25 Works

Data from: Bridging the gap: parkour athletes provide new insights into locomotion energetics of arboreal apes

Lewis G. Halsey, Samuel R. L. Coward & Susannah K. S. Thorpe
The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of...

Data from: Terrestrial reproduction as an adaptation to steep terrain in African toads

H. Christoph Liedtke, Hendrik Müller, Julian Hafner, Johannes Penner, David J. Gower, Tomáš Mazuch, Mark-Oliver Rödel & Simon P. Loader
How evolutionary novelties evolve is a major question in evolutionary biology. It is widely accepted that changes in environmental conditions shift the position of selective optima, and advancements in phylogenetic comparative approaches allow the rigorous testing of such correlated transitions. A longstanding question in vertebrate biology has been the evolution of terrestrial life histories in amphibians and here, by investigating African bufonids, we test whether terrestrial modes of reproduction have evolved as adaptations to particular...

Unstandardized breeding choice grouped by maternal litter

David Arthur Wells, Hazel Nichols, Joseph Hoffman, Michael Cant, Faye Thompson, Harry Marshall & Emma Vitikainen
Banded mongooses play a delicate balancing act between incest and warfare. Some females have to choose between mating with a relative within their own social group or trying to sneakily mate with a male from a rival group during fights between groups. We show that females are more likely to mate with extra-group males when the risk of inbreeding within their group is high, but not all females get this opportunity for extra-group mating.

Data from: The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks

Piotr Fedurek & Julia Lehmann
In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this...

Data from: Heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura along a latitudinal gradient: contrasting patterns between plastic and genetic responses

Luis E. Castañeda, Enrico L. Rezende & Mauro Santos
Susceptibility to global warming relies on how thermal tolerances respond to increasing temperatures through plasticity or evolution. Climatic adaptation can be assessed examining the geographic variation in thermal-related traits. We studied latitudinal patterns in heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura reared at two temperatures. We used four static stressful temperatures to estimate the thermal death time curves (TDT), and two ramping assays with fast and slow heating rates. TDT curves allow estimating the critical thermal maximum...

Moving academic conferences online: understanding patterns of delegate engagement

Cassandra Raby & Joah Madden
Scientific conferences are a key component of academic communication and development. During the COVID-19 pandemic in-person conferences are rapidly moving online, yet these virtual events may not provide the same opportunities as in-person conferences. If virtual meetings are to continue to provide effective communication and networking between researchers and stakeholders, they must be adapted to increase delegate engagement and enthusiasm. Here we present a case study of a recent medium-sized online conference. We assessed the...

The Processes, Effects and Therapeutics of Pilgrimage Walking the St. Olav Way

Nanna Natalie Jorgensen, John Eade, Tor-Johan Ekeland & Catherine A.N. Lorentzen

Data from: Losing cichlid fish biodiversity: genetic and morphological homogenization of tilapia following colonization by introduced species

Asilatu Shechonge, Benjamin P. Ngatunga, Rashid Tamatamah, Stephanie J. Bradbeer, Jack Harrington, Antonia G.P. Ford, George F. Turner, Martin J. Genner & Antonia G. P. Ford
Among the many negative impacts of invasive species, hybridization with indigenous species has increasingly become recognized as a major issue. However, few studies have characterized the phenotypic outcomes of hybridization following biological invasions. Here we investigate the genetic and morphological consequences of stocking invasive tilapia species in two water bodies in central Tanzania. We sampled individuals from Mindu Reservoir on the Ruvu river system, and at Kidatu on the Great Ruaha-Rufiji river system. We screened...

Data from: No ecological opportunity signal on a continental scale? Diversification and life-history evolution of African true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

H. Christoph Liedtke, Hendrik Müller, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Michele Menegon, LeGrand Nono Gonwouo, Michael F. Barej, Václav Gvoždík, Andreas Schmitz, Alan Channing, Peter Nagel & Simon P. Loader
The niche-filling process predicted by the “ecological opportunity” (EO) model is an often-invoked mechanism for generating exceptional diversity in island colonizers. Whether the same process governs lineage accumulation and trait disparity during continental colonization events is less clear. Here, we test this prediction by investigating the rate dynamics and trait evolution of one of Africa's most widespread amphibian colonizers, the true toads (Bufonidae). By reconstructing the most complete molecular phylogeny of African Bufonidae to date,...

Coping with the commute: behavioural responses to wind conditions in a foraging seabird

Philip Collins, Jonathan Green, Kyle Elliott, Peter Shaw, Lorraine Chivers, Scott Hatch & Lewis Halsey
Movement is a necessary yet energetically expensive process for motile animals. Yet how individuals modify their behaviour to take advantage of environmental conditions and hence optimise energetic costs during movement remains poorly understood. This is especially true for animals that move through environments where they cannot easily be observed. We examined the behaviour during commuting flights of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska in relation to wind conditions they face. By simultaneously...

Data from: Experimental evidence that female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) perceive variation in male facial masculinity

Kevin A. Rosenfield, Stuart Semple, Alexander V. Georgiev, Dario Maestripieri, James P. Higham & Constance Dubuc
Among many primate species, face shape is sexually dimorphic, and male facial masculinity has been proposed to influence female mate choice and male-male competition. However, whether conspecifics pay attention to facial masculinity has only been assessed in humans. Here, working with free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, we used a two-alternative look-time experiment to test whether females perceive male facial masculinity. We presented 107 females with pairs of images of male faces – one more masculine...

Data from: Behavioural thermoregulation via microhabitat selection of winter sleeping areas in an endangered primate: Implications for habitat conservation

Liz A.D. Campbell, Patrick J. Tkaczynski, Mohamed Mouna, Abderrahim Derrou, Lahcen Oukannou, Bonaventura Majolo, Els Van Lavieren & Liz A. D. Campbell
Strategic microhabitat selection allows animals in seasonally cold environments to reduce homeostatic energy costs, particularly overnight when thermoregulatory demands are greatest. Suitable sleeping areas may therefore represent important resources for winter survival. Knowledge of microhabitat use and potential impacts of anthropogenic habitat modification can aid species conservation through development of targeted habitat management plans. Wild, endangered Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in logged cedar-oak forest were studied to investigate 1) the hypothesis that macaques select winter...

Data from: A genetics-based approach confirms immune associations with life history across multiple populations of an aquatic vertebrate (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

James R. Whiting, Isabel S. Magalhaes, Abdul R. Singkam, Shaun Robertson, Daniele D'Agostino, Janette E. Bradley, Andrew D.C. MacColl & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Understanding how wild immune variation covaries with other traits can reveal how costs and trade-offs shape immune evolution in the wild. Divergent life history strategies may increase or alleviate immune costs, helping shape immune variation in a consistent, testable way. Contrasting hypotheses suggest that shorter life histories may alleviate costs by offsetting them against increased mortality; or increase the effect of costs if immune responses are traded off against development or reproduction. We investigated the...

Data from: Computer simulations show that Neanderthal facial morphology represents adaptation to cold and high energy demands, but not heavy biting

Stephen Wroe, William C.H. Parr, Justin A. Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P. Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C. Rae, Todd R. Yokley & William C. H. Parr
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: 1) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, 2) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air, and, 3) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup (H. heidelbergensis), applying finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach...

Data from: Comparing biotic drivers of litter breakdown across streams compartments

Ignacio Peralta-Maraver, Daniel M. Perkins, Murray S. A. Thompson, Katarina Fussmann, Julia Reiss & Anne L. Robertson
Litter breakdown in the streambed is an important pathway in organic carbon cycling and energy transfer in the biosphere that is mediated by a wide range of streambed organisms. However, most research on litter breakdown to date has focused on a small fraction of the taxa that drive it (e.g. microbial versus macroinvertebrate mediated breakdown) and has been limited to the benthic zone (BZ). Despite the importance of the hyporheic zone (HZ) as a bioreactor,...

Populations of high-value predators reflect the traits of their prey dataset

Cayetano Gutierrez Canovas, Thomas Worthington, David Noble, Daniel Perkins, Ian Vaughan, Guy Woodward, Steve Ormerod & Isabelle Durance
The extent to which prey traits combine to influence the abundance of predators is still poorly understood, particularly for mixed predators in sympatry and in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterise prey use and distribution in iconic bird (grey wagtails and Eurasian dippers) and fish species (brown trout and Atlantic salmon) to assess whether prey traits could predict populations of these four riverine predators. Specifically, we hypothesised that: (i) Prey key traits would predict...

Data from: Ecology of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) as a host for Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) infection in Ethiopia

Jared K. Wilson-Aggarwal, Cecily E.D. Goodwin, George J.F. Swan, Helen Fielding, Zerihun Tadesse, Desalegn Getahun, Anyaro Odiel, Alamo Adam, Harry H. Marshall, Jessica Bryant, James A. Zingeser & Robbie A. McDonald
The global programme for the eradication of Guinea worm disease, caused by the parasitic nematode Dracunculus medinensis, has been successful in driving down human cases, but infections in non-human animals, particularly domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), now present a major obstacle to further progress. Dog infections have mainly been found in Chad and, to a lesser extent in Mali and Ethiopia. While humans classically acquire infection by drinking water containing infected copepods, it has been hypothesised...

Endothermy makes fishes faster but does not expand their thermal niche

Lucy Harding, Andrew Jackson, Adam Barnett, Ian Donohue, Lewis Halsey, Charlie Huveneers, Carl Meyer, Yannis Papastamatiou, Jayson Semmens, Erin Spencer, Yuuki Watanabe & Nicholas Payne
1. Regional endothermy has evolved several times in marine fishes, and two competing hypotheses are generally proposed to explain the evolutionary drivers behind this trait: thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. Evidence to support either hypothesis is equivocal, and the ecological advantages conferred by endothermy in fishes remain debated. 2. By compiling published biologging data and collecting precise speed measurements from free-swimming fishes in the wild, we directly test whether endothermic fishes encounter broader...

Data from: Introduced Drosophila subobscura populations perform better than native populations during an oviposition choice task due to increased fecundity but similar learning ability

Julien Foucaud, Céline Moreno, Marta Pascual, Enrico L. Rezende, Luis E. Castañeda, Patricia Gibert & Frederic Mery
The success of invasive species is tightly linked to their fitness in a putatively novel environment. While quantitative components of fitness have been studied extensively in the context of invasive species, fewer studies have looked at qualitative components of fitness, such as behavioral plasticity, and their interaction with quantitative components, despite intuitive benefits over the course of an invasion. In particular, learning is a form of behavioral plasticity that makes it possible to finely tune...

Data from: Flexibility, variability and constraint in energy management strategies across vertebrate taxa revealed by long-term heart rate measurements

Lewis G. Halsey, Jonathan A. Green, Sean D. Twiss, Walter Arnold, Sarah J. Burthe, Patrick J. Butler, Steve J. Cooke, David Gremillet, Thomas Ruf, Olivia Hicks, Katarzyna J. Minta, Tanya S. Prystay, Claudia A.F. Wascher, Vincent Careau, Steven J Cooke, Tania S Prystay & Claudia AF Wascher
1) Animals are expected to be judicious in the use of the energy they gain due to the costs and limits associated with its intake. The management of energy expenditure (EE) exhibited by animals has previously been considered in terms of three patterns: the constrained, independent and performance patterns of energy management. These patterns can be interpreted by regressing daily EE against maintenance EE measured over extended periods. From the multiple studies on this topic,...

Data from: Quantifying uncertainty due to fission-fusion dynamics as a component of social complexity

Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez, Andrew J. King, Jacinta C. Beehner, Thore J. Bergman, Margaret C. Crofoot, Anthony Di Fiore, Julia Lehmann, Colleen M. Schaffner, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Klaus Zuberbühler, Filippo Aureli & Denis Boyer
Groups of animals (including humans) may show flexible grouping patterns, in which temporary aggregations or subgroups come together and split, changing composition over short temporal scales, i.e. fission and fusion). A high degree of fission-fusion dynamics may constrain the regulation of social relationships, introducing uncertainty in interactions between group members. Here we use Shannon's entropy to quantify the predictability of subgroup composition for three species known to differ in the way their subgroups come together...

Data from: Human variation in the shape of the birth canal is significant and geographically structured

Lia Betti & Andrea Manica
The human birth canal shows a tight fit with the size of the neonate, which can lead to obstetric complications. This is not the case in other apes, and has been explained as the outcome of conflicting evolutionary pressures for bipedal locomotion and parturition of a highly-encephalised fetus. Despite the suggested evolutionary constraints on the female pelvis, we show that women are, in fact, extremely variable in the shape of the bony birth canal, with...

Data from: Conquering the world in leaps and bounds: hopping locomotion in toads is actually bounding

Stephen M. Reilly, Stephane J. Montuelle, Andre Schmidt, Emily Naylor, Michael E. Jorgensen, Lewis G. Halsey, & Richard L. Essner
1.While most frogs maximize jump distance as an escape behavior, toads have traded jump distance for endurance with a strategy of hopping repeatedly. This strategy has enabled toads to expand across the continents as one of the most diverse groups of anurans. Multiple studies have revealed physiological endurance adaptations for sustained hopping in toads, however, the kinematics of their sequential hopping behavior, per se, has not been studied. 2.We compared kinematics and forces of single...

Energetic limits: Defining the bounds and trade-offs of successful energy management in a capital breeder

Courtney Shuert, Lewis Halsey, Patrick Pomeroy & Sean Twiss
1. Judicious management of energy can be invaluable for animal survival and reproductive success. Capital breeding mammals typically transfer energy to their young at extremely high rates while undergoing prolonged fasting, making lactation a tremendously energy demanding period. Effective management of the competing demands of the mother’s energy needs and those of her offspring is presumably fundamental to maximising lifetime reproductive success. 2. How does the mother maximise her chances of successfully rearing her pup,...

Data from: Heat tolerance in ectotherms scales predictably with body size

Enrico Rezende & Ignacio Peralta-Maraver
This study analyses how heat stress varies with body size in ectothermic organisms. The analytical approach is based on thermal death time (TDT) curves, which take into consideration both the intensity and the duration of a thermal stress, and result in a linear relationship between temperature and the logarithm of time. We analyzed two separate heat tolerance datasets measured in mollusk, arthropod, fish, amphibian and reptile species, covering nearly 9 orders of magnitude in size....

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