56 Works

Speculative Futures for Mindful Meat Consumption and Production

Alexandra Kenefick

Data from: A quantitative review of density-dependent growth and survival in salmonids: biological mechanisms, methodological biases, and management implications

Jean-Michel Matte, Fraser Dylan & Grant James
Understanding the complex variation in patterns of density-dependent individual growth and survival across populations is critical to adaptive fisheries management, but the extent to which this variation is caused by biological or methodological differences is unclear. Consequently, we conducted a correlational meta-analysis of published literature to investigate the relative importance of methodological and biological predictors on the shape and strength of density-dependent individual growth and survival in salmonids. We obtained 160 effect sizes from 75...

Data from: Despite introgressive hybridization, North American birches (Betula spp.) maintain strong differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci

Ashley M. Thomson, Christopher W. Dick, Ana L. Pascoini & Selvadurai Dayanandan
Extensive chloroplast introgression has been documented in polyploid Betula species of eastern North America. However, the extent to which the nuclear genomes of these species are differentiated is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated genetic differentiation among largely sympatric Betula papyrifera, B. alleghaniensis, and B. lenta using nuclear microsatellite markers. Principal components analysis (PCA) and analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) were used to evaluate genetic differentiation. Bayesian model-based clustering was used to identify putatively admixed individuals. Despite...

Data from: Does source population size affect performance in new environments?

Matthew C. Yates & Dylan J. Fraser
Small populations are predicted to perform poorly relative to large populations when experiencing environmental change. To explore this prediction in nature, data from reciprocal transplant, common garden, and translocation studies were compared meta-analytically. We contrasted changes in performance resulting from transplantation to new environments among individuals originating from different sized source populations from plants and salmonids. We then evaluated the effect of source population size on performance in natural common garden environments and the relationship...

Data from: Are heritability and selection related to population size in nature? Meta-analysis and conservation implications

Jacquelyn L.A. Wood, Matthew C. Yates, Dylan J. Fraser & Jacquelyn L. A. Wood
It is widely thought that small populations should have less additive genetic variance and respond less efficiently to natural selection than large populations. Across taxa, we meta-analytically quantified the relationship between adult census population size (N) and additive genetic variance (proxy: h2) and found no reduction in h2 with decreasing N; surveyed populations ranged from four to one million individuals (1735 h2estimates, 146 populations, 83 species). In terms of adaptation, ecological conditions may systematically differ...

Data from: The interaction between the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density: consequences for intra-specific growth and morphology

Bailey Jacobson, James W.A. Grant, Pedro R. Peres-Neto & James W. A. Grant
1. How individuals within a population distribute themselves across resource patches of varying quality has been an important focus of ecological theory. The ideal free distribution predicts equal fitness amongst individuals in a 1 : 1 ratio with resources, whereas resource defence theory predicts different degrees of monopolization (fitness variance) as a function of temporal and spatial resource clumping and population density. 2. One overlooked landscape characteristic is the spatial distribution of resource patches, altering...

Data from: The phylogenetics of succession can guide restoration: an example from abandoned mine sites in the subarctic

Stephanie Shooner, Chelsea Chisholm & Thomas Jonathan Davies
1. Phylogenetic tools have increasingly been used in community ecology to describe evolutionary relationships among co-occurring species. In studies of succession, such tools may allow us to identify evolutionary lineages most suited for particular stages of succession and habitat rehabilitation. However, to date these two applications have been largely separate. Here, we suggest that information on phylogenetic community structure might help inform community restoration strategies following major disturbance. 2. Our study examined phylogenetic patterns of...

Data from: Novel, continuous monitoring of fine-scale movement using fixed-position radiotelemetry arrays and random forest location fingerprinting

Andrew B. Harbicht, Theodore Castro-Santos, William R. Ardren, Dimitry Gorsky & Dylan J. Fraser
1. Radio-tag signals from fixed-position antennas are most often used to indicate presence/absence of individuals, or to estimate individual activity levels from signal strength variation within an antenna’s detection zone. The potential of such systems to provide more precise information on tag location and movement has not been explored in great detail in an ecological setting. 2. By reversing the roles that transmitters and receivers play in localization methods common to the telecommunications industry, we...

Data from: The socially mediated recovery of a fearful fish paired with periodically replaced calm models

Adam L. Crane, Kevin R. Bairos-Novak, Laurel H. Sacco, Maud C.O. Ferrari & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Social learning is an important mechanism for acquiring knowledge about environmental risk. However, little work has explored the learning of safety and how such learning outcomes are shaped by the social environment. Here, we exposed minnows, Pimephales promelas, to a high-risk environment to induce behavioral responses associated with fear (e.g., neophobia). We then used the presence of calm conspecific models (low-risk individuals) to weaken these responses. When observers (individuals from the high-risk environment) and models...

Data from: Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the ‘minnow that cried pike’ results in culturally transmitted neophobia

Adam L. Crane, Anthony G. E. Mathiron & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became...

Data from: Spatiotemporal relationship between adult census size and genetic population size across a wide population size gradient

Thaïs A. Bernos & Dylan J. Fraser
Adult census population size (N) and effective number of breeders (Nb) are highly relevant for designing effective conservation strategies. Both parameters are often challenging to quantify, however, making it of interest to determine whether one parameter can be generalized from the other. Yet, the spatiotemporal relationship between N and Nb has not been well characterized empirically in many taxa. We analysed this relationship for 5–7 consecutive years in twelve brook trout populations varying greatly in...

Data from: eDNA concentration, population size structure, and mark-recapture data

Matthew Yates, Dylan Glaser, John Post, Melania Cristescu, Dylan Fraser & Alison Derry
Organism abundance is a critical parameter in ecology, but its estimation is often challenging. Approaches utilizing eDNA to indirectly estimate abundance have recently generated substantial interest. However, preliminary correlations observed between eDNA concentration and abundance in nature are typically moderate in strength with significant unexplained variation. Here we apply a novel approach to integrate allometric scaling coefficients into models of eDNA concentration and organism abundance. We hypothesize that eDNA particle production scales non-linearly with mass,...

Price Discovery in Canadian and U.S. 10-Year Government Bond Markets

Bryan Campbell & Scott Hendry
This paper presents some new results on the price discovery process in both the Canadian and U.S. 10-year Government bond markets using high-frequency data not previously analyzed. Using techniques introduced by Hasbrouck (1995) and Gonzalo-Granger (1995), we look at the relative information content of cash and futures prices in the market for Canadian Government bonds using futures market data from the Montreal Exchange and OTC cash market data reflecting the inter-dealer market covered by CanPx....

Source pool diversity and proximity shape the compositional uniqueness of insular mammal assemblages worldwide

Katherine Hébert, Virginie Millien & Jean-Philippe Lessard
Islands have been the test bed of several theories in community ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology. Progress within these disciplines has given a more comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the processes governing variation in species richness among islands. However, it remains unclear whether these same processes also explain variation in species and phylogenetic composition among islands. Integrating theory from ecology and biogeography, we infer the roles of dispersal, selection, and stochasticity on the composition of...

Great smoky mountain ant community composition

Nathan J. Sanders, Jean-Philippe Lessard & Robert R. Dunn
Disentangling the drivers of diversity gradients can be challenging. The Measurement of Biodiversity (MoB) framework decomposes scale-dependent changes in species diversity into three components of community structure: the species abundance distribution (SAD), the total community abundance, and the within-species spatial aggregation. Here we extend MoB from categorical treatment comparisons to quantify variation along continuous geographic or environmental gradients. Our approach requires sites along a gradient, each consisting of georeferenced plots of abundance-based species composition data....

Temperature drives caste-specific morphological clines in ants

Jean-Philippe Lessard, François Brassard, André Francoeur & Jean-Philippe Lessard
The morphology of organisms relates to most aspects of their life history and autecology. In particular, morphology can reflect adaptation to the abiotic environment in which species occur. As such, elucidating the drivers of morphological variation along environmental gradients might give insight into processes limiting species distributions. In eusocial organisms, the concept of morphology is more complex than in solitary organisms. Eusocial insects such as ants exhibit drastic morphological differences between reproductive and worker castes....

Data from: Population size is weakly related to quantitative genetic variation and trait differentiation in a stream fish

Jacquelyn Lee Ann Wood, Defne Tezel, Destin Joyal & Dylan John Fraser
How population size influences quantitative genetic variation and differentiation among natural, fragmented populations remains unresolved. Small, isolated populations might occupy poor quality habitats and lose genetic variation more rapidly due to genetic drift than large populations. Genetic drift might furthermore overcome selection as population size decreases. Collectively, this might result in directional changes in additive genetic variation (VA) and trait differentiation (QST) from small to large population size. Alternatively, small populations might exhibit larger variation...

Data from: Population size, habitat fragmentation, and the nature of adaptive variation in a stream fish

Dylan J. Fraser, Paul V. Debes, Louis Bernatchez & Jeffrey A. Hutchings
Whether and how habitat fragmentation and population size jointly affect adaptive genetic variation and adaptive population differentiation are largely unexplored. Owing to pronounced genetic drift, small, fragmented populations are thought to exhibit reduced adaptive genetic variation relative to large populations. Yet fragmentation is known to increase variability within and among habitats as population size decreases. Such variability might instead favour the maintenance of adaptive polymorphisms and/or generate more variability in adaptive differentiation at smaller population...

Data from: Does human-induced hybridization have long-term genetic effects? Empirical testing with domesticated, wild and hybridized fish populations

Andrew Harbicht, Chris C. Wilson & Dylan J. Fraser
Current conservation practices exclude human-generated hybridized populations from protection, as the genetic effects of hybridization in the wild have been observed to be long-lasting based on neutral genetic markers and are considered potentially irreversible. Theory, however, predicts otherwise for genes under selection. We transplanted combinations of wild, domesticated and hybridized populations of a fish species to new environments. We then compared survival, phenotypic variation and plasticity to determine whether hybridization affects adaptive potential after multiple...

Data from: Territory size decreases minimally with increasing food abundance in stream salmonids: implications for population regulation

James W. A. Grant, Laura K. Weir & Stefan Ó. Steingrimsson
How the local density of territorial animals responds to changes in food abundance will depend on the flexibility of territory size. Quantitative estimates of territory size over a broad range of food abundance are relatively rare because of the difficulty of measuring food abundance in the wild. Stream salmonids are an ideal model system for investigating flexibility in territory size, because food abundance can be quantified in the field and manipulated in the laboratory. We...

Data from: A critical assessment of estimating census population size from genetic population size (or vice versa) in three fishes

Matthew Carl Yates, Thais A. Bernos & Dylan J. Fraser
Technological and methodological advances have facilitated the use of genetic data to infer census population size (Nc) in natural populations, particularly where traditional mark-and-recapture is challenging. The effective number of breeders (Nb) describes how many adults effectively contribute to a cohort and is often correlated with Nc. Predicting Nc from Nb or vice-versa in species with overlapping generations has important implications for conservation by permitting (i) estimation of the more difficult to quantify variable and...

Data from: Systematic deviations from linear size spectra of lake fish communities are correlated with predator-prey interactions and lake-use intensity

Ignasi Arranz, Chih-Hao Hsieh, Thomas Mehner & Sandra Brucet
Size structure of organisms at logarithmic scale (i.e. size spectrum) can often be described by a linear function with a negative slope; however, substantial deviations from linearity have often been found in natural systems. Theoretical studies suggest that greater nonlinearity in community size spectrum is associated with high predator-prey size ratios but low predator-prey abundance ratios; however, empirical evaluation of the effects of predator-prey interactions on nonlinear structures remains scarce. Here, we aim to empirically...

Data from: Data management, archiving and sharing for biologists and the role of research institutions in the technology-oriented age

Sebastien Renaut, Amber E. Budden, Dominique Gravel, Timothée Poisot & Pedro Peres-Neto
Data are one of the primary outputs of science. Although certain sub-disciplines of biology have pioneered efforts to ensure their long-term preservation and facilitate collaborations, data continue to disappear, owing mostly to technological, regulatory and ideological hurdles. In this review, we describe the important steps towards proper data management and archiving, and provide a critical discussion on the importance of long term data conservation. We then illustrate the rise in data archiving through the Joint...

Lower St. Lawrence Estuary bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity

David Walsh
The Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (EGSL) in eastern Canada is among the largest and most productive coastal ecosystems in the world. Very little information on bacterial diversity exists, hampering our understanding of the relationships between bacterial community structure and biogeochemical function in the EGSL. During the productive spring period, we investigated free-living and particle-associated bacterial communities across the stratified waters of the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary, including the particle-rich surface and bottom boundary...

Introduction : The Body is the Place Where Pilgrimage Happens

Sara Terreault

Registration Year

  • 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013
  • 2012

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • Concordia University
  • McGill University
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
  • University of Saskatchewan
  • Dalhousie University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Université de Sherbrooke
  • University of Bern
  • Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada