62 Works

Data from: When east meets west: population structure of a high- latitude resident species, the boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus)

Linda A. Lait & Theresa M. Burg
The population genetic structure of northern boreal species has been strongly influenced both by the Quaternary glaciations and the presence of contemporary barriers, such as mountain ranges and rivers. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), nuclear microsatellites and spatial distribution modelling to study the population genetic structure of the boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus), a resident passerine, and to investigate whether historical or contemporary barriers have influenced this northern species. MtDNA data showed evidence...

Data from: Population genetics and speciation of yellow-bellied, red-naped, and red-breasted sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus varius, S. nuchalis, and S. ruber)

Libby Natola & Theresa M. Burg
The root of understanding speciation lies in determining the forces which drive it. In many closely-related species, including Sphyrapicus varius, S. nuchalis, and S. ruber, it is assumed that speciation occurred due to isolation in multiple Pleistocene refugia. We used genetic data from 457 samples at the control region, COI, and CHD1Z to examine rangewide population genetic structure and differentiation amongst these three species across each species’ breeding range. In addition, we modelled these species’...

Do habitat and elevation promote hybridization during secondary contact between three genetically distinct groups of warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus)?

Amanda Carpenter, Brendan Graham, Garth Spellman & Theresa Burg
Following postglacial expansion, secondary contact can occur between genetically distinct lineages. These genetic lineages may be associated with specific habitat or environmental variables and therefore, their distributions in secondary contact could reflect such conditions within these areas. Here we used mtDNA, microsatellite, and morphological data to study three genetically distinct groups of warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus) and investigate the role that elevation and habitat play in their distributions. We studied two main contact zones and...

Coordinates activities of retrosplenial ensembles during resting-state encode spatial landmarks. Part 1 of 2

HaoRan Chang, Ingrid M. Esteves, Adam R. Neumann, Jianjun Sun, Majid H. Mohajerani & Bruce L. McNaughton
The brain likely uses off-line periods to consolidate recent memories. One hypothesis holds that the hippocampal output provides a unique, global linking or 'index' code for each memory, and that this code is stored in the cortex in association with locally encoded attributes of each memory. Activation of the index code is hypothesized to evoke coordinated memory trace reactivation thus facilitating consolidation. Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is a major recipient of hippocampal outflow and we have...

Introgression between Sphyrapicus nuchalis and S. varius sapsuckers in a hybrid zone in west-central Alberta

Libby Natola, Ashley Curtis, Jocelyn Hudon & Theresa Burg
Studying species interactions at hybrid zones allows biologists to understand the forces that promote speciation. Hybridization among Sphyrapicus nuchalis, S. varius, and S. ruber has long been acknowledged, and hybrid zones between S. nuchalis/S. ruber and S. varius/S. ruber have been characterized with both genetic and genomic data. Using a combination of next-generation Restriction Site-Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) and traditional genetic methods, we examined patterns of introgression in the poorly characterized S. nuchalis/S. varius contact...

Data for: Non-host species reduce parasite infection in a focal host species within experimental fish communities

Sangwook Ahn & Cam Goater
The dilution effect describes the negative association between host biodiversity and the risk of infectious disease. Tests designed to understand the relative roles of host species richness, host species identity, and rates of exposure within experimental host communities would help resolve ongoing contention regarding the importance and generality of dilution effects. We exposed fathead minnows to infective larvae of the trematode, Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus in minnow-only containers and in mixed containers that held 1-3 other species...

Chicken and junglefowl cerebellar anatomy data

Andrew Iwaniuk
Domestication is the process by which wild organisms become adapted for human use. Many phenotypic changes are associated with animal domestication, including decreases in brain and brain region sizes. In contrast to this pattern, the chicken has a larger cerebellum compared with the wild red junglefowl, but what neuroanatomical changes are responsible for this difference have yet to be investigated. Here, we quantified cell layer volumes, neuron numbers and neuron sizes in the cerebella of...

Estimating on the fly: the approximate number system in rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus)

Mia Corliss, Theo Brown, T. Andrew Hurly, Susan D. Healy & Maria C. Tello-Ramos
When presented with resources that differ in quantity, many animals use a numerosity system to discriminate between them. One taxonomically widespread system is the approximate number system. This is a numerosity system that allows the rapid evaluation of the number of objects in a group and which is regulated by Weber’s Law. Here we investigated whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) possess an approximate number system. The hummingbirds were presented with two experiments. In...

Data from: Parental age effects and the evolution of senescence

Patrick Barks & Robert Laird
Most theory on the evolution of senescence implicitly assumes that all offspring are of equal quality. However, in addition to age-related declines in survival and fecundity (classically-defined senescence), many organisms exhibit age-related declines in offspring quality, a phenomenon known as a parental age effect. Theoretical work suggests that parental age effects may alter age-trajectories of selection and therefore shape the evolution of senescence; however, to date, these analyses have been limited to idealized life cycles,...

A comparison of neutral genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among migratory and resident populations of Golden-crowned-Kinglets (Regulus satrapa)

Brendan Graham, Amanda Carpenter, Vicki Friesen & Theresa Burg
Many animals migrate seasonally between breeding and non-breeding territories and these annual movements can have a profound effect on population genetic structure. We genotyped 283 individuals from 11 populations at seven variable microsatellite loci and compared patterns of neutral genetic differentiation and neutral genetic diversity among migratory and resident breeding populations of the Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), a widespread North American songbird. We predicted that resident populations would exhibit greater genetic differentiation and lower genetic...

Data from: Influence of ecological and geological features on rangewide patterns of genetic structure in a widespread passerine.

Rachael V. Adams & Theresa M. Burg
Geological and ecological features restrict dispersal and gene flow, leading to isolated populations. Dispersal barriers can be obvious physical structures in the landscape; however microgeographic differences can also lead to genetic isolation. Our study examined dispersal barriers at both macro- and micro-geographical scales in the black-capped chickadee, a resident North American songbird. Although birds have high dispersal potential, evidence suggests dispersal is restricted by barriers. The chickadee’s range encompasses a number of physiological features which...

Data from: Metabolic traits of westslope cutthroat, introduced rainbow trout and their hybrids in an ecotonal hybrid zone along an elevation gradient

Joseph B. Rasmussen, Michael D. Robinson, Alice Hontela & Daniel D. Heath
In the Upper Oldman River, Alberta, introduced non-native hatchery rainbow trout hybridize with native westslope cutthroat trout, resulting in a hybrid swarm. Rainbow trout dominate at low elevations (<1250 m) in the river mainstem, cutthroat in high elevation tributaries (>1400 m), and hybrids are numerically dominant in the mid-elevation range. We hypothesized that metabolism of rainbow trout would exceed that of cutthroat trout, and that the elevation gradient in genetic makeup would be mirrored by...

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