62 Works

Data from: Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids

David A. Puts, Alexander K. Hill, Drew H. Bailey, Robert S. Walker, Drew Rendall, John R. Wheatley, Lisa L. M. Welling, Khytam Dawood, Rodrigo A. Cárdenas, Robert P. Burriss, Nina G. Jablonski, Mark D. Shriver, Daniel J. Weiss, Adriano R. Lameira, Coren L. Apicella, Michael J. Owren, Claudia Barelli, Mary E. Glenn & Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez
In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism...

Data from: Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods

Luke M. Evans, Sobadini Kaluthota, David W. Pearce, Gerard J. Allan, Kevin Floate, Stewart B. Rood & Thomas G. Whitham
Temperate forest tree species that span large geographical areas and climatic gradients often have high levels of genetic variation. Such species are ideal for testing how neutral demographic factors and climate-driven selection structure genetic variation within species, and how this genetic variation can affect ecological communities. Here, we quantified genetic variation in vegetative phenology and growth traits in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, using three common gardens planted with genotypes originating from source populations spanning the...

Data from: Demographic senescence in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. (Araceae)

Suzanne L. Chmilar & Robert A. Laird
Senescence is progressive, age-related bodily deterioration, accompanied at the population level by declines in average survival and fecundity (i.e., ‘demographic senescence’). Demographic senescence of plants has been investigated in only a few species, including small, floating macrophytes in the genus Lemna (family Araceae, subfamily Lemnoideae – the ‘duckweeds’). Unlike most plant species, Lemna ramets exhibit determinate growth, potentially rendering them more likely to experience demographic senescence. Here, our objective was to investigate senescence in a...

Data from: Duetting behavior varies with sex, season, and singing role in a tropical oriole (Icterus icterus)

Karan J. Odom, David M. Logue, Colin E. Studds, Michelle K. Monroe, Susanna K. Campbell & Kevin E. Omland
Females and males of many animals combine their vocalizations into coordinated acoustic duets. Duets can mediate both cooperation and conflict between partners, and are common in tropical, sedentary species that may use duets for multiple functions year-round. To elucidate the full range of duet functions, we need to study the individual-level behaviors that generate duets throughout the year. We evaluated multiple functions of duetting behavior in female and male Venezuelan troupials (Icterus icterus) during the...

Cryptic genetic diversity and cytonuclear discordance characterize contact among Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis) morphotypes in western North America

Brendan Graham
Three distinct Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis) morphotypes with easily recognizable plumage traits come into contact in western North America. Recent work demonstrated high genetic structure across the species’ range; however, patterns of genetic variation in these contact zones remain unknown. We categorized 605 individuals into one of three morphotypes (Pacific, Rocky Mountain, and Boreal) based on plumage, and genotyped individuals at the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci to assess the extent of hybridization...

Data from: Numerical ordinality in a wild nectarivore

Maria Cristina Tello-Ramos, Tas I. F. Vámos, T. Andrew Hurly & Susan D. Healy
Ordinality is a numerical property that nectarivores may use to remember the specific order in which to visit a sequence of flowers, a foraging strategy also known as traplining. In this experiment, we tested whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) could use ordinality to visit a rewarded flower. Birds were presented with a series of linear arrays of 10 artificial flowers; only one flower in each array was rewarded with sucrose solution. During training,...

Effects of chronic THC in adolescence on rat play behaviours

Robin Keeley, Stephanie Himmler, Sergio Pellis & Robert McDonald
Background: Cannabis use remains a major public health concern, and its use typically begins in adolescence. Chronic administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, during adolescence can produce deficits in adult learning and memory, stress reactivity and anxiety. One possible mechanism behind the disruptions in adulthood from adolescent exposure to THC includes changes in social behaviours, such as social play, which has been shown to be critical to socio-cognitive development. Methods: Here,...

Black-capped and mountain chickadee range-wide condition

Kathryn Grabenstein, Scott Taylor, Ken Otter & Theresa Burg
Both abiotic and biotic drivers influence species distributions. Abiotic drivers, such as climate, have received considerable attention, even though biotic drivers, such as hybridization, often interact with abiotic drivers. We sought to explore the (1) costs of co-occurrence for ecologically similar species that hybridize and (2) associations between ecological factors and condition to understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence species distributions. For two closely related and ecologically similar songbirds, black-capped and mountain chickadees, we...

Data from: Pace and shape of senescence in three species of duckweed

Austin Paiha & Robert Laird
Senescence is progressive bodily deterioration associated with declines in survival and fecundity in older age classes. There is great diversity in patterns of senescence across species, but these patterns can be difficult to compare formally due to variation in the absolute time scales in which species live and die: members of some species live for a matter of days, others for millennia. To address this issue, the ‘pace-shape’ approach was developed to decouple absolute time...

Data from: Metabolic traits of westslope cutthroat, introduced rainbow trout and their hybrids in an ecotonal hybrid zone along an elevation gradient

Joseph B. Rasmussen, Michael D. Robinson, Alice Hontela & Daniel D. Heath
In the Upper Oldman River, Alberta, introduced non-native hatchery rainbow trout hybridize with native westslope cutthroat trout, resulting in a hybrid swarm. Rainbow trout dominate at low elevations (<1250 m) in the river mainstem, cutthroat in high elevation tributaries (>1400 m), and hybrids are numerically dominant in the mid-elevation range. We hypothesized that metabolism of rainbow trout would exceed that of cutthroat trout, and that the elevation gradient in genetic makeup would be mirrored by...

Data from: Parasites and a host's sense of smell: reduced chemosensory performance of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) infected with a monogenean parasite

Ebrahim Lari, Cameron P. Goater, David K. Cone & Greg G. Pyle
1. Parasites residing within the central nervous system of their hosts have the potential to reduce various components of host performance, but such effects are rarely evaluated. 2. We assessed the olfactory acuity of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) infected experimentally with the monogenean Dactylogyrus olfactorius, the adults of which live within the host's olfactory chambers. 3. Olfactory acuity was compared between infected and uninfected hosts by assessing electro-olfactography (EOG) neural responses to chemical stimuli that...

Data from: Direction matching for sparse movement data sets: determining interaction rules in social groups

Tyler R. Bonnell, S. Peter Henzi & Louise Barrett
It is generally assumed that high-resolution movement data are needed to extract meaningful decision-making patterns of animals on the move. Here we propose a modified version of force matching (referred to here as direction matching), whereby sparse movement data (i.e., collected over minutes instead of seconds) can be used to test hypothesized forces acting on a focal animal based on their ability to explain observed movement. We first test the direction matching approach using simulated...

Climate induced stress and mortality in vervet monkeys

Christopher Young, Tyler Bonnell, Leslie Brown, Marcus Dostie, André Ganswindt, Stefan Kienzle, Richard McFarland, Peter Henzi & Louise Barrett
As the effects of global climate change become more apparent, animal species will become increasingly affected by extreme climate and its effect on the environment. There is a pressing need to understand animal physiological and behavioural responses to climatic stressors. We used the reactive scope model as a framework to investigate the influence of drought conditions on vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) behaviour, physiological stress and survival across 2.5-years in South Africa. Data were collected on...

Data from: Spatiotemporal patterns of neocortical activity around hippocampal sharp-wave ripples

Majid H. Mohajerani, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Mojtaba Nazari-Ahangarkolaee, Sandra Gattas, Edgar Bermudez-Contreras & Bruce L. McNaughton
A prevalent model is that sharp-wave ripples (SWR) arise ‘spontaneously’ in CA3 and propagate recent memory traces outward to the neocortex to facilitate memory consolidation there. Using voltage and extracellular glutamate transient recording over widespread regions of mice dorsal neocortex in relation to CA1 multiunit activity (MUA) and SWR, we find that the largest SWR-related modulation occurs in retrosplenial cortex; however, contrary to the unidirectional hypothesis, neocortical activation exhibited a continuum of activation timings relative...

Data from: Do traits of plant species predict the efficacy of species distribution models for finding new occurrences?

J. L. McCune, Hanna Rosner-Katz, Joseph Bennett, Richard Schuster & Heather Kharouba
Species distribution models (SDMs) are used to test ecological theory and to direct targeted surveys for species of conservation concern. Several studies have tested for an influence of species traits on the predictive accuracy of SDMs. However, most used the same set of environmental predictors for all species and/or did not use truly independent data to test SDM accuracy. We built eight SDMs for each of 24 plant species of conservation concern, varying the environmental...

Memory reactivation in rat medial prefrontal cortex occurs in a subtype of cortical UP state during slow-wave sleep

Soroush Malek, Masami Tatsuno, LeAnna Kalvi, Adrian Ponce-Alvarez, Karim Ali, David R. Euston, Sonja Gruen & Bruce L. McNaughton
Interaction between hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) and UP states, possibly by coordinated reactivation of memory traces, is conjectured to play an important role in memory consolidation. Recently, it was reported that SWRs were differentiated into multiple subtypes. However, whether cortical UP states can also be classified into subtypes is not known. Here, we analysed neural ensemble activity from the medial prefrontal cortex from rats trained to run a spatial sequence-memory task. Application of the hidden...

Do phylogeny and habitat influence admixture among four North American chickadee (family: Paridae) species

Brendan Graham, Gazeley Ian, Otter Ken & Burg Theresa
Hybridization is an important aspect of speciation, yet questions remain about the ecological and environmental factors that influence hybridization among wild populations. We used microsatellite genotyping data and collected land cover and environmental data for four North American chickadee species: black-capped Poecile atricapillus, mountain P. gambeli, chestnut-backed P. rufescens and boreal P. hudsonicus chickadees. Combining these datasets, we sought to examine whether there is evidence of admixture between four widely distributed North American chickadee species;...

Adaptation across geographic ranges is consistent with strong selection in marginal climates and legacies of range expansion

Megan Bontrager, Takuji Usui, Julie Lee-Yaw, Daniel Anstett, Haley Branch, Anna Hargreaves, Christopher Muir & Amy Angert
Every species experiences limits to its geographic distribution. Some evolutionary models predict that populations at range edges are less well-adapted to their local environments due to drift, expansion load, or swamping gene flow from the range interior. Alternatively, populations near range edges might be uniquely adapted to marginal environments. In this study, we use a database of transplant studies that quantify performance at broad geographic scales to test how local adaptation, site quality, and population...

Chimpanzees use least-cost routes to out-of-sight goals

Samantha Green, Bryan Boruff, Tyler Bonnell & Cyril Grueter
While the ability of naturally ranging animals to recall the location of food resources and use straight-line routes between them has been demonstrated in several studies [1, 2], it is not known whether animals can use knowledge of their landscape to walk least-cost routes [3]. This ability is likely to be particularly important for animals living in highly variable energy landscapes, where movement costs are exacerbated [4, 5]. Here, we used least-cost modelling, which determines...

Coevolution of relative brain size and life expectancy in parrots

Simeon Q. Smeele, Dalia A. Conde, Annette Baudisch, Simon Bruslund, Andrew Iwaniuk, Johanna Staerk, Timothy F. Wright, Anna M. Young, Mary Brooke McElreath & Lucy Aplin
Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between longevity and brain size in a variety of taxa. Little research has been devoted to understanding this link in parrots; yet parrots are well-known for both their exceptionally long lives and cognitive complexity. We employed a large-scale comparative analysis that investigated the influence of brain size and life history variables on longevity in parrots. Specifically, we addressed two hypotheses for evolutionary drivers of longevity: the Cognitive Buffer Hypothesis,...

Productivity of riparian Populus forests: satellite assessment along a prairie river with an environmental flow regime

Oscar Zimmerman, Stewart Rood & Flanagan Lawrence
In semi-arid regions, the growth and survival of cottonwoods (riparian Populus species) depend on river water supplementing the limited precipitation. Indicators of growth and productivity are needed to assess how altered streamflow regimes on regulated rivers impact cottonwood trees and the riparian forest ecosystems they support. Satellite imagery from the Landsat program was used to make historical assessments of ecosystem productivity in a riparian cottonwood forest along a regulated prairie river in southern Alberta, Canada...

Rwenzori colobus core unit SNA data - association scans between units, simple association index per dyad, male dispersal events, rainfall and food availability

Julie Teichroeb, Frances Adams, T. Jean Arseneau-Robar & Tyler Bonnell
1. Multi-level societies are complex, nested social systems where basic social groups (i.e., core units) associate in a hierarchical manner, allowing animals to adjust their group sizes in response to variables such as food availability, predation, or conspecific threat. These pressures fluctuate over time and examining the extent to which this variation affects the clustering of core units into different tiers may be instrumental in understanding the evolution of multi-level societies. 2. The goal of...

Data from: Transcontinental latitudinal variation in song performance and complexity in House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon)

Chinthaka Kaluthota, Benjamin E. Brinkman, Ednei B. Dos Santos & Drew Rendall
There is growing interest in latitudinal effects on animal behavior and life-history. One recent focus is on birdsong which is hypothesized to be more elaborated or complex in the north temperate zone compared to the tropics. Current evidence is mixed and based on cross-species comparisons, or single species with restricted distributions. We circumvent these limitations using a transcontinental sample of 358 songs from House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) at 281 locations spanning more than 100O of...

Data from: Gene flow of a forest-dependent bird across a fragmented landscape

Rachael V. Adams & Theresa M. Burg
Habitat loss and fragmentation can affect the persistence of populations by reducing connectivity and restricting the ability of individuals to disperse across landscapes. Dispersal corridors promote population connectivity and therefore play important roles in maintaining gene flow in natural populations inhabiting fragmented landscapes. In the prairies, forests are restricted to riparian areas along river systems which act as important dispersal corridors for forest dependent species across large expanses of unsuitable grassland habitat. However, natural and...

Data from: Geographical barriers and climate influence demographic history in narrowleaf cottonwoods

Luke M. Evans, Gerard J. Allan, Stephen P. DiFazio, Gancho T. Slavov, Jason A. Wilder, Kevin D. Floate, Stewart B. Rood & Thomas G. Whitham
Studies of genetic variation can clarify the role of geography and spatio-temporal variation of climate in shaping demography, particularly in temperate zone tree species with large latitudinal ranges. Here, we examined genetic variation in narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, a dominant riparian tree. Using multi-locus surveys of polymorphism in 363 individuals across the species’ 1800 km latitudinal range, we found that, first, P. angustifolia has stronger neutral genetic structure than many forest trees (simple sequence repeat...

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