43 Works

Data from: Fire, grazing, and climate shape plant-grasshopper interactions in a tallgrass prairie

Ellen A.R. Welti, Fan Qiu, Hannah M. Tetreault, Mark Ungerer, John Blair, Anthony Joern & Ellen A. R. Welti
1. Species interactions are integral to ecological community function and the structure of species interactions has repercussions for the consequences of species extinctions. Few studies have examined the role of environmental factors in controlling species interaction networks across time. 2. We examined variation in plant-grasshopper network structural properties in response to three major grassland drivers: periodic fire, ungulate grazing and climate. 3. We sequenced a plant barcoding gene from extracted grasshopper gut contents to characterize...

Data from: Geo-climatic factors drive diatom community distribution in tropical South American freshwaters

Xavier Benito, Sherilyn Fritz, Miriam Steinitz-Kannan, Pedro M. Tapia, Meredith A. Kelly, Thomas V. Lowell & Sherilyn C. Fritz
1.Patterns that maintain and generate biodiversity of macro-organisms in the Neotropics are widely discussed in the scientific literature, yet the spatial ecology of microorganisms is largely unknown. The unique character of the tropical Andes and adjacent Amazon lowlands generates a wide gradient of environmental conditions to advance our understanding of what drives community assembly and diversity processes. 2.We analyzed the distribution patterns of benthic diatoms (unicellular siliceous algae) as a model group of microbial passive...

Data from: Species limits and phylogenomic relationships of Darwin’s finches remain unresolved: potential consequences of a volatile ecological setting

Robert M. Zink & Hernán Vázquez-Miranda
Island biotas have become paradigms for illustrating many evolutionary processes. The fauna of the Galapagos Islands includes several taxa that have been focal points for evolutionary studies. Perhaps their most famous inhabitants, Darwin’s finches, represent a go-to icon when thinking about how species originate and adapt to the environment. However, unlike other adaptive radiations, past morphological and molecular studies of Darwin’s finches have yielded inconsistent hypotheses of species limits and phylogenetic relationships. Expecting that idiosyncrasies...

Data from: Does perceived predation risk affect patterns of extra-pair paternity? A field experiment in a passerine bird

Robin N. Abbey-Lee, Yimen Gerardo Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet, Maria Moiron, Erica F. Stuber, Bart Kempenaers & Niels J. Dingemanse
1. Non-consumptive predator effects have been shown to influence a wide range of behavioural, life history, and morphological traits. Extra-pair reproduction is widespread among socially monogamous birds and may incur predation costs. Consequently, altered rates of extra-pair reproduction are expected in circumstances characterized by increased adult perceived predation risk. 2. Additionally, extra-pair reproduction is expected to be most affected for birds with phenotypes that generally increase predation risk (such as more active individuals). 3. In...

Data from: Males mate with multiple females to increase offspring numbers in a nursery web spider

Alissa G. Anderson, Eileen A. Hebets, Bridget M. Bickner & J. Colton Watts
Males are often expected to benefit from mating with multiple females; however, in species where females are highly cannibalistic, achieving multiple matings may be a difficult task. When males employ strategies to avoid sexual cannibalism, it is presumed that there are benefits associated with survival – e.g. increased fitness associated with more mating opportunities. In the nursery web spider (Pisaurina mira), all males attempt to avoid sexual cannibalism by wrapping female’s legs in silk prior...

Data from: Fertilizer application effects on grain and storage root nutrient concentration

Charles S. Wortmann, Mohammed K. Dicko, Nouri Maman, Catherine J. Senkoro & Bitrus Dawi Tarfa
Fertilizer application can affect nutrient concentrations of edible plant products. Data from 70 crop-nutrient response trials conducted in Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Tanzania were used to evaluate nutrient application effects on nutrient concentrations for grain of five pulse and five cereal crops and for storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.). Treatments per trial were ≥12 but this study was limited to: no fertilizer applied; macronutrients applied (NPK or PK); and the macronutrient treatment plus...

Data from: Bean yield and economic response to fertilizer in eastern and southern Africa

K. C. Kaizzi, A. R. Cyamweshi, C. N. Kibunja, C. Senkoro, D. Nkonde, R. Maria, C. S. Wortmann, L Nabahungu & Charles Wortmann
Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is important in sub-Saharan Africa for human dietary protein. Low yields are attributed to biotic and abiotic constraints including inadequate nutrient availability. Research was conducted to determine nutrient response functions for bean production areas of Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. Mean trial yields ranged from 0.32 to 2.60 and 1.72 to 2.89 Mg ha-1 for bush and climbing bean, respectively. Response to N was common except in Kenya and Mozambique....

Data from: Mitochondrial dysfunction and infection generate immunity-fecundity tradeoffs in Drosophila

Justin L. Buchanan, Colin D. Meiklejohn & Kristi L. Montooth
Physiological responses to short-term environmental stressors, such as infection, can have long-term consequences for fitness, particularly if the responses are inappropriate or nutrient resources are limited. Genetic variation affecting energy acquisition, storage, and usage can limit cellular energy availability and may influence resource-allocation tradeoffs even when environmental nutrients are plentiful. Here, we utilized Drosophila mitochondrial-nuclear genotypes to test whether disrupted mitochondrial function interferes with nutrient-sensing pathways, and whether this disruption has consequences for tradeoffs between...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Social contact patterns can buffer costs of forgetting in the evolution of cooperation

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Jan K. Woike, Lael J. Schooler, Stefan Lindner & Thorsten Pachur
Analyses of the evolution of cooperation often rely on two simplifying assumptions: (i) individuals interact equally frequently with all social network members and (ii) they accurately remember each partner's past cooperation or defection. Here, we examine how more realistic, skewed patterns of contact---in which individuals interact primarily with only a subset of their network's members---influence cooperation. In addition, we test whether skewed contact patterns can counteract the decrease in cooperation caused by memory errors (i.e.,...

Data from: Maize-nutrient response functions for Eastern and Southern Africa

Charles S. Wortmann, Catherine Senkoro, Athanase R. Cyamweshi, Catherine Kibunja, Davy Nkonde, Moses Munthali, Patson Nalivata, Léon N. Nabahungu, Kayuki Kaizzi & Charles Wortmann
Information is scarce for maize (Zea mays L.) response to nutrient application for many production areas in tropical Africa. Research was conducted to determine macronutrient response functions and to diagnose Mg–S–Zn–B deficiencies. Site–year × N-rate interactions within countries often accounted for little variation in yield relative to the N-rate effect. Country mean grain yield responses to N-rate were curvilinear to plateau, but linear in Malawi. Although mean yields differed, the response to N was similar...

Data from: Modification of wheat gluten for improvement of binding capacity with keratin in hair

Shukun Wang, Danyang Meng, Sisi Wang, Zhong Zhang, Ruijin Yang & Wei Zhao
In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis and cationization with epoxypropyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride of wheat protein, an economic protein complex containing great amount of disulfide bonds, were conducted to improve properties such as solubility and disassociation behaviour for recovery of damaged hair when used in shampoo. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were pH 8.2, 55°C with Alcalase for 60 min. After the selected hydrolysis, the degree of hydrolysis, nitrogen solubility index, foaming capacity index, foam stability index,...

Data from: Modeled and measured ecosystem respiration in maize–soybean systems over 10 years

Ming Zhan, Adam J. Liska, Anthony L. Nguy-Robertson, Andrew E. Suyker, Matthew P. Pelton & Haishun Yang
Crop residue is an abundant resource for the potential production of biofuels, but a better understanding of its use on net carbon emissions must be developed to mitigate climate change. This analysis combines two established crop growth models (Hybrid-Maize and Soysim) with a simple soil and crop residue respiration model to estimate daily ecosystem respiration (ERe) from maize and soybean; ERe was estimated to be the sum of CO2 emissions from the oxidation of the...

Data from: Field evidence challenges the often-presumed relationship between early male maturation and female-biased sexual size dimorphism

Marie-Claire Chelini & Eileen Hebets
Female‐biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often considered an epiphenomenon of selection for the increased mating opportunities provided by early male maturation (i.e., protandry). Empirical evidence of the adaptive significance of protandry remains nonetheless fairly scarce. We use field data collected throughout the reproductive season of an SSD crab spider, Mecaphesa celer, to test two hypotheses: Protandry provides fitness benefits to males, leading to female‐biased SSD, or protandry is an indirect consequence of selection for...

Data from: Sorghum and groundnut sole and intercrop nutrient response in semi-arid West Africa

N. Maman, M. K. Dicko, A. Gonda, C. S. Wortmann, Idriss Serme, Korodjuma Ouattara & A Bandogo
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)–groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) intercropping is important in the Sahel and Sudan Savanna. Nineteen trials were conducted during 2014 and 2015 in Mali and Niger for determination of: response functions for sorghum sole crop (SSC) and intercrop to N, P, and K; effects of the P×N interaction and of a nutrient package for diagnosis of other deficiencies; and a procedure for estimation of intercrop functions from SSC response functions. Six Niger...

Data from: High soil test phosphorus effect on corn yield

Charles Wortmann, Charles Shapiro, Tim Shaver & Michael Mainz Retired
Phosphorus removal in crop harvest has increased as yields have increased. Fertilizer P use guidelines are based on calibrations often developed for much lower yield levels and may need recalibration. Corn yields may be greater with higher than recommended soil test P when springs are relatively wet and cool. Research was conducted across 12 irrigated and five rainfed siteyr in Nebraska with initial Bray-1 P ≤ 11 mg kg–1 to evaluate P application strategies for...

Data from: Maize-nutrient response information applied across Sub-Saharan Africa

Charles S. Wortmann, Maribeth Milner, Kayuki C. Kaizzi, Maman Nouri, Athanase R. Cyamweshi, Mohammed K. Dicko, Catherine N. Kibunja, Martin Macharia, Ricardo Maria, Patson C. Nalivata, Negash Demissie, Davy Nkonde, Korodjouma Ouattara, Catherine J. Senkoro, Bitrus Dawi Tarfa & Francis M. Tetteh
The profit potential for a given investment in fertilizer use can be estimated using representative crop nutrient response functions. Where response data is scarce, determination of representative response functions can be strengthened by using results from homologous crop growing conditions. Maize (Zea mays L.) nutrient response functions were selected from the Optimization of Fertilizer Recommendations in Africa (OFRA) database of 5500 georeferenced response functions determined from field research conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa. Three methods for...

Data from: Lake regionalization and diatom metacommunity structuring in tropical South America

Xavier Benito, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Miriam Steinitz-Kannan, Maria I. Vélez & Michael M. McGlue
Lakes and their topological distribution across Earth’s surface impose ecological and evolutionary constraints on aquatic metacommunities. In this study, we group similar lake ecosystems as metacommunity units influencing diatom community structure. We assembled a database of 195 lakes from the tropical Andes and adjacent lowlands (8ºN–30ºS and 58–79ºW) with associated environmental predictors to examine diatom metacommunity patterns at two different levels: taxon and functional (deconstructed species matrix by ecological guilds). We also derived spatial variables...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

Data from: Time-lagged effects of weather on plant demography: drought and Astragalus scaphoides

Brigitte Tenhumberg, Elizabeth E. Crone, Satu Ramula & Andrew J. Tyre
Temperature and precipitation determine the conditions where plant species can occur. Despite their significance, to date, surprisingly few demographic field studies have considered the effects of abiotic drivers. This is problematic because anticipating the effect of global climate change on plant population viability requires understanding how weather variables affect population dynamics. One possible reason for omitting the effect of weather variables in demographic studies is the difficulty in detecting tight associations between vital rates and...

Data from: Dynamic changes in display architecture and function across environments revealed by a systems approach to animal communication

Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Matthew R. Wilkins, Daizaburo Shizuka & Eileen A. Hebets
Animal communication is often structurally complex and dynamic, with signaler and receiver behavior varying in response to multiple environmental factors. To date, studies assessing signal dynamics have mostly focused on the relationships between select signaling traits and receiver responses in a single environment. We use the wolf spider Schizocosa floridana to explore the relationships between courtship display form and function across two social contexts (female presence vs. absence) and two light environments (light vs. dark)....

Data from: Song recognition and heterospecific associations between two fairy-wren species (Maluridae)

Allison E. Johnson, Christina Masco & Stephen Pruett-Jones
Although heterospecific associations beneficial to one or both species involved (e.g. commensalisms or mutualisms) are common, it is generally assumed that interactions between species are transient and not particular to individuals. However, long-term interactions between individuals of different species do occur. In such heterospecific social groups, discrimination between heterospecific individuals may be beneficial, allowing individuals to direct beneficial or aggressive behaviors towards appropriate targets. Here we describe heterospecific groups composed of splendid and variegated fairy-wrens...

Data from: Multiple factors, including arena size, influence the functional responses of ladybird beetles

Stella F. Uiterwaal & John P. DeLong
1. Functional response studies are often used to determine the suitability of predators as biocontrol agents. Ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) often are used for the control of crop pests such as aphids. However, most functional response studies on coccinellids compare a limited number of species at different life stages, temperatures, or sexes. A large-scale comparison of ladybird beetle functional responses is needed to evaluate the utility of these species as potential biocontrol predators and to...

Data from: Fire legacies in eastern ponderosa pine forests

Caleb P. Roberts, Victoria M. Donovan, Carissa L. Wonkka, Larkin A. Powell, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, David A. Wedin & Dirac Twidwell
1. Disturbance legacies in structures communities and ecological memory, but due to increasing changes in disturbance regimes, it is becoming more difficult to characterize disturbance legacies or determine how long they persist. 2. We sought to quantify the characteristics and persistence of material legacies (e.g., biotic residuals of disturbance) that arise from variation in fire severity in an eastern ponderosa pine forest in North America. We compared forest stand structure and understory woody plant and...

Data from: Plumage colouration and social context influence male investment in song

Lindsay J. Henderson, Kathleen R. Brazeal & Thomas P. Hahn
Animals use multiple signals to attract mates, including elaborate song, brightly coloured ornaments and physical displays. Female birds often prefer both elaborate male song, and intense carotenoid-based plumage colouration. This could lead less visually ornamented males to increase song production to maximize their attractiveness to females. We tested this possibility in the highly social and non-territorial house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), in which females discriminate among males based on both song, and on the intensity of...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    43

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    43

Affiliations

  • University of Nebraska - Lincoln
    43
  • Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique du Niger
    4
  • Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization
    4
  • Rwanda Agriculture Board
    4
  • University of Kentucky
    3
  • Lilongwe university of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    2
  • Ahmadu Bello University
    2
  • Institut D'Economie Rurale
    2
  • Oklahoma State University
    2
  • Northern Kentucky University
    2