66 Works

Data from: A new cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation, south Brazil, improves Late Triassic probainognathian diversity

Agustín G. Martinelli, Estevam Eltink, Átila A. S. Da-Rosa & Max C. Langer
The fossil record of non-mammaliaform probainognathian cynodonts is outstanding in the Late Triassic rocks of Brazil and Argentina. Approximately 15 genera are known, providing unique insights in the study of the major skeletal transformations prior to the mammalian condition. Globally, the diversity of probainognathians is possibly under-represented, as the discovery of small- to very small-sized taxa based on relatively well-preserved specimens is rare. Several species, for example much of the Laurasian record, are based on...

Data from: Tracing the diversification history of a Neogene rodent invasion into South America

Renan Maestri, Nathan S. Upham & Bruce D. Patterson
We investigated spatial patterns of evolutionary relatedness and diversification rates to test hypotheses about the historical biogeographic processes underlying the radiation of Neotropical rats and mice (Sigmodontinae, ~400 species). A negative correlation between mean phylogenetic distance and diversification rates of rodent assemblages reveals a pattern of species co-occurrence in which assemblages of closely related species are also the fastest diversifying ones. Subregions of the Neotropics occupied by distantly related species that are on average more...

Data from: Impact of a pre-feeding oral stimulation program on first feed attempt in preterm infants: Double-blind controlled clinical trial

Karine Da Rosa Pereira, Deborah Salle Levy, Renato S Procianoy & Rita C Silveira
Objective: To evaluate the effect of an oral stimulation program in preterm on the performance in the first oral feeding, oral feeding skills and transition time from tube to total oral intake. Study Designer: Double-blind randomized clinical trial including very preterm newborns. Congenital malformations, intracranial hemorrhage grade III or IV, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis were excluded. Intervention group (GI) received an oral stimulation program of tactile extra-, peri-, and intraoral tactile manipulation once a...

Ecological specialization and niche overlap of subterranean rodents inferred from DNA metabarcoding diet analysis

Carla Martins Lopes, Marta De Barba, Frédéric Boyer, Céline Mercier, Daniel Galiano, Bruno Busnello Kubiak, Renan Maestri, Pedro Joel Silva Da Silva Filho, Ludovic Gielly, Eric Coissac, Thales Renato Ochotorena De Freitas & Pierre Taberlet
Knowledge of how animal species use food resources available in the environment increases our understanding of ecological processes. However, obtaining this information using traditional methods is a hard task for species feeding on a large variety of food items in highly diverse environments. We amplified the DNA of plants for 306 scat and 40 soil samples, and applied an eDNA metabarcoding approach to investigate food preferences, degree of diet specialization and diet overlap of seven...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Small seed bank in grasslands and tree plantations in former grassland sites in the South Brazilian highlands

Mariana Vieira & Gerhard Overbeck
The soil seed bank can be an important source for vegetation regeneration, and data on the similarity between aboveground vegetation and the seed bank can provide information about successional pathways after disturbances or land-use change. We conducted this study in natural grasslands in the subtropical highland region in southern Brazil. We evaluated the effect of silviculture on richness, density, and composition of the seed bank at former grassland sites converted to pine plantations 25 years...

Data from: Eating down the food chain: generalism is not an evolutionary dead end for herbivores

Danny Rojas, Maria João Ramos Pereira, Carlos Fonseca & Liliana M. Dávalos
The role of trophic specialisation in taxonomic diversification remains unclear. Plant specialists diversify faster than omnivores and animalivores, but at shorter macroevolutionary scales this pattern sometimes reverses. Here, we estimate the effect of diet diversification on speciation rates in noctilionoid bats, controlling for tree shape, rate heterogeneity and macroevolutionary regimes. We hypothesise that niche subdivision among herbivores positively relates to speciation rates, differing between macroevolutionary regimes. We found the rate at which new herbivorous lineages...

Data from: The ecology of a continental evolutionary radiation: Is the radiation of sigmodontine rodents adaptive?

Renan Maestri, Leandro Rabello Monteiro, Rodrigo Fornel, Nathan S. Upham, Bruce D. Patterson & Thales Renato Ochotorena De Freitas
Evolutionary radiations on continents are less well-understood and appreciated than those occurring on islands. The extent of ecological influence on species divergence can be evaluated to determine whether a radiation was ultimately the outcome of divergent natural selection or else arose mainly by nonecological divergence. Here, we used phylogenetic comparative methods to test distinct hypotheses corresponding to adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary scenarios for the morphological evolution of sigmodontine rodents. Results showed that ecological variables (diet...

Data from: Shifts and linkages of functional diversity between above- and below-ground compartments along a flooding gradient

Corentin Abgrall, Matthieu Chauvat, Estelle Langlois, Mickaël Hedde, David Mouillot, Sandrine Salmon, Bruna Winck & Estelle Forey
Trait-based approaches have the potential to reveal general and predictive relationships between organisms and ecosystem functioning. However, the mechanisms underlying the functional structure of communities are still unclear. Within terrestrial ecosystems, several studies have shown that many ecological processes are controlled by the interacting above- and below-ground compartments. However, few studies have used traits to reveal the functional relationships between plants and soil fauna. Mostly, research combining plants and soil fauna solely used the traits...

Data from: Population differentiation in the context of Holocene climate change for a migratory marine species, the southern elephant seal

Laura J. Corrigan, Anna Fabiani, Lucas F. Chauke, Clive R. McMahon, Mark De Bruyn, Marthan N. Bester, Amanda Bastos, Claudio Campagna, Monica M.C. Muelbert & A. Rus Hoelzel
Understanding observed patterns of connectivity requires an understanding of the evolutionary processes that determine genetic structure among populations, with the most common models being associated with isolation by distance, allopatry or vicariance. Pinnipeds are annual breeders with the capacity for extensive range overlap during seasonal migrations, establishing the potential for the evolution of isolation by distance. Here we assess the pattern of differentiation among six breeding colonies of the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, based...

Decline of the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825) in an Atlantic Forest protected area

Gabriel Lopes, Gabriel Penido, Neander Heming & Luisa Diele-Viegas
Estimates on demographic parameters altogether with social factors are integral and can be very useful to assess the risks that a population may face in the future. Rescue operations may provide a unique opportunity to gather data on individuals of an area and thus provide population information. Animal rescue data provided by the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden fauna team were used to understand the structure of a population of Bradypus variegatus in an urban...

Evolutionary implications of dental anomalies in bats

Diego A Esquivel, Renan Maestri & Sharlene E Santana
The gain or loss of anatomical features is an important mechanism of morphological evolution and ecological adaptation. Dental anomalies –the loss or gain of teeth– are widespread and a potential source of craniodental specialization among mammals, yet their macroevolutionary patterns have been rarely explored. We present the first phylogenetic comparative study of dental anomalies across the second largest mammal Order, Chiroptera (bats). We conducted an extensive literature review and surveyed a large sample of museum...

The ontogenetic pattern of neurocentral suture closure in the axial skeleton of Hyperodapedontinae (Archosauromorpha: Rhynchosauria) and its evolutionary implication

Clara Heinrich, Voltaire Paes Neto, Marcel Lacerda, Agustin Martinelli, Maico Fiedler & Cesar Schultz
Understanding ontogeny of a taxon is a crucial step to properly elucidate its taxonomy and evolution. However, aside from histological data, osteological criteria for assessing maturity are considered lineage specific or controversial. The sequence of neurocentral suture closure of the axial skeleton of extant crocodilians, which occurs in a postero-anterior sequence, has being used as a non-destructive method to determine maturity in extinct reptiles. However, the use of this criterion in extinct archosaurs not closely...

Continuous bite monitoring method (GPEP)

Anderson Michel Soares Bolzan, Szymczak, Nadin, Olivier Bonnet, Marcelo Wallau, Anibal De Moraes, Renata Moraes, Alda Monteiro & Paulo Carvalho
Determining herbage intake is pivotal for studies on grazing ecology. Direct observation of animals allows describing the interactions of animals with the pastoral environment along the complex grazing process. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the reliability of the continuous bite monitoring (CBM) method in determining herbage intake in grazing sheep compared to the standard double-weighing technique (DW) method during 45-min feeding bouts; evaluate the degree of agreement between the two techniques; and...

Supplement to: Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care and intravenous thrombolysis

Raul Nogueira, Muhammed Qureshi, Mohamad Abdalkader, Sheila Martins, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Ossama Mansour, Anvitha Sathya, Anna Czlonkowska, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Diana Aguiar De Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Robert Mikulik, Peter Vanacker, James Siegler, Janika Korv, Jose Biller, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Alicia Zha, Alexandra Czap, Christine Holmstedt, Tanya Turan, George Ntaios, Konark Malhotra … & Thanh Nguyen
Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in...

Functional biogeography of Neotropical moist forests: trait-climate relationships and assembly patterns of tree communities

Bruno Pinho, Marcelo Tabarelli, Cajo Ter Braak, S. J. Wright, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Maíra Benchimol, Bettina Engelbrecht, Simon Pierce, Peter Hietz, Bráulio Santos, Carlos Peres, Sandra Müller, Ian Wright, Frans Bongers, Madelon Lohbeck, Ülo Niinemets, Martijn Slot, Steven Jansen, Davi Jamelli, Renato Augusto Ferreira De Lima, Nathan Swenson, Richard Condit, Jos Barlow, Ferry Slik, Manuel Hernández-Ruedas … & Felipe Melo
Aim: Here we examine the functional profile of regional tree species pools across the latitudinal distribution of Neotropical moist forests, and test trait-climate relationships among local communities. We expected opportunistic strategies (acquisitive traits, small seeds) to be overrepresented in species pools further from the equator due to long-term instability, but also in terms of abundance in local communities in currently wetter, warmer and more seasonal climates. Location: Neotropics. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees....

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