above-ground biomass in subtropical forests”. Forest Ecology and Management. 2021.

Kauane Maiara Bordin, Adriane Esquivel-Muelbert, Rodrigo Scarton Bergamin, Joice Klipel, Rayana Caroline Picolotto, Marcelo Araújo Frangipani, Katia Janaina Zanini, Marcus Vinicius Cianciaruso, João André Jarenkow, Cristiane Follmann Jurinitz, Martin Molz, Pedro Higuchi, Ana Carolina da Silva & Sandra Cristina Müller

Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness

Lauchlan H. Fraser, Jason Pither, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Jonathan A. Bennett, Alex Bittel, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Ilsi I. Boldrini, Edward Bork, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, James Cahill, Cameron N. Carlyle, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Anna-Maria Csergo, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis … & Szilárd Szentes
The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and...

Peregrino: uma análise audiovisual a respeito de Antônio Conselheiro

Pedro Mallmann

Genocídio e invisibilidades: apontamentos socioculturais da população negra a partir da análise do documentário O caso do homem errado (2018)

Joselaine Caroline

Effect of Drought Stress on the Genetic Architecture of Photosynthate Allocation and Remobilization in Pods of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a Key Species for Food Security

Paul Gepts, Jorge Carlos Berny Mier Y Teran, Enéas R. Konzen, Antonia Palkovic, Siu M. Tsai, Idupulapati M. Rao & Stephen Beebe
Background: Common bean is the most important staple grain legume for direct human consumption and nutrition. It complements major sources of carbohydrates, including cereals, root crop, or plantain, as a source of dietary proteins. It is also a significant source of vitamins and minerals like iron and zinc. To fully play its nutritional role, however, its robustness against stresses needs to be strengthened. Foremost among these is drought, which commonly affects its productivity and seed...

Data from: Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling

Christopher S. Drummond, Ruth J. Eastwood, Silvia T. S. Miotto & Colin E. Hughes
Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in...

Data from: Molecular ecology of the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis): non-invasive sampling yields insights into local population dynamics

Cristine Silveira Trinca, Camila Fernandes Jaeger & Eduardo Eizirik
Non-invasive genetic analysis has been frequently employed to estimate ecological and population parameters for many secretive and/or threatened species. However, Neotropical carnivores have so far been scarcely targeted by such studies. The Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) is a poorly-known species for which local levels of genetic diversity and demographic parameters are virtually absent. We employed non-invasive sampling and amplification of microsatellite loci to investigate population size and density, spatial organization, and relatedness of a wild...

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