49 Works

Parametric optimization and comparative study of an organic Rankine cycle power plant for two-phase geothermal sources

Chaofan Chen , Francesco Witte , Ilja Tuschy , Olaf Kolditz & Haibing Shao
For two-phase geothermal resource, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based binary plant is often applied for power production. In this work, a network topology was built with the Thermal Engineering Systems in Python (TESPy) software to simulate the stationary operation of the ORC plant. With this topology, the performance of nine different working fluids are compared. From the thermodynamic perspective, the gross and net power output is optimized respectively. Results show that R600 has the highest...

Heterogene Ausbreitungsdynamik in Deutschland während der zweiten Welle der COVID-19-Pandemie: Zusammenhang mit Maßnahmen des öffentlichen Gesundheitswesens

Andreas Schuppert, Katja Polotzek, Jochen Schmitt, Reinhard Busse, Jens Karschau & Christian Karagiannidis
Hintergrund: Die zweite Welle der COVID-19-Pandemie führte zu erheblichen Unterschieden in den Inzidenzraten in Deutschland. Methoden: Ein annahmefreies k-nearest neighbour (kNN; auf Deutsch „k-nächste Nachbarn“) Clusterverfahren auf Basis einer Hauptkomponentenanalyse der wöchentlichen Inzidenzraten deutscher Kreise findet Cluster ähnlichen Ausbreitungsverhaltens. Die unterschiedliche Ausbreitungsdynamik wurde anhand der Ableitungsdiagramme der zeitlichen Entwicklung der Tupel [x(t),x'(t)] der wöchentlichen Inzidenzraten und ihrer Ableitungen analysiert. Die Wirksamkeit der verschiedenen Lockdown-Maßnahmen in Deutschland während der zweiten Welle wird anhand der Differenz der...

Stress State of Г-Shaped Thin-Walled Rod Joints in Bending Torsion

Vladimir Rybakov & Vladislav Jos

Extracted data from primary literature examining impacts of recreational activities on freshwater ecosystems

Malwina Schafft, Benjamin Wegner, Nora Meyer, Christian Wolter & Robert Arlinghaus
Aquatic ecosystems are attractive sites for recreation. However, human presence at or on aquatic ecosystems can have a range of ecological impacts, creating trade-offs between recreation as ecosystem service and biodiversity conservation. There is currently no synthesis of evidence regarding the ecological impacts associated with various forms of aquatic recreation, to compare the magnitude of effects between types of recreation. Therefore, conservation conflicts surrounding water-based recreation are difficult to manage. We conducted a global meta-analysis,...

Data from: Janzen-Connell patterns can be induced by fungal-driven decomposition and offset by ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated under a closely related canopy

Maud Deniau, Vincent Jung, Cecile Le Lann, Harald Kellner, Benoit Béchade, Thibault Morra & Andreas Prinzing
1. Seedlings near a conspecific adult might suffer increased mortality due to pressure from enemies such as belowground pathogenic fungi (Janzen-Connell Hypothesis), however variation exists among taxa such that some experience low levels of mortality. We hypothesized that seedlings close to adults might profit, rather than suffer, from belowground fungi, notably from mycorrhiza or decomposers, in particular near large adult trees and under a closely related canopy. 2. We planted oak seedlings in a temperate...

Data from: Closing a gap in tropical forest biomass estimation: taking crown mass variation into account in pantropical allometries

Pierre Ploton, Nicholas Barbier, Stéphane Takoudjou Momo, Maxime Réjou-Méchain, Faustin Boyemba Bosela, Georges Chuyong, Gilles Dauby, Vincent Droissart, Adeline Fayolle, Rosa Calisto Goodman, Mathieu Henry, Narcisse Guy Kamdem, John Katembo Mukirania, David Kenfack, Moses Libalah, Alfred Ngomanda, Vivien Rossi, Bonaventure Sonké, Nicolas Texier, Duncan Thomas, Donatien Zebaze, Pierre Couteron, Uta Berger & Raphaël Pélissier
Accurately monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks is an outstanding challenge. Allometric models that consider tree diameter, height and wood density as predictors are currently used in most tropical forest carbon studies. In particular, a pantropical biomass model has been widely used for approximately a decade, and its most recent version will certainly constitute a reference in the coming years. However, this reference model shows a systematic bias for the largest trees. Because large trees are...

Plastics Packaging in a Closed Loop – Potentials, Conditions, Challenges

Elsner Peter, Thomas Müller-Kirschbaum, Katharina Schweitzer, Ronja Wolf, Elisa Seiler, Peter Désilets, Ralph Detsch, Christina Dornack, Josef Ferber, Claudia Fleck, Magnus Fröhling, Karl Hagspiel, Rüdiger Hahn, Christian Haupts, Christoph Hoffmann, Péter Krüger, Marko Lange, Thorsten Leopold, Michael Löscher, Peter Niedersüß, Tom Ohlendorf, Jutta Pattberg, Manfred Renner, Alois K. Schlarb, Michael Schmidt … & Susanne Kadner
Most current patterns of production and consumption follow a linear “extract, produce, consume, dispose” model. According to the Circular Gap Report 2020, the global economy is just 9% circular. This economic model is contributing to a massive transgression of “planetary boundaries” and the destabilisation of ecosystems and factors essential to human life such as the climate system and biodiversity. As a result, there is currently much discussion of a paradigm shift in the industrial value...

Mittelalterliche Inventare als Indikatoren zur Gestaltung religiöser Identität und Spiritualität

Ekaterina Novokhatko
1000 Worte Forschung: Laufendes Projekt in Mittelalterlicher Geschichte, Forschungsstelle für Vergleichende Ordensgeschichte (FOVOG-Dresden), Technische Universität Dresden

Data from: Impacts of drought and nitrogen addition on Calluna-heathlands differ with plant life-history stage

Maren Meyer-Grünefeldt, Leonor Calvo Galván, Elena Marcos Porras, Goddert Von Oheimb & Werner Härdtle
1. Climate change and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) affect the biodiversity patterns and functions of ecosystems worldwide. While many single-factor studies have quantified ecosystem responses to single global change drivers, less is known about the interaction effects of these drivers on ecosystem functions. 2. Here, we present the results of a three-year field and a two-year greenhouse experiment, in which we assessed responses of Calluna vulgaris-heathlands to the single and combined effects of drought...

Data from: Modeling strategic sperm allocation: tailoring the predictions to the species

Biz R. Turnell, Kerry L. Shaw & Hudson Kern Reeve
Two major challenges exist when empirically testing the predictions of sperm allocation theory. First, the study species must adhere to the assumptions of the model being tested. Unfortunately, the common assumption of sperm allocation models that females mate a maximum of once or twice does not hold for many, if not most, multiply and sequentially mating animals. Second, a model’s parameters, which dictate its predictions, must be measured in the study species. Common examples of...

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids affect volume and metabolism of Drosophila melanogaster sperm

Ruijian Guo & Klaus Reinhardt
Dietary fatty acids can accumulate in sperm and affect their function in vertebrates. As Drosophila melanogaster shares several pathways of lipid metabolism and shows similar lipid-dependent phenotypes but lacks some hormones that in vertebrates regulate lipid metabolism, there is currently no clear prediction as to how dietary fatty acids affect the sperm of D. melanogaster. We manipulated the amount and identity of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the food of D. melanogaster males (a...

Divergent natural selection alters male sperm competition success in Drosophila melanogaster

Biz Turnell, Klaus Reinhardt, Ralph Dobler, Marc Charette & Katrin Kaplan
Sexually selected traits may also be subject to non-sexual selection. If optimal trait values depend on environmental conditions, then “narrow sense” (i.e., non-sexual) natural selection can lead to local adaptation, with fitness in a certain environment being highest among individuals selected under that environment. Such adaptation can in turn drive ecological speciation via sexual selection. To date, most research on the effect of narrow-sense natural selection on sexually selected traits has focused on precopulatory measures...

Data from: A meiotic driver alters sperm form and function in house mice: a possible example of spite

Anna Lindholm & Lennart Winkler
The ability to subvert independent assortment of chromosomes is found in many meiotic drivers, such as the t haplotype in house mice Mus musculus, in which the t-bearing chromosomal homolog is preferentially transmitted to offspring. This is explained by a poison-antidote system, in which developing + and t sperm in testes of + /t males are exposed to ‘poison’ coded by t loci, from which t sperm are protected, allowing t sperm an overwhelming fertilisation...

Data from: Grassland type and seasonal effects have a bigger influence on plant functional and taxonomical diversity than prairie dog disturbances in semi-arid grasslands

Maria Gabriela Rodriguez Barrera, Ingolf Kühn, Eduardo Estrada-Castillón & Anna Cord
Prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) are considered keystone species and ecosystem engineers for their grazing and burrowing activities (summarized here as disturbances). As climate changes and its variability increases, the mechanisms underlying organisms’ interactions with their habitat will likely shift. Understanding the mediating role of prairie dog disturbance on vegetation structure, and its interaction with environmental conditions through time, will increase knowledge on the risks and vulnerability of grasslands. Here, we compared how plant taxonomical diversity,...

NFDI4Earth – addressing the digital needs of Earth System Sciences - A

Lars Bernard & Jörg Seegert
NFDI4Earth addresses digital needs of Earth System (ES) Sciences (ESS). ES scientists cooperate in international and interdisciplinary networks with the overarching aim to understand the functioning and interactions within the Earth system and address the multiple challenges of global change. NFDI4Earth is a community-driven process providing researchers with FAIR, coherent, and open access to all relevant ES data, to innovative research data management (RDM) and data science methods. The NFDI4Earth work plan comprises four task...

Pore-scale modeling of acid etching in a carbonate fracture

Renchao Lu , Xing-yuan Miao , Olaf Kolditz & Haibing Shao
Acid fracturing technique has been widely used in the oil and gas industry for improving the carbonate reservoir permeability. In recent years this chemical stimulation technique is borrowed from the oil and gas industry, employed in the enhanced geothermal systems at Groß Schönebeck, Germany (Zimmermann et al., 2010), and at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France (Portier et. al., 2009). In principle, acid fracturing technique utilizes strong acids that react with acid-soluble rock matrix to non-uniformly etch the fracture...

Data from: Detection of human disease conditions by single-cell morpho-rheological phenotyping of blood

Nicole Toepfner, Christoph Herold, Oliver Otto, Philipp Rosendahl, Angela Jacobi, Martin Kräter, Julia Stächele, Leonard Menschner, Maik Herbig, Laura Ciuffreda, Lisa Ranford-Cartwright, Michal Grzybek, Ünal Coskun, Elisabeth Reithuber, Genevieve Garriss, Peter Mellroth, Birgitta Henriques Normark, Nicola Tregay, Meinolf Suttorp, Martin Bornhäuser, Edwin R. Chilvers, Reinhard Berner, Jochen Guck, Birgitta Henriques-Normark & Leonhard Menschner
Blood is arguably the most important bodily fluid and its analysis provides crucial health status information. A first routine measure to narrow down diagnosis in clinical practice is the differential blood count, determining the frequency of all major blood cells. What is lacking to advance initial blood diagnostics is an unbiased and quick functional assessment of blood that can narrow down the diagnosis and generate specific hypotheses. To address this need, we introduce the continuous,...

Data from: Hot spots become cold spots: coevolution in variable temperature environments

Alison B. Duncan, Eike Dusi, Franck Jacob, Johan Ramsayer, Michael E. Hochberg & Oliver Kaltz
Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites is a key process in the genesis and maintenance of biological diversity. Whereas coevolutionary dynamics show distinct patterns under favourable environmental conditions, the effects of more realistic, variable conditions are largely unknown. We investigated the impact of a fluctuating environment on antagonistic coevolution in experimental microcosms of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and lytic phage SBWΦ2. High-frequency temperature fluctuations caused no deviations from typical coevolutionary arms-race dynamics. However, coevolution was stalled...

Semi-open landscapes of former military training areas are key habitats for threatened birds

Heike Culmsee, Boris Evers, Tobias Leikauf & Karsten Wesche
Military training areas (MTAs) show high numbers of rare and threatened species and diverse habitat patterns due to low nitrogen input and heterogeneous disturbance dynamics caused by mili-tary training activities that produce fine-scale landscape mosaics. Since the 1990s, major parts of MTAs in Europe have been decommissioned. In Germany, most of them were transferred to the national natural heritage now facing the challenge of developing comprehensive conservation man-agement strategies. In order to elucidate their current...

Data from: Inducible defense destabilizes predator–prey dynamics: the importance of multiple predators

Ellen Van Velzen, Tamara Thieser, Thomas Berendonk, Markus Weitere & Ursula Gaedke
Phenotypic plasticity in prey can have a dramatic impact on predator–prey dynamics, e.g. by inducible defense against temporally varying levels of predation. Previous work has overwhelmingly shown that this effect is stabilizing: inducible defenses dampen the amplitudes of population oscillations or eliminate them altogether. However, such studies have neglected scenarios where being protected against one predator increases vulnerability to another (incompatible defense). Here we develop a model for such a scenario, using two distinct prey...

Data from: Vertically transmitted symbiont reduces host fitness along temperature gradient

Eike Dusi, Sascha Krenek, Martina Schrallhammer, René Sachse, Gisep Rauch, Oliver Kaltz, Thomas Berendonk & T. U. Berendonk
Parasites with exclusive vertical transmission from host parent to offspring are an evolutionary puzzle. With parasite fitness entirely linked to host reproduction, any fitness cost for infected hosts risks their selective elimination. Environmental conditions likely influence parasite impact, and thereby the success of purely vertical transmission strategies. We tested for temperature-dependent virulence of Caedibacter taeniospiralis, a vertically transmitted bacterial symbiont of the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia. We compared growth of infected and cured host populations at...

Data from: Double cuticle barrier in two global pests, the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum and the bedbug Cimex lectularius

Yiwen Wang, Rocio Gallego Carballo & Bernard Moussian
The integument protects the organism against penetration of xenobiotics and water that would potentially interfere with homeostasis. In insects that play key roles in a variety of agricultural and ecological habitats, this inward barrier has barely been investigated. In order to advance knowledge in this field, we studied integumental barrier (cuticle) permeability in the two global pests Trialeurodes vaporariorum (greenhouse whitefly) and Cimex lectularius (bedbug), applying a simple dye-penetration assay. In agreement with our recent...

Reasons and implications of fossil hydraulic gradients in large-scale aquifer systems

Stephan Schulz , Hyekyeng Jung , Marc Walther , Nils Michelsen , Randolf Rausch & Christoph Schüth
Due to limited availability of surface water, many arid and semi-arid countries have to rely on their groundwater resources. Despite the quasi-absence of present-day replenishment, some of these aquifers contain large amounts of water that was recharged during wetter periods in the past. Although these recharge events often occurred several thousand years ago, some of these so-called fossil aquifer systems exhibit considerable hydraulic gradients and flow towards their discharge areas, even without pumping. As a...

Kunststoffverpackungen im geschlossenen Kreislauf – Potenziale, Bedingungen, Herausforderungen

Peter Elsner, Thomas Müller-Kirschbaum, Katharina Schweitzer, Ronja Wolf, Elisa Seiler, Peter Désilets, Ralph Detsch, Christina Dornack, Josef Ferber, Claudia Fleck, Magnus Fröhling, Karl Hagspiel, Rüdiger Hahn, Christian Haupts, Christoph Hoffmann, Péter Krüger, Marko Lange, Thorsten Leopold, Michael Löscher, Peter Niedersüß, Tom Ohlendorf, Jutta Pattberg, Manfred Renner, Alois K. Schlarb, Michael Schmidt … & Susanne Kadner
Heutige Produktions- und Konsummuster folgen weitgehend einer linearen Logik: abbauen, herstellen, konsumieren, entsorgen. Nur neun Prozent der Weltwirtschaft sind laut Circular Gap Report 2020 kreislaufgeführt. Doch dieses Wirtschaftsprinzip trägt zu einer massiven Überschreitung der „Planetaren Grenzen“ und damit zu einer Destabilisierung der Ökosysteme und Lebensgrundlage der Menschen bei, wie etwa des Klimasystems und der Artenvielfalt. Demzufolge wird derzeit viel über einen Paradigmenwechsel in der Logik industrieller Wertschöpfung diskutiert – weg von einem ressourcenintensiven hin zu...

Data from: Sperm metabolic rate predicts female mating frequency across Drosophila species

Biz Turnell & Klaus Reinhardt
Female mating rates vary widely, even among closely related species, but the reasons for this variation are not fully understood. Across Drosophila species, female mating frequencies are positively associated with sperm length. This association may be due in part to sperm limitation, with longer-spermed species transferring fewer sperm, or to cryptic female choice. However, a previously overlooked factor is sperm metabolic rate, which may correlate with sperm length. If faster-metabolizing sperm accumulate age-related cellular damage...

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