16 Works

Data from: Extreme prescribed fire during drought reduces survival and density of woody resprouters

Dirac Twidwell, William E. Rogers, Carissa L. Wonkka, , Urs P. Kreuter & Charles A. Taylor
Management intervention in ecosystems with degraded environmental services requires innovative resource management strategies that go beyond conventional restoration and conservation practices. We established a unique study that experimentally targeted extreme fire conditions during drought in humid subtropical and semiarid ecoregions. In the southern Great Plains of North America, conventional restoration and conservation practices have been either historically ineffective or economically cost prohibitive at restoring grass-dominated ecosystems following conversion to resprouting shrublands. Our aim was to...

Data from: Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Julian N. Marewski, Lael J. Schooler & Ian C. Gilby
In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

Data from: Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

Niaz Ali, J. S. Heslop-Harrison, Habib Ahmad, Robert A. Graybosch, Gary L. Hein & Trude Schwarzacher
Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while,...

Data from: Context-dependent seed dispersal by a scatter-hoarding corvid

Mario B. Pesendorfer, T. Scott Sillett, Scott A. Morrison & Alan C. Kamil
1. Corvids (crows, jays, magpies and nutcrackers) are important dispersers of large-seeded plants. Studies on captive or supplemented birds suggest that they flexibly adjust their scatter-hoarding behaviour to the context of social dynamics and relative seed availability. Because many corvid-dispersed trees show high annual variation in seed production, context-dependent foraging can have strong effects on natural corvid scatter-hoarding behaviour. 2. We investigated how seed availability and social dynamics affected scatter-hoarding in the island scrub jays...

Data from: Diversification of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the tomato family Solanaceae

Daniel J. Gates, Susan R. Strickler, Lukas A. Mueller, Bradley J. S. C. Olson & Stacey D. Smith
MYB transcription factors play an important role in regulating key plant developmental processes involving defense, cell shape, pigmentation, and root formation. Within this gene family, sequences containing an R2R3 MYB domain are the most abundant type and exhibit a wide diversity of functions. In this study, we identify 559 R2R3 MYB genes using whole genome data from four species of Solanaceae and reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. We compare the Solanaceae R2R3 MYBs to the well-characterized...

Data from: Phenotypic differentiation is associated with divergent sexual selection among closely related barn swallow populations

Matthew R. Wilkins, Hakan Karaardıç, Yoni Vortman, Thomas L. Parchman, Tomáš Albrecht, Adéla Petrželková, Leyla Özkan, Peter L. Pap, Joanna K. Hubbard, Amanda K. Hund & Rebecca J. Safran
Sexual selection plays a key role in the diversification of numerous animal clades and may accelerate trait divergence during speciation. However, much of our understanding of this process comes from phylogenetic comparative studies, which rely on surrogate measures such as dimorphism that may not represent selection in wild populations. In this study, we assess sexual selection pressures for multiple male visual signals across four barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations. Our sample encompassed 2400 linear km...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Local perspectives on environmental insecurity and its influence on illegal biodiversity exploitation

Meredith L. Gore, Michelle Lute, Jonah H. Ratsimbazafy, Andry Rajaonson & Michelle L. Lute
Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88)...

Data from: Individual resource limitation combined with population-wide pollen availability drives masting in the valley oak (Quercus lobata)

Walter D. Koenig, Mario B. Pesendorfer, Ian S. Pearse, Johannes M. H. Knops & Kyle A. Funk
1. Masting, the synchronized production of variable seed crops, is widespread among woody plants, but there is no consensus about the underlying proximate mechanisms. To understand this population-level behavior, it is necessary to dissect the behavior of individual trees as well as the interactions that synchronize them. 2. Here we test a model of masting in which variability in seed set is driven by resource limitation within trees and synchrony is driven by pollen limitation...

Data from: Horizontal gene acquisitions, mobile element proliferation, and genome decay in the host - restricted plant pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila

Lori R. Shapiro, Erin D. Scully, Timothy J. Straub, Jihye Park, Andrew G. Stephenson, Gwyn A. Beattie, Mark L. Gleason, Roberto Kolter, Miguel C. Coelho, Consuelo M. De Moraes, Mark C. Mescher & Olga Zhaxybayeva
Modern industrial agriculture depends on high density cultivation of genetically similar crop plants, creating favorable conditions for the emergence of novel pathogens with increased fitness in managed compared to ecologically intact settings. Here, we present the genome sequence of six strains of the cucurbit bacterial wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila (Enterobacteriaceae) isolated from infected squash plants in New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Michigan. These genomes exhibit a high proportion of recent horizontal gene acquisitions, invasion and...

Data from: Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees

Lewis H. Ziska, Jeffery S. Pettis, Joan Edwards, Jillian E. Hancock, Martha B. Tomecek, Andrew Clark, Jeffrey S. Dukes, Irakli Loladze & H. Wayne Polley
At present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Ca. However, whether Ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. Bombus spp.) and honeybee (Apis...

Data from: Convergent evolution in social swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae)

Allison E. Johnson, Jonathan S. Mitchell & Mary Bomberger Brown
Behavioral shifts can initiate morphological evolution by pushing lineages into new adaptive zones. This has primarily been examined in ecological behaviors, such as foraging, but social behaviors may also alter morphology. Swallows and martins (Hirundinidae) are aerial insectivores that exhibit a range of social behaviors, from solitary to colonial breeding and foraging. Using a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, a database of social behaviors, and morphological measurements, we ask how shifts from solitary to social breeding and...

Data from: Cryptic species diversity reveals biogeographic support for the ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ hypothesis

Brian A. Gill, B. C. Kondratieff, K. L. Casner, A. C. Encalada, A. S. Flecker, D. G. Gannon, C. K. Ghalambor, J. M. Guayasamin, N. L. Poff, M. P. Simmons, S. A. Thomas, K. R. Zamudio & W. C. Funk
The ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ (MPHT) hypothesis posits that reduced climate variability at low latitudes should select for narrower thermal tolerances, lower dispersal and smaller elevational ranges compared with higher latitudes. These latitudinal differences could increase species richness at low latitudes, but that increase may be largely cryptic, because physiological and dispersal traits isolating populations might not correspond to morphological differences. Yet previous tests of the MPHT hypothesis have not addressed cryptic...

Data from: Voluntary food sharing in pinyon jays: the role of reciprocity and dominance

Juan F. Duque & Jeffrey R. Stevens
Food sharing offers a clear example of prosocial behaviour, in which one individual's actions benefit another. Researchers have proposed a range of hypotheses that explain why food sharing may occur among unrelated individuals. Two such hypotheses, reciprocity and dominance, have been tested in many species, including fish, corvids, rats, bats and primates, showing that (1) recipients sometimes reciprocate sharing back to previous donors and (2) dominant individuals share more than subordinates. Although primates dominate the...

Data from: The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: an experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica

Rebecca Safran, Yoni Vortman, Brittany R. Jenkins, Joanna K. Hubbard, Matthew R. Wilkins, Rachel J. Bradley & Arnon Lotem
Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Nebraska - Lincoln
  • University of Colorado Boulder
  • University of Minnesota
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Monash University
  • Tel Aviv University
  • University of KwaZulu-Natal
  • Cornell University
  • Michigan State University
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research