51 Works

Data from: Numerical ordinality in a wild nectarivore

Maria Cristina Tello-Ramos, Tas I. F. Vámos, T. Andrew Hurly & Susan D. Healy
Ordinality is a numerical property that nectarivores may use to remember the specific order in which to visit a sequence of flowers, a foraging strategy also known as traplining. In this experiment, we tested whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) could use ordinality to visit a rewarded flower. Birds were presented with a series of linear arrays of 10 artificial flowers; only one flower in each array was rewarded with sucrose solution. During training,...

Data from: Demographic senescence in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. (Araceae)

Suzanne L. Chmilar & Robert A. Laird
Senescence is progressive, age-related bodily deterioration, accompanied at the population level by declines in average survival and fecundity (i.e., ‘demographic senescence’). Demographic senescence of plants has been investigated in only a few species, including small, floating macrophytes in the genus Lemna (family Araceae, subfamily Lemnoideae – the ‘duckweeds’). Unlike most plant species, Lemna ramets exhibit determinate growth, potentially rendering them more likely to experience demographic senescence. Here, our objective was to investigate senescence in a...

Data from: A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor)

Patrick M. Barks & Robert A. Laird
Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into...

Data from: Among-strain consistency in the pace and shape of senescence in duckweed

Patrick M. Barks, Zach W. Dempsey, Theresa M. Burg & Robert A. Laird
1.Comparative studies have demonstrated extensive variation in age-trajectories of mortality and fecundity, both within and among species, with many taxa exhibiting a general pattern of age-related demographic decline referred to as senescence. Whereas a considerable body of theory is devoted to explaining the origin and persistence of senescence, the evolutionary forces underlying variation in demographic trajectories more generally remain poorly understood. 2.Studying variation in demographic trajectories is complicated by the fact that different species (or...

Cryptic genetic diversity and cytonuclear discordance characterize contact among Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis) morphotypes in western North America

Brendan Graham
Three distinct Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis) morphotypes with easily recognizable plumage traits come into contact in western North America. Recent work demonstrated high genetic structure across the species’ range; however, patterns of genetic variation in these contact zones remain unknown. We categorized 605 individuals into one of three morphotypes (Pacific, Rocky Mountain, and Boreal) based on plumage, and genotyped individuals at the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci to assess the extent of hybridization...

Data from: Duetting behavior varies with sex, season, and singing role in a tropical oriole (Icterus icterus)

Karan J. Odom, David M. Logue, Colin E. Studds, Michelle K. Monroe, Susanna K. Campbell & Kevin E. Omland
Females and males of many animals combine their vocalizations into coordinated acoustic duets. Duets can mediate both cooperation and conflict between partners, and are common in tropical, sedentary species that may use duets for multiple functions year-round. To elucidate the full range of duet functions, we need to study the individual-level behaviors that generate duets throughout the year. We evaluated multiple functions of duetting behavior in female and male Venezuelan troupials (Icterus icterus) during the...

Data from: Fitness declines toward range limits and local adaptation to climate affect dispersal evolution during climate-induced range shifts

Anna L. Hargreaves, Susan F. Bailey & Robert A. Laird
Dispersal ability will largely determine whether species track their climatic niches during climate change, a process especially important for populations at contracting (low-latitude/low-elevation) range limits that otherwise risk extinction. We investigate whether dispersal evolution at contracting range limits is facilitated by two processes that potentially enable edge populations to experience and adjust to the effects of climate deterioration before they cause extinction: (i) climate-induced fitness declines towards range limits and (ii) local adaptation to a...

Data from: Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods

Luke M. Evans, Sobadini Kaluthota, David W. Pearce, Gerard J. Allan, Kevin Floate, Stewart B. Rood & Thomas G. Whitham
Temperate forest tree species that span large geographical areas and climatic gradients often have high levels of genetic variation. Such species are ideal for testing how neutral demographic factors and climate-driven selection structure genetic variation within species, and how this genetic variation can affect ecological communities. Here, we quantified genetic variation in vegetative phenology and growth traits in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, using three common gardens planted with genotypes originating from source populations spanning the...

Data from: Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids

David A. Puts, Alexander K. Hill, Drew H. Bailey, Robert S. Walker, Drew Rendall, John R. Wheatley, Lisa L. M. Welling, Khytam Dawood, Rodrigo A. Cárdenas, Robert P. Burriss, Nina G. Jablonski, Mark D. Shriver, Daniel J. Weiss, Adriano R. Lameira, Coren L. Apicella, Michael J. Owren, Claudia Barelli, Mary E. Glenn & Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez
In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism...

Reduced habitat suitability and landscape connectivity in a songbird migratory divide

Hannah Justen, Julie Lee-Yaw & Kira Delmore
Aim Seasonal migration is a common phenomenon in animals and connects geographically distant ecosystems. Considerable variation has been documented in this behaviour and migratory divides (contact zones between populations that use different routes to navigate around ecological barriers) are an example of this. Migratory divides could have important implications for ecological speciation as hybrids in divides take intermediate routes and it has been predicted that these routes will be ecologically inferior as they bring hybrids...

Data from: Kin recognition: evidence that humans can perceive both positive and negative relatedness

Daniel B. Krupp, Lisa M. DeBruine, Benedict C. Jones & Martin L. Lalumière
The evolution of spite entails actors imposing costs on ‘negative’ relatives: those who are less likely than chance to share the actor’s alleles and therefore more likely to bear rival alleles. Yet, despite a considerable body of research confirming that organisms can recognise positive relatives, little research has shown that organisms can recognise negative relatives. Here, we extend previous work on human phenotype matching by introducing a cue to negative relatedness: negative self-resembling faces, which...

Data from: Population genetic structure and its implications for adaptive variation in memory and the hippocampus on a continental scale in food-caching black-capped chickadees

Vladimir V. Pravosudov, , Matthew L. Forister, Lara D. LaDage, Theresa M. Burg, Michael J. Braun & Brian S. Davidson
Food-caching birds rely on stored food to survive the winter and spatial memory has been shown to be critical in successful cache recovery. Both spatial memory and the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial memory, exhibit significant geographic variation linked to climate-based environmental harshness and the potential reliance on food caches for survival. Such geographic variation has been suggested to have a heritable basis associated with differential selection. Here, we ask whether...

Data from: Senescence in duckweed: age-related declines in survival, reproduction, and offspring quality

Patrick M. Barks & Robert A. Laird
1. As they grow old, most organisms experience progressive physiological deterioration resulting in declining rates of survival and reproduction – a seemingly maladaptive phenomenon known as senescence. 2. Although senescence is usually defined with respect only to survival and reproduction, a third component of fitness, offspring quality, may also decline with age. Few studies, however, have assessed age-related changes in offspring quality using measures that truly reflect fitness. 3. In a controlled environment, we tested...

Data from: Specific 50-kHz vocalizations are tightly linked to particular types of behavior in juvenile rats anticipating play

Candace J. Burke, Theresa M. Kisko, Hilarie Swiftwolfe, Sergio M. Pellis & David R. Euston
Rat ultrasonic vocalizations have been suggested to be either a byproduct of physical movement or, in the case of 50-kHz calls, a means to communicate positive affect. Yet there are up to 14 distinct types of 50-kHz calls, raising issues for both explanations. To discriminate between these theories and address the purpose for the numerous 50-kHz call types, we studied single juvenile rats that were waiting to play with a partner, a situation associated with...

Coordinates activities of retrosplenial ensembles during resting-state encode spatial landmarks. Part 2 of 2

HaoRan Chang, Ingrid M. Esteves, Adam R. Neumann, Jianjun Sun, Majid H. Mohajerani & Bruce L. McNaughton
The brain likely uses off-line periods to consolidate recent memories. One hypothesis holds that the hippocampal output provides a unique, global linking or 'index' code for each memory, and that this code is stored in the cortex in association with locally encoded attributes of each memory. Activation of the index code is hypothesized to evoke coordinated memory trace reactivation thus facilitating consolidation. Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is a major recipient of hippocampal outflow and we have...

Acquisition of object-robbing and object/food-bartering behaviors: A culturally maintained token economy in free-ranging long-tailed macaques

Jean-Baptiste Leca, Noëlle Gunst, Matthew Gardiner & I Nengah Wandia
The token exchange paradigm shows that monkeys and great apes are able to use objects as symbolic tools to request specific food rewards. Such studies provide insights into the cognitive underpinnings of economic behavior in non-human primates. However, the ecological validity of these lab-based experimental situations tends to be limited. Our field research aims to address the need for a more ecologically valid primate model of trading systems in humans. Around the Uluwatu Temple in...

An analysis of avian vocal performance at the note and song levels

David Logue, Jacob Sheppard, Bailey Walton, Benjamin Brinkman & Orlando Medina
Sexual displays that require extreme feats of physiological performance have the potential to reliably indicate the signaller’s skill or motivation. We tested for evidence of performance constraints in Adelaide’s warblers (Setophaga adelaidae) songs. At the note level, we identified three trade-offs with well-defined limits. At the song level, we identified two trade-offs, but their limits were less well-defined than the note-level limits. Trade-offs at both levels suggest that song structure is constrained by limits to...

Data from: Offspring of older parents are smaller—but no less bilaterally symmetrical—than offspring of younger parents in the aquatic plant Lemna turionifera

Eric J. Ankutowicz & Robert A. Laird
Offspring quality decreases with parental age in many taxa, with offspring of older parents exhibiting reduced lifespan, reproductive capacity, and fitness, compared to offspring of younger parents. These ‘parental age effects’, whose consequences arise in the next generation, can be considered as manifestations of parental senescence, in addition to the more familiar age-related declines in parent-generation survival and reproduction. Parental age effects are important because they may have feedback effects on the evolution of demographic...

Digital 3D models and measurements of avian brain cavity, blood vessel and nerve endocasts

S. A. Walsh, A. N. Iwaniuk, M. A. Knoll, E. Bourdon, P. M. Barrett, A. Milner, R. Nudds, R. L. Abel & P. Dello Sterpaio
This dataset comprises cast reconstructions of brain cavity space in 60 extant avian species, derived from X-ray micro computed-tomography scan image stacks. Each reconstruction was made using Materialise Mimics 14.11 to create volumetric models (brain cavity casts) that were then transformed into the polygon mesh stereolithograph (STL) files archived here. Brain cavity cast models are in most cases accompanied by casts of main vascular features (e.g., carotid arteries) and the olfactory nerves (CN I). A...

Embodying the postcolonial perverse: mestizXXX sadomasochist performance methodologies

Migueltzinta Solís
This paper is not intended as either a survey of performance and perversity nor as an argumentation for any particularly new theory of performance. Rather it is me offering my methodologies, influences and thoughts as a trans mestizXXX perverse performance artist living and working in an actively postcolonial moment. It is, in part, an act of resistance toward the move to commodify performance’s important ephemerality and ineffability into institutionally digestible historicity and study-ability within academic...

Estimating on the fly: the approximate number system in rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus)

Mia Corliss, Theo Brown, T. Andrew Hurly, Susan D. Healy & Maria C. Tello-Ramos
When presented with resources that differ in quantity, many animals use a numerosity system to discriminate between them. One taxonomically widespread system is the approximate number system. This is a numerosity system that allows the rapid evaluation of the number of objects in a group and which is regulated by Weber’s Law. Here we investigated whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) possess an approximate number system. The hummingbirds were presented with two experiments. In...

A comparison of neutral genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among migratory and resident populations of Golden-crowned-Kinglets (Regulus satrapa)

Brendan Graham, Amanda Carpenter, Vicki Friesen & Theresa Burg
Many animals migrate seasonally between breeding and non-breeding territories and these annual movements can have a profound effect on population genetic structure. We genotyped 283 individuals from 11 populations at seven variable microsatellite loci and compared patterns of neutral genetic differentiation and neutral genetic diversity among migratory and resident breeding populations of the Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), a widespread North American songbird. We predicted that resident populations would exhibit greater genetic differentiation and lower genetic...

Data from: Parental age effects and the evolution of senescence

Patrick Barks & Robert Laird
Most theory on the evolution of senescence implicitly assumes that all offspring are of equal quality. However, in addition to age-related declines in survival and fecundity (classically-defined senescence), many organisms exhibit age-related declines in offspring quality, a phenomenon known as a parental age effect. Theoretical work suggests that parental age effects may alter age-trajectories of selection and therefore shape the evolution of senescence; however, to date, these analyses have been limited to idealized life cycles,...

Data from: Geographical barriers and climate influence demographic history in narrowleaf cottonwoods

Luke M. Evans, Gerard J. Allan, Stephen P. DiFazio, Gancho T. Slavov, Jason A. Wilder, Kevin D. Floate, Stewart B. Rood & Thomas G. Whitham
Studies of genetic variation can clarify the role of geography and spatio-temporal variation of climate in shaping demography, particularly in temperate zone tree species with large latitudinal ranges. Here, we examined genetic variation in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, a dominant riparian tree. Using multi-locus surveys of polymorphism in 363 individuals across the species’ 1800 km latitudinal range, we found that, first, P. angustifolia has stronger neutral genetic structure than many forest trees (simple sequence repeat...

Data from: Gene flow of a forest-dependent bird across a fragmented landscape

Rachael V. Adams & Theresa M. Burg
Habitat loss and fragmentation can affect the persistence of populations by reducing connectivity and restricting the ability of individuals to disperse across landscapes. Dispersal corridors promote population connectivity and therefore play important roles in maintaining gene flow in natural populations inhabiting fragmented landscapes. In the prairies, forests are restricted to riparian areas along river systems which act as important dispersal corridors for forest dependent species across large expanses of unsuitable grassland habitat. However, natural and...

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