167 Works

Data from: Effects of mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) on California oaks

Walter D. Koenig, Johannes M.H. Knops, William J. Carmen, Mario B. Pesendorfer, Janis L. Dickinson & Johannes M. H. Knops
Mistletoes are a widespread group of plants often considered to be hemiparasitic, having detrimental effects on growth and survival of their hosts. We studied the effects of the Pacific mistletoe Phoradendron villosum, a member of a largely autotrophic genus, on three species of deciduous California oaks. We found no effects of mistletoe presence on radial growth or survivorship and detected a significant positive relationship between mistletoe and acorn production. This latter result is potentially explained...

Data from: Convergent evolution in social swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae)

Allison E. Johnson, Jonathan S. Mitchell & Mary Bomberger Brown
Behavioral shifts can initiate morphological evolution by pushing lineages into new adaptive zones. This has primarily been examined in ecological behaviors, such as foraging, but social behaviors may also alter morphology. Swallows and martins (Hirundinidae) are aerial insectivores that exhibit a range of social behaviors, from solitary to colonial breeding and foraging. Using a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, a database of social behaviors, and morphological measurements, we ask how shifts from solitary to social breeding and...

Data from: Cryptic species diversity reveals biogeographic support for the ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ hypothesis

Brian A. Gill, B. C. Kondratieff, K. L. Casner, A. C. Encalada, A. S. Flecker, D. G. Gannon, C. K. Ghalambor, J. M. Guayasamin, N. L. Poff, M. P. Simmons, S. A. Thomas, K. R. Zamudio & W. C. Funk
The ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ (MPHT) hypothesis posits that reduced climate variability at low latitudes should select for narrower thermal tolerances, lower dispersal and smaller elevational ranges compared with higher latitudes. These latitudinal differences could increase species richness at low latitudes, but that increase may be largely cryptic, because physiological and dispersal traits isolating populations might not correspond to morphological differences. Yet previous tests of the MPHT hypothesis have not addressed cryptic...

Data from: Synchronized excitability in a network enables generation of internal neuronal sequences

Yingxue Wang, Zachary Roth & Eva Pastalkova
Hippocampal place field sequences are supported by sensory cues and network internal mechanisms. In contrast, sharp-wave (SPW) sequences, theta sequences, and episode field sequences are internally generated. The relationship of these sequences to memory is unclear. SPW sequences have been shown to support learning and have been assumed to also support episodic memory. Conversely, we demonstrate these SPW sequences were present in trained rats even after episodic memory was impaired and after other internal sequences...

Data from: Phytophagous insect oviposition shifts in response to probability of flower abortion owing to the presence of basal fruits

Shivani Jadeja & Brigitte Tenhumberg
Phytophagous insects use a wide-range of indicators or associated cues to avoid laying eggs in sites where offspring survival is low. For insects that lay eggs in flowers, these unsuitable sites may be created by the host plant’s resource allocation to flowers. In the sequentially flowering host plant, Yucca glauca, late-opening distal flowers are more likely to be aborted in the presence of already-initiated basal fruits because they are strong resource sinks. If flowers are...

Data from: Wheat nutrient response functions for the East Africa highlands

Athanase R. Cyamweshi, Leon N. Nabahungu, Catherine J. Senkoro, Catherine Kibunja, Athanase Mukuralinda, Kayuki C. Kaizzi, Simon M. Mvuyekure, John Kayumba, Keziah W. Ndungu-Magiroi, Mary N. Koech, Charles S. Wortmann & Charles Wortmann
Wheat (Triticum æstivum L.) is an important East Africa highland crop but yields are low. Information is scarce for optimization of fertilizer use. Research was conducted to determine yield response functions for N, P and K, and to diagnose Mg–S–Zn–B deficiencies. The average grain yield increase in Rwanda due to N application was 1.5 Mg ha−1 with a mean economically optimal rate (EOR) of 68 kg ha−1 N. In Kenya and Tanzania, yield was increased...

Data from: Arena size modulates functional responses via behavioral mechanisms

Stella F. Uiterwaal, Anthony I. Dell & John P. DeLong
Laboratory-based functional response experiments, in which foraging rates are measured across a range of resource densities, are central for determining trophic interaction strength. Historically these experiments often are performed in arbitrarily sized arenas, with larger sized organisms generally used in larger arenas. However, arena size influences foraging rates and therefore also estimates of the functional response parameters, particularly space clearance rate (attack rate). We hypothesized that non-random movement within arenas by predators and prey may...

Data from: Individual resource limitation combined with population-wide pollen availability drives masting in the valley oak (Quercus lobata)

Walter D. Koenig, Mario B. Pesendorfer, Ian S. Pearse, Johannes M. H. Knops & Kyle A. Funk
1. Masting, the synchronized production of variable seed crops, is widespread among woody plants, but there is no consensus about the underlying proximate mechanisms. To understand this population-level behavior, it is necessary to dissect the behavior of individual trees as well as the interactions that synchronize them. 2. Here we test a model of masting in which variability in seed set is driven by resource limitation within trees and synchrony is driven by pollen limitation...

Data from: Nestling and adult sparrows respond differently to conspecific dialects

Emily Jane Hudson, Matthew Hahn & Daizaburo Shizuka
Understanding the causes and consequences of divergence in mate recognition traits has long been a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. In songbirds, songs are culturally transmitted, and cultural divergence can generate discrete geographic variation in song (i.e., dialects). Understanding how responses to within- versus across-species variation in songs changes across life stages may shed light on the functional significance of population divergence in learned traits. Here, we use a novel combination of song playbacks to...

Data from: Evaluation of acoustic telemetry grids for determining aquatic animal movement and survival

Richard T. Kraus, Christopher M. Holbrook, Christopher S. Vandergoot, Taylor R. Stewart, Matthew D. Faust, Douglas A. Watkinson, Colin Charles, Mark Pegg, Eva C. Enders & Charles C. Krueger
1. Acoustic telemetry studies have frequently prioritized linear configurations of hydrophone receivers, such as perpendicular from shorelines or across rivers, to detect the presence of tagged aquatic animals. This approach introduces unknown bias when receivers are stationed for convenience at geographic bottlenecks (e.g., at the mouth of an embayment or between islands) as opposed to deployments following a statistical sampling design. 2. We evaluated two-dimensional acoustic receiver arrays (grids: receivers spread uniformly across space) as...

Data from: The greatest hits of all time: the histories of dominant genera in the fossil record

Roy E. Plotnick & Peter Wagner
Certain taxa are noticeably common within collections, widely distributed, and frequently long-lived. We have examined these dominant genera as compared to rarer genera, with a focus on their temporal histories. Using occurrence data from the Paleobiology Database, we determined which genera belonging to six target groups ranked among the most common within each of 49 temporal bins based on occurrences. The turnover among these dominant taxa from bin-to-bin was then determined for each of these...

Data from: Mesotocin influences pinyon jay prosociality.

Juan F. Duque, Whitney Leichner, Holly Ahmann & Jeffrey R. Stevens
Many species exhibit prosocial behavior, in which one individual’s actions benefit another individual, often without an immediate benefit to itself. The neuropeptide oxytocin is an important hormonal mechanism influencing prosociality in mammals, but it is unclear whether the avian homologue mesotocin plays a similar functional role in birds. Here, we experimentally tested prosociality in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), a highly social corvid species that spontaneously shares food with others. First, we measured prosocial preferences in...

Data from: Multispecies invasion reduces the negative impact of single alien plant species on native flora

Magdalena Lenda, Piotr Skórka, Johannes Knops, Michał Żmihorski, Renata Gaj, Dawid Moroń, Michal Woyciechowski & Piotr Tryjanowski
Aim: In the current Anthropocene, many ecosystems are being simultaneously invaded by multiple alien species. Some of these invasive species become more dominant and have greater environmental impacts than others. If two potentially dominant species invade the same area, the combined impact has been reported to be either (1) domination by one species, i.e., the competitive dominance of one invader, or (2) invasion meltdown, where the combined impact is much greater, i.e., a synergistic effect....

Data from: Voluntary food sharing in pinyon jays: the role of reciprocity and dominance

Juan F. Duque & Jeffrey R. Stevens
Food sharing offers a clear example of prosocial behaviour, in which one individual's actions benefit another. Researchers have proposed a range of hypotheses that explain why food sharing may occur among unrelated individuals. Two such hypotheses, reciprocity and dominance, have been tested in many species, including fish, corvids, rats, bats and primates, showing that (1) recipients sometimes reciprocate sharing back to previous donors and (2) dominant individuals share more than subordinates. Although primates dominate the...

Data from: Competition for hummingbird pollination shapes flower color variation in Andean Solanaceae

Nathan Muchhala, Sönke Johnsen & Stacey Dewitt Smith
One classic explanation for the remarkable diversity of flower colors across angiosperms involves evolutionary shifts among different types of pollinators with different color preferences. However, the pollinator shift model fails to account for the many examples of color variation within clades that share the same pollination system. An alternate explanation is the competition model, which suggests that color divergence evolves in response to interspecific competition for pollinators, as a means to decrease interspecific pollinator movements....

Data from: Nutrient regulation strategies differ between cricket morphs that trade-off dispersal and reproduction

Rebecca M. Clark, Ashley McConnell, Anthony J. Zera & Spencer T. Behmer
1. Nutrient regulation should covary with life history, but actual demonstrations of this connection are rare. 2. Here we use a wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, that trades-off dispersal and reproduction; the long-winged morph with functional flight muscles (LW(f)) is adapted for dispersal at the expense of egg production, while the short-winged (SW) morph is adapted for egg production at the expense of flight. We explore the extent to which these two morphs differentially regulate macronutrient...

Data from: Females can solve the problem of low signal reliability by assessing multiple male traits

Abigail K. Wegehaupt, & William E. Wagner
Male signals that provide information to females about mating benefits are often of low reliability. It is thus not clear why females often express strong signal preferences. We tested the hypothesis that females can distinguish between males with preferred signals that provide lower and higher quality direct benefits. In the field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females usually prefer higher male chirp rates, but chirp rate is positively correlated with the fecundity benefits females will receive from...

Data from: Social-ecological landscape patterns predict woody encroachment from native tree plantings in a temperate grassland

Victoria M. Donovan, Jessica L. Burnett, Christine H. Bielski, Hannah E. Birge, Rebecca Bevans, Dirac Twidwell & Craig R. Allen
Afforestation is often viewed as the purposeful planting of trees in historically non-forested grasslands, but an unintended consequence is woody encroachment, which should be considered part of the afforestation process. In North America’s temperate grassland biome, Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is a native species used in tree plantings that aggressively invades in the absence of controlling processes. Cedar is a well-studied woody encroacher, but little is known about the degree to which cedar windbreaks,...

Data from: Prediction of genetic values of quantitative traits with epistatic effects in plant breeding populations

Dong Wang, Ibrahim El-Basyoni, P. S. Baenziger, Jose Crossa, Kent Eskridge & I. Dweikat
Though epistasis has long been postulated to play a critical role in genetic regulation of important pathways as well as provide a major source of variation in the process of speciation, the importance of epistasis for genomic selection in the context of plant breeding is still being debated. In this paper, we report the results on the prediction of genetic values with epistatic effects for 280 accessions in the Nebraska Wheat Breeding Program using adaptive...

Data from: The effects of microhabitat specialization on mating communication in a wolf spider

Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Eileen A. Hebets, Benji Kessler, Rowan McGinley & Damian O. Elias
Animal signals experience selection for detectability, which is determined in large part by the signal transmission properties of the habitat. Understanding the ecological context in which communication takes place is therefore critical to understanding selection on the form of communication signals. In order to determine the influence of environmental heterogeneity on signal transmission, we focus on a wolf spider species native to central Florida, Schizocosa floridana, in which males court females using a substrate-borne vibratory...

Data from: Pyric herbivory, scales of heterogeneity, and drought

Christine H. Bielski, Dirac Twidwell, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Carissa L. Wonkka, Brady W. Allred, Tyson E. Ochsner, Erik S. Krueger, J. D. Carlson & David M. Engle
1. Understanding how extreme drought alters spatial patterns and temporal stability in grassland biomass will become increasingly important by the end of the century when climate model forecasts suggest drought events will occur more frequently. In grassland landscapes where grazing is driven by fire (termed pyric herbivory), temporal stability in aboveground plant biomass at landscape scales typically coincides with greater spatial variability across local communities (time-since fire patches), whereas variability within local communities is associated...

Data from: Correction of location errors for presence-only species distribution models

Trevor J. Hefley, David M. Baasch, Andrew J. Tyre & Erin E. Blankenship
1. Species distribution models (SDMs) for presence-only data depend on accurate and precise measurements of geographic and environmental covariates that influence presence and abundance of the species. Some data sets, however, may contain both systematic and random errors in the recorded location of the species. Environmental covariates at the recorded location may differ from those at the true location and result in biased parameter estimates and predictions from SDMs. 2. Regression calibration is a well-developed...

Data from: Simultaneous delimitation of species and quantification of interspecific hybridization in Amazonian peacock cichlids (genus Cichla) using multi-locus data

Stuart C. Willis, Jason Macrander, Izeni P. Farias & Guillermo Orti
BACKGROUND: Introgression likely plays a significant role in evolution, but understanding the extent and consequences of this process requires a clear identification of species boundaries in each focal group. The delimitation of species, however, is a contentious endeavor. This is true not only because of the inadequacy of current tools to identify species lineages, but also because of the inherent ambiguity between natural populations and species paradigms. The result has been a debate about the...

Data from: Pearl millet and cowpea intercrop response to applied nutrients in West Africa

Nouri Maman, Mohamed Dicko, Gonda Abdou, Zoumana Kouyate & Charles Wortmann
In the Sahel, crop production is dominated by pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] cropping systems including intercropping with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. The research objectives were to determine pearl millet sole crop (PMSC) and intercrop nutrient response functions, profit opportunities from fertilizer use, and a means of relating intercrop to PMSC response. Pearl millet–cowpea trials were conducted in Niger and Mali. The treatment structure was an incomplete factorial with five, four, and...

Data from: Habitat, latitude, and body mass influence the temperature dependence of metabolic rate

John P. DeLong, Gwendolyn Bachman, Jean P. Gibert, Thomas M. Luhring, Kristi L. Montooth, Abigail Neyer & Ben Reed
The sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature constrains the climate in which ectotherms can function, yet the temperature dependence of metabolic rate may evolve in response to biotic and abiotic factors. We compiled a dataset on the temperature dependence of metabolic rate for heterotrophic ectotherms from studies that show a peak in metabolic rate at an optimal temperature (i.e., that describe the thermal performance curve for metabolic rate). We found that peak metabolic rates were...

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