167 Works

Data from: Genomic variation across two barn swallow hybrid zones reveals traits associated with divergence in sympatry and allopatry

Elizabeth S.C. Scordato, Matthew R. Wilkins, Georgy Semenov, Alexander S. Rubtsov, Nolan C. Kane, Rebecca J. Safran & Elizabeth S. C. Scordato
Hybrid zones are geographic regions where isolating barriers between divergent populations are challenged by admixture. Identifying factors that facilitate or inhibit hybridization in sympatry can illuminate the processes that maintain those reproductive barriers. We analyzed patterns of hybridization and phenotypic variation across two newly-discovered hybrid zones between three subspecies of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). These subspecies differ in ventral coloration and wing length, traits that are targets of sexual and natural selection, respectively, and are...

Data from: Bean yield and economic response to fertilizer in eastern and southern Africa

K. C. Kaizzi, A. R. Cyamweshi, C. N. Kibunja, C. Senkoro, D. Nkonde, R. Maria, C. S. Wortmann, L Nabahungu & Charles Wortmann
Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is important in sub-Saharan Africa for human dietary protein. Low yields are attributed to biotic and abiotic constraints including inadequate nutrient availability. Research was conducted to determine nutrient response functions for bean production areas of Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. Mean trial yields ranged from 0.32 to 2.60 and 1.72 to 2.89 Mg ha-1 for bush and climbing bean, respectively. Response to N was common except in Kenya and Mozambique....

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Phylogeny and photosynthesis of the grass tribe Paniceae

Jacob D. Washburn, James C. Schnable, Gerrit Davidse & J. Chris Pires
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The grass tribe Paniceae includes important food, forage, and bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napiergrass, various millet species, and economically important weeds. Paniceae are also valuable for answering scientific and evolutionary questions about C4 photosynthetic evolution, drought tolerance, and spikelet variation. However, the phylogeny of the tribe remains incompletely resolved. METHODS: Forty-five taxa were selected from across the tribe Paniceae and outgroups for genome survey sequencing (GSS). These data were used...

Data from: Migratory shorebird adheres to Bergmann’s Rule by responding to environmental conditions through the annual lifecycle

Daniel Gibson, Angela D. Hornsby, Mary B. Brown, Jonathan B. Cohen, Lauren R. Dinan, James D. Fraser, Meryl J. Friedrich, Cheri L. Gratto-Trevor, Kelsi L. Hunt, Matthew Jeffery, Joel G. Jorgensen, Peter W. C. Paton, Samantha G. Robinson, Jen Rock, Michelle L. Stantial, Chelsea E. Weithman & Daniel H. Catlin
The inverse relationship between body size and environmental temperature is a widespread ecogeographic pattern. However, the underlying forces that produce this pattern are unclear in many taxa. Expectations are particularly unclear for migratory species, as individuals may escape environmental extremes and reorient themselves along the environmental gradient. In addition, some aspects of body size are largely fixed while others are environmentally flexible and may vary seasonally. Here, we used a long‐term dataset that tracked multiple...

Mountain lions reduce movement, increase efficiency during the COVID-19 shutdown

John Benson, Heather Abernathy, Jeff Sikich & Seth Riley
Wildlife strongly alter behavior in response to human disturbance; however, fundamental questions remain regarding the influence of human infrastructure and activity on animal movement. The Covid-19 pandemic created a natural experiment providing an opportunity to evaluate wildlife movement during a period of greatly reduced human activity. Speculation in scientific reviews and the media suggested that wildlife might be increasing movement and colonizing urban landscapes during pandemic slowdowns. However, theory predicts that animals should move and...

Phylogeny and secondary sexual trait evolution in Schizocosa wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae) shows evidence for multiple gains and losses of ornamentation and species delimitation uncertainty

James Starrett, Rowan McGinley, Eileen Hebets & Jason Bond
Members of the Nearctic spider genus Schizocosa Chamberlin, 1904 have garnered much attention in behavioral studies and over many decades, a number of species have developed as model systems for investigating patterns of sexual selection and multimodal communication. Many of these studies have employed a comparative approach using putative, but not rigorously tested, sister species pairs that have distinctive morphological traits and attendant behaviors. Despite past emphasis on the efficacy of these presumably comparative-based studies...

Prey diversity constrains the adaptive potential of predator foraging traits

John DeLong & Kyle Coblentz
Predators are generally under selective pressure to get better at foraging, leading to steeper functional responses and stronger predator-prey interactions. Yet strong interactions can de-stabilize food webs, and most interactions across ecological communities are thought to be weak. This conflict between evolutionary and community expectations for the strength of predator-prey interactions represents a fundamental gap in our understanding of how the evolution of foraging plays out in food webs. Here we help to resolve the...

Bird habitat preferences are related to habitat type and disturbance in the Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary, Ashanti Region (Ghana)

Collins Ayine Nsor, Nana Afua Dei Ankomah, John Mensah Nkrumah, Rockson Acolatse & Emmanuel Danquah
Context: Globally, an estimated 1.3% of the bird population has gone extinct over the last millennia largely due to loss of habitat preferences. Aims: This short-term study investigated disturbance-related drivers as predictors of bird habitat selection and assemblages in the Owabi Ramsar wetland. Methods: The study was carried out over a five-month period (May to September 2019), in four habitat types (farmlands, Built-up, forest reserve, and open water area). Data was collected in 84 plots...

Light environment interacts with visual displays in a species-specific manner in multimodal signaling wolf spiders

Rowan McGinley, James Starrett, Jason Bond & Eileen Hebets
Light availability is highly variable, yet predictable, over various timescales and the light environment is expected to play an important role in the evolution of visual signals. Courtship displays within the wolf spider genus Schizocosa always involve the use of substrate borne vibrations, however, there is substantial variation between species in the use of visual displays. We assessed the impact of light intensity on the courtship of four species of Schizocosa that vary in their...

Genome-wide association mapping to identify genetic loci for cold tolerance and cold recovery during germination in rice

Michael Thomson, Ranjita Thapa & Endang Septiningsih
To investigate the genetic architecture underlying cold tolerance during germination in rice (Oryza sativa), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a novel diversity panel of 257 rice accessions from around the world and 5,185 SNP markers from a 7K SNP marker array. Genotyping was performed using a 7K Illumina iSelect custom-designed array by following the Infinium HD Array Ultra Protocol. The 7K array, called the C7AIR, was designed by Dr. Susan McCouch’s Lab...

Extreme offspring ornamentation in American coots is favored by selection within families, not benefits to conspecific brood parasites

Daizaburo Shizuka & Bruce E. Lyon
Offspring ornamentation typically occurs in taxa with parental care, suggesting that selection arising from social interactions between parents and offspring may underlie signal evolution. American coot babies are among the most ornamented offspring found in nature, sporting vividly orange-red natal plumage, a bright red beak, and other red parts around the face and pate. Previous plumage manipulation experiments showed that ornamented plumage is favored by strong parental choice for chicks with more extreme ornamentation but...

A migratory sparrow has personality in winter that is independent of other traits

Theadora Block, Rachel Star, Alexis Chaine, Daizaburo Shizuka & Bruce Lyon
Small birds in winter face trade-offs between predation risk and foraging, and alternate life-history strategies may arise from these trade-offs. Animal personality shows similarities with alternative life-history strategies, and using a life-history context to understand personality can provide valuable insights. Golden-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia atricapilla, a small migratory bird, have a complex winter social system with high site-fidelity, long-term social associations between individuals and competition mediated by badges of status. We asked whether golden-crowned sparrows show...

Data from: Genomic analysis and prediction within a US public collaborative winter wheat regional testing nursery

Trevor W. Rife, Robert A. Graybosch & Jesse A. Poland
The development of inexpensive, whole-genome profiling enables a transition to allele-based breeding using genomic prediction models. These models consider alleles shared between lines to predict phenotypes and select new lines based on estimated breeding values. This approach can leverage highly-unbalanced datasets common to breeding programs. The Southern Regional Performance Nursery (SRPN) is a public nursery established by the USDA-ARS in 1931 to characterize performance and quality of near-release wheat varieties from breeding programs in the...

Data from: Gene flow mediates the role of sex chromosome meiotic drive during complex speciation

Colin D. Meiklejohn, Emily L. Landeen, Kathleen E. Gordon, Thomas Rzatkiewicz, Sarah B. Kingan, Anthony J. Geneva, Jeffrey P. Vedanayagam, Christina A. Muirhead, Daniel Garrigan, David L. Stern & Daven C. Presgraves
During speciation, sex chromosomes often accumulate interspecific genetic incompatibilities faster than the rest of the genome. The drive theory posits that sex chromosomes are susceptible to recurrent bouts of meiotic drive and suppression, causing the evolutionary build-up of divergent cryptic sex-linked drive systems and, incidentally, genetic incompatibilities. To assess the role of drive during speciation, we combine high-resolution genetic mapping of X-linked hybrid male sterility with population genomics analyses of divergence and recent gene flow...

Data from: Hybridization and reproductive isolation between diploid Erythronium mesochoreum and its tetraploid congener E. albidum (Liliaceae)

Kathy Roccaforte, Sabrina E. Russo & Diana Pilson
Polyploidy has played an important role in angiosperm diversification, but how polyploidy contributes to reproductive isolation remains poorly understood. Most work has focused on postzygotic reproductive barriers, and the influence of ploidy differences on prezygotic barriers is understudied. To address these gaps, we quantified hybrid occurrence, interspecific self-compatibility differences, and the contributions of multiple pre- and postzygotic barriers to reproductive isolation between diploid Erythronium mesochoreum (Liliaceae) and its tetraploid congener E. albidum. Reproductive isolation between...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Predators modify the thermal dependence of life-history trade-offs.

Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clay E. Cressler, John P. DeLong & Clayton E. Cressler
Although life histories are shaped by temperature and predation, their joint influence on the interdependence of life-history traits is poorly understood. Shifts in one life history trait often necessitates shifts in another – structured in some cases by trade-offs – leading to differing life history strategies among environments. The offspring size-number trade-off connects three traits whereby a constant reproductive allocation (R) constrains how the number (O) and size (S) of offspring change. Increasing temperature and...

Data from: Binary-state speciation and extinction method is conditionally robust to realistic violations of its assumptions

Andrew G. Simpson, Peter J. Wagner, Scott L. Wing & Charles B. Fenster
Background: Phylogenetic comparative methods allow us to test evolutionary hypotheses without the benefit of an extensive fossil record. These methods, however, make simplifying assumptions, among them that clades are always increasing or stable in diversity, an assumption we know to be false. This study simulates hypothetical clades to test whether the Binary State Speciation and Extinction (BiSSE) method can be used to correctly detect relative differences in diversification rate between ancestral and derived character states...

Data from: Morphological and molecular evolution and their consequences for conservation and taxonomy in the Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei)

Hernán Vázquez-Miranda, Josie A. Griffin, Jay M. Sheppard, Jordan M. Herman, Octavio Rojas-Soto & Robert M. Zink
We evaluated geographic variation and subspecific taxonomy in the Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) by analyzing DNA sequences from 16 nuclear loci, one mitochondrial DNA locus, and four study skin characters, and compared these data sets with previously published data on plumage coloration and different mtDNA genes. Morphological support for the southernmost taxon, T. l. arenicola, is relatively weak: multivariate analyses of morphometrics or back coloration do not provide diagnostic support, although one color character...

Data from: Ectoparasitism shortens the breeding season in a colonial bird

Charles R. Brown & Mary Bomberger Brown
When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host's breeding season—and thus the host's opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively...

Data from: Multiple factors, including arena size, influence the functional responses of ladybird beetles

Stella F. Uiterwaal & John P. DeLong
1. Functional response studies are often used to determine the suitability of predators as biocontrol agents. Ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) often are used for the control of crop pests such as aphids. However, most functional response studies on coccinellids compare a limited number of species at different life stages, temperatures, or sexes. A large-scale comparison of ladybird beetle functional responses is needed to evaluate the utility of these species as potential biocontrol predators and to...

Data from: Life history traits and functional processes generate multiple pathways to ecological stability

John P. DeLong, Torrance C. Hanley, Jean P. Gibert, Linda M. Puth & David M. Post
Stability contributes to the persistence of ecological communities, yet the interactions among different stabilizing forces are poorly understood. We assembled mesocosms with an algal resource and 1-8 different clones of the consumer Daphnia ambigua and tracked algal and Daphnia abundances through time. We then fitted coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to the consumer-resource time series. We show that variation in different components of stability (local stability and the magnitude of population fluctuations) across mesocosms arises...

Data from: The importance of terrestrial subsidies in stream food webs varies along a stream size gradient

Sarah M. Collins, Tyler J. Kohler, Steven A. Thomas, William W. Fetzer & Alexander S. Flecker
Cross system subsidies of energy and materials can be a substantial fraction of food web fluxes in ecosystems, especially when autochthonous production is strongly limited by light or nutrients. We explored whether assimilation of terrestrial energy varied in specific consumer taxa collected from streams of different sizes and resource availabilities. Since headwater streams are often unproductive, we expected that inputs from surrounding terrestrial systems (i.e. leaf litter, terrestrial invertebrates) would be a more important food...

Data from: Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice

Jeffrey R. Stevens
From finding food to choosing mates, animals must make intertemporal choices that involve fitness benefits available at different times. Species vary dramatically in their willingness to wait for delayed rewards. Why does this variation across species exist? An adaptive approach to intertemporal choice suggests that time preferences should reflect the temporal problems faced in a species's environment. Here, I use phylogenetic regression to test whether allometric factors relating to body size, relative brain size and...

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