172 Works

Data from: Evolution at a different pace: distinctive phylogenetic patterns of cone snails from two ancient oceanic archipelagos

Regina L. Cunha, Fernando P. Lima, Manuel J. Tenorio, Ana A. Ramos, Rita Castilho & Suzanne T. Williams
Ancient oceanic archipelagos of similar geological age are expected to accrue comparable numbers of endemic lineages with identical life history strategies, especially if the islands exhibit analogous habitats. We tested this hypothesis using marine snails of the genus Conus from the Atlantic archipelagos of Cape Verde and Canary Islands. Together with Azores and Madeira, these archipelagos comprise the Macaronesia biogeographic region and differ remarkably in the diversity of this group. More than 50 endemic Conus...

Data from: Real-time assessment of hybridization between wolves and dogs: combining non-invasive samples with ancestry informative markers

Raquel Godinho, José Vicente López-Bao, Diana Castro, Luís Llaneza, Susana Lopes, Pedro Silva & Nuno Ferrand
Wolves and dogs provide a paradigmatic example of the ecological and conservation implications of hybridization events between wild and domesticated forms. However, our understanding of such implications has been traditionally hampered by both high genetic similarity and the difficulties in obtaining tissue samples (TS), which limit our ability to assess ongoing hybridization events. To assess the occurrence and extension of hybridization in a pack of wolf-dog hybrids in Northwestern Iberia, we compared the power of...

Data from: Natural selection for the Duffy-null allele in the recently admixed people of Madagascar

Jason A. Hodgson, Joseph K. Pickrell, Laurel N. Pearson, Ellen E. Quillen, Antonio Prista, Jorge Rocha, Himla Soodyall, Mark D. Shriver & George H. Perry
While gene flow between distantly related populations is increasingly recognized as a potentially important source of adaptive genetic variation for humans, fully characterized examples are rare. In addition, the role that natural selection for resistance to vivax malaria may have played in the extreme distribution of the protective Duffy-null allele, which is nearly completely fixed in mainland sub-Saharan Africa and absent elsewhere, is controversial. We address both these issues by investigating the evolution of the...

Data from: Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments

Gonçalo C. Cardoso, Ana V. Leitão, Caterina Funghi, Helena R. Batalha, Ricardo J. Lopes & Paulo G. Mota
Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence non-sexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution...

Data from: Steep clines within a highly permeable genome across a hybrid zone between two subspecies of the European rabbit

Miguel Carneiro, Stuart J. E. Baird, Sandra Afonso, Esther Ramirez, Pedro Tarroso, Henrique Teotonio, Rafael Villafuerte, Michael W. Nachman & Nuno Ferrand
Maintenance of genetic distinction in the face of gene flow is an important aspect of the speciation process. Here, we provide a detailed spatial and genetic characterization of a hybrid zone between two subspecies of the European rabbit. We examined patterns of allele frequency change for 22 markers located on the autosomes, X-chromosome, Y-chromosome, and mtDNA in 1078 individuals sampled across the hybrid zone. While some loci revealed extremely wide clines (w>=300 km) relative to...

Optimising bat bioacoustic surveys in human-modified neotropical landscapes

Adrià López-Baucells, Natalie Yoh, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo Bobrowiec, Jorge Palmeirim & Christoph Meyer
During the last decades, the use of bioacoustics as a non-invasive and cost-effective sampling method has greatly increased worldwide. For bats, acoustic surveys have long been known to complement traditional mist-netting, however, appropriate protocol guidelines are still lacking for tropical regions. Establishing the minimum sampling effort needed to detect ecological changes in bat assemblages (e.g., activity, composition and richness) is crucial in view of workload and project cost constraints, and because detecting such changes must...

Intervenção Precoce na linha de horizonte das famílias

Marina Fuertes
Numa linguagem acessível pretende-se responder a algumas questões habitualmente colocadas pelas famílias quando procuram serviços de intervenção precoce: O que é a intervenção precoce na infância? Que serviços podem ser prestados e por quem? Qual o quadro legal em Portugal? Que papel podem ter as equipas locais de intervenção precoce? No processo de resposta procura-se desmistificar algumas ideias sobre o desenvolvimento infantil e sobre as práticas de intervenção precoce e, sobretudo, salientar o contributo da...

Large-Eddy Simulations of T-shaped Open-Channel Confluences With Different Downstream Channel Widths

Pedro Xavier Ramos, Laurent Schindfessel, João Pedro Pêgo & Tom De Mulder
Confluences of open-channel flows are common in nature as well as in urban drainage networks and in hydraulic structures. The complex hydrodynamics is often studied in schematized, right-angled confluences. In this paper, the influence of the downstream channel width onto time-averaged and turbulent flow features will be investigated numerically, based on Large-Eddy Simulations. For one flow situation, i.e. flow ratio and downstream Froude number, two geometries will be compared: a discordant width case, which was...

Data from: Climatic refugia boosted allopatric diversification in Western Mediterranean vipers

Fernando Martínez-Freiría, Inês Freitas, Marco A. L. Zuffi, Philippe Golay, Sylvain Ursenbacher & Guillermo Velo-Antón
Abstract: Aim: to understand the role of climate in fostering diversification, this study reconstructs the historical biogeography of Western Mediterranean vipers Location: Western Mediterranean Basin Taxon: Vipera aspis and V. latastei-monticola complex Methods: phylogeographic analyses were performed over mitochondrial (three genes) and nuclear sequences (two genes), extensively covering species ranges. A total of 4,056 records were assigned to genetic units, using interpolations of genetic data, to test phylogenetic niche conservatism, under a 3D hypervolume approach,...

Data from: Structure and functioning of intertidal food webs along an avian flyway: a comparative approach using stable isotopes

Teresa Catry, Pedro M. Lourenço, Ricardo J. Lopes, Camilo Carneiro, José A. Alves, Joana Costa, Hamid Rguibi-Idrissi, Stuart Bearhop, Theunis Piersma & José P. Granadeiro
Food webs and trophic dynamics of coastal systems have been the focus of intense research throughout the world, as they prove to be critical in understanding ecosystem processes and functions. However, very few studies have undertaken a quantitative comparison of entire food webs from a key consumer perspective across a broad geographical area, limiting relevant comparisons among systems with distinct biotic and abiotic components. We investigate the structure and functioning of food webs in four...

Data from: Experimental contact zones reveal causes and targets of sexual selection in hybridizing lizards

Hannah E. A. MacGregor, Geoffrey M. While, Jade Barrett, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, Pau Carazo, Sozos Michaelides & Tobias Uller
Divergence in sexually selected traits in allopatry should affect the degree and direction of hybridization. However, few studies have established the causes and targets of sexual selection during secondary contact. Common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) from north-central Italy have highly exaggerated male sexual traits compared to populations in Western Europe. Using experimental populations, we show that this creates asymmetries in male dominance, spatial habitat use and reproductive success upon secondary contact. Hybridization occurred almost exclusively...

Data from: The \"Woman in Red\" Effect: pipefish males curb pregnancies at the sight of an attractive female

Mário Cunha, Anders Berglund, Sara Mendes & Nuno Monteiro
In an old Gene Wilder movie, an attractive woman dressed in red devastated a man’s current relationship. We have found a similar “Woman in Red” effect in pipefish, a group of fish where pregnancy occurs in males. We tested for the existence of pregnancy blocks in pregnant male black-striped pipefish (Syngnathus abaster). We allowed pregnant males to see females that were larger and even more attractive than their original high-quality mates and monitored the survival...

Data from: A non-coding region near Follistatin controls head colour polymorphism in the Gouldian finch

Matthew B. Toomey, Cristiana I. Marques, Pedro Andrade, Pedro Miguel Araújo, Stephen Sabatino, Malgorzata A. Gazda, Sandra Afonso, Ricardo J. Lopes, Joseph C. Corbo & Miguel Carneiro
Discrete color morphs coexisting within a single population are common in nature. In a broad range of organisms, sympatric color morphs often display major differences in other traits, including morphology, physiology, or behavior. Despite the repeated occurrence of this phenomenon, our understanding of the genetics that underlie multi-trait differences and the factors that promote the long-term maintenance of phenotypic variability within a freely interbreeding population are incomplete. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of red...

AFLP and geometric morphometrics for Littorina fabalis

Juan Galindo & Rui Faria
Low dispersal marine intertidal species facing strong divergent selective pressures associated with steep environmental gradients have a great potential to inform us about local adaptation and reproductive isolation. Among these, gastropods of the genus Littorina offer a unique system to study parallel phenotypic divergence resulting from adaptation to different habitats related with wave exposure. In this study, we focused on two Littorina fabalis ecotypes from Northern European shores and compared the patterns of habitat-related phenotypic...

Data from: Does the niche-breadth or trade-off hypothesis explain the abundance-occupancy relationship in avian haemosporidia?

Sergei V. Drovetski, Sargis A. Aghayan, Vanessa A. Mata, Ricardo J. Lopes, Nicolle A. Mode, Johanna A. Harvey & Gary Voelker
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the abundance-occupancy relationship (AOR) in parasites. The niche-breadth hypothesis suggests that host generalists are more abundant and efficient at colonizing different host communities than specialists. The trade-off hypothesis argues that host specialists achieve high density across their hosts’ ranges, whereas generalists incur the high cost of adaptation to diverse immuno-defense systems. We tested these hypotheses using 386 haemosporidian cytochrome-b lineages (1894 sequences) recovered from 2318 birds of 103...

Data from: Following the water? landscape-scale temporal changes in bat spatial distribution in relation to Mediterranean summer drought

Francisco Amorim, Inês Jorge, Pedro Beja & Hugo Rebelo
Understanding how the spatial distribution of ecological resources shape species’ diversity and abundance in human-modified landscapes is a central theme in conservation biology. However, studies often disregard that such patterns may vary over time, thereby potentially missing critical environmental constraints to species persistence. This may be particularly important in highly mobile species such as bats, which are able to track temporal variations in spatial resource distribution. Here we test the hypothesis that bats in Mediterranean...

Data from: Locomotor mode and the evolution of the hindlimb in Western Mediterranean Anurans

Urtzi Enriquez-Urzelai, Albert Montori, Gustavo A. Llorente & Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou
The evolutionary association between morphology, locomotor performance and habitat use is a central element of the ecomorphological paradigm, and it is known to underlie the evolution of phenotypic diversity in numerous animal taxa. In anuran amphibians the hindlimb acts as the propulsive agent, and as such, it is directly associated with jumping performance. In this study we combine individual- and species-level analyses to examine the effects of locomotor mode on body size and hindlimb morphology...

Data from: Effect of microsatellite selection on individual and population genetic inferences: an empirical study using cross-specific and species-specific amplifications

Joao Queiros, Raquel Godinho, Susana Lopes, Christian Gortazar, Jose De La Fuente & Paulo C. Alves
Although whole-genome sequencing is becoming more accessible and feasible for nonmodel organisms, microsatellites have remained the markers of choice for various population and conservation genetic studies. However, the criteria for choosing microsatellites are still controversial due to ascertainment bias that may be introduced into the genetic inference. An empirical study of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations, in which cross-specific and species-specific microsatellites developed through pyrosequencing of enriched libraries, was performed for this study. Two different...

Data from: \"De novo transcriptome assembly of the mountain fly Drosophila nigrosparsa using short RNA-seq reads\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 August 2014-30 September 2014

Wolfgang Arthofer, Francesco Cicconardi, Nicola Palmieri, Viola Nolte, Christian Schlötterer, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner, Marcelo Vallinoto, David A. Weese, B. L. Banbury, R. B. Harris, David S. Kang, Cheolho Sim, Thomas F. Duda, A. D. Leaché, Miguel Carneiro, Coralie Nourisson & Fernando Sequeira
Drosophila (Drosophila) nigrosparsa is a habitat specialist restricted to the European montane/alpine zone (Bächli 2008). Mountain biodiversity is considered highly vulnerable to ongoing climate warming (IPCC 2013), and organisms at high altitudes have only limited possibility to shift to cooler habitats at elevations above (Pertoldi & Bach 2007). For such species, rapid evolution may offer a solution for long-term survival. We are establishing D. nigrosparsa as a model system to test the extent and tempo...

Data from: No evidence for Fabaceae Gametophytic self-incompatibility being determined by Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae S-RNase lineage genes

Bruno Aguiar, Jorge Vieira, Ana E. Cunha & Cristina P. Vieira
Background: Fabaceae species are important in agronomy and livestock nourishment. They have a long breeding history, and most cultivars have lost self-incompatibility (SI), a genetic barrier to self-fertilization. Nevertheless, to improve legume crop breeding, crosses with wild SI relatives of the cultivated varieties are often performed. Therefore, it is fundamental to characterize Fabaceae SI system(s). We address the hypothesis of Fabaceae gametophytic (G)SI being RNase based, by recruiting the same S-RNase lineage gene of Rosaceae,...

Data from: The phylogeny of pikas (Ochotona) inferred from a multilocus coalescent approach

José Melo-Ferreira, Ana Lemos De Matos, Helena Areal, Andrey A. Lissovsky, Miguel Carneiro & Pedro J. Esteves
The clarification of the systematics of pikas (genus Ochotona) has been hindered by largely overlapping morphological characters among species and the lack of a comprehensive molecular phylogeny. Here we estimate the first multilocus phylogeny of the genus to date, by analysing 12 nuclear DNA markers (total of 7.5 Kb) in 11 species of pikas from the four classified subgenera (Pika, Ochotona, Lagotona and Conothoa) using a multispecies coalescent-based framework. The species-tree confirmed the subgeneric classification...

Data from: High-density lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 is required for carotenoid coloration in birds

Matthew B. Toomey, Ricardo J. Lopes, Pedro M. Araújo, James D. Johnson, Malgorzata A. Gazda, Sandra Afonso, Paulo G. Mota, Rebecca E. Koch, Geoffrey E. Hill, Joseph C. Corbo & Miguel Carneiro
Yellow, orange, and red coloration is a fundamental aspect of avian diversity and serves as an important signal in mate choice and aggressive interactions. This coloration is often produced through the deposition of diet-derived carotenoid pigments, yet the mechanisms of carotenoid uptake and transport are not well-understood. The white recessive breed of the common canary (Serinus canaria), which carries an autosomal recessive mutation that renders its plumage pure white, provides a unique opportunity to investigate...

Data from: Postnatal dynamics of developmental stability and canalization of lizard head shape under different environmental conditions

Marko M. Lazić, Miguel A. Carretero, Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailović & Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou
Developmental stability (DS) and canalization are key determinants of phenotypic variation. To provide a better understanding of how postnatal growth is involved in determining the effects of DS and canalization on phenotypic variation, we studied within- and among-individual variation in head shape in ontogenetic series of lizards inhabiting urban and rural environments. Urban lizards exhibited increased fluctuating asymmetry during the early postnatal stages, but asymmetry levels decreased during growth. By contrast, asymmetry remained constant across...

Data from: Comparison of photo-matching algorithms commonly used for photographic capture-recapture studies

Maximilian Matthé, Marco Sannolo, Kristopher Winiarski, Annemarieke Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs, Daniel Goedbloed, Sebastian Steinfartz & Ulrich Stachow
Photographic capture–recapture is a valuable tool for obtaining demographic information on wildlife populations due to its noninvasive nature and cost-effectiveness. Recently, several computer-aided photo-matching algorithms have been developed to more efficiently match images of unique individuals in databases with thousands of images. However, the identification accuracy of these algorithms can severely bias estimates of vital rates and population size. Therefore, it is important to understand the performance and limitations of state-of-the-art photo-matching algorithms prior to...

Data from: The Azores Bullfinch (Pyrrhula murina) has the same unusual and size-variable sperm morphology as the Eurasian Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula)

Jan T. Lifjeld, Antje Hoenen, Lars Erik Johannessen, Terje Laskemoen, Ricardo J. Lopes, Pedro Rodrigues & Melissah Rowe
The Azores bullfinch is endemic to the island of São Miguel in the Azores archipelago and the sister species to the Eurasian bullfinch. Here we show that the spermatozoa of the two species have similar ultrastructure and gross morphology. Thus, the unusual and supposedly neotenous sperm morphology previously described for the Eurasian bullfinch appears to be an ancestral trait that evolved before the two taxa diverged. In addition, the coefficients of variation in total sperm...

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