83 Works

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of a tree-killing beetle and its predator

Aaron S. Weed, Matthew P. Ayres, Andrew M. Liebhold & Ronald F. Billings
Resolving linkages between local-scale processes and regional-scale patterns in abundance of interacting species is important for understanding long-term population stability across spatial scales. Landscape patterning in consumer population dynamics may be largely the result of interactions between consumers and their predators, or driven by spatial variation in basal resources. Empirical testing of these alternatives has been limited by the lack of suitable data. In this study, we analyzed an extensive network of spatially replicated time...

Data from: A hierarchical Bayesian approach for handling missing classification data

Alison C. Ketz, Therese L. Johnson, Mevin B. Hooten & M. Thompson Hobbs
Ecologists use classifications of individuals in categories to understand composition of populations and communities. These categories might be defined by demographics, functional traits, or species. Assignment of categories is often imperfect, but frequently treated as observations without error. When individuals are observed but not classified, these “partial” observations must be modified to include the missing data mechanism to avoid spurious inference. We developed two hierarchical Bayesian models to overcome the assumption of perfect assignment to...

Behavior and diet data collected from i) GPS video camera collars and ii) fecal samples collected from individuals from the Fortymile Caribou Herd

Libby Ehlers, Gabrielle Coulombe, Jim Herriges, Torsten Bentzen, Mike Suitor, Kyle Joly & Mark Hebblewhite
Summer diets are crucial for large herbivores in the subarctic and are affected by weather, harassment from insects and a variety of environmental changes linked to climate. Yet understanding foraging behavior and diet of large herbivores is challenging in the subarctic because of their remote ranges. We used GPS video-camera collars to observe behaviors and summer diets of the migratory Fortymile Caribou Herd (Rangifer tarandus granti) across Alaska, USA and the Yukon, Canada. First, we...

Urbanization reduces genetic connectivity in bobcats (Lynx rufus) at both intra- and inter-population spatial scales

Christopher P Kozakiewicz, Christopher Burridge, W. Chris Funk, Patricia E Salerno, Daryl R Trumbo, Roderick B Gagne, Erin E Boydston, Robert N Fisher, Lisa M Lyren, Megan K Jennings, Seth P D Riley, Laurel E K Serieys, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks & Scott Carver
Urbanization is a major factor driving habitat fragmentation and connectivity loss in wildlife. However, the impacts of urbanization on connectivity can vary among species and even populations due to differences in local landscape characteristics, and our ability to detect these relationships may depend on the spatial scale at which they are measured. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are relatively sensitive to urbanization and the status of bobcat populations is an important indicator of connectivity in urban coastal...

Social status, forest disturbance, and Barred Owls shape long-term trends in breeding dispersal distance of Northern Spotted Owls

Julianna Jenkins, Damon Lesmeister, Eric Forsman, Katie Dugger, Steven Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Chris McCafferty, M. Shane Pruett, Janice Reid, Stan Sovern, Rob Horn, Scott Gremel, J. David Wiens & Zhiqiang Yang
Dispersal among breeding sites in territorial animals (i.e. breeding dispersal) is driven by numerous selection pressures, including competition and spatiotemporal variation in habitat quality. The scale and trend of dispersal movements over time may signal changing conditions within the population or on the landscape. We examined 2,158 breeding dispersal events from 694 male and 608 female individually-marked Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) monitored over 28 years on seven study areas to assess the relative...

How climate impacts the composition of wolf killed-elk in northern Yellowstone National Park

Christopher Wilmers, Matthew Metz, Daniel Stahler, Michel Kohl, Chris Geremia & Douglas Smith
1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles. 2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets...

A comprehensive anatomical and phylogenetic evaluation of Dilophosaurus wetherilli (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with descriptions of new specimens from the Kayenta Formation of northern Arizona

Adam Marsh & Timothy Rowe
Dilophosaurus wetherilli was the largest animal known to have lived on land in North America during the Early Jurassic. Despite its charismatic presence in pop culture and dinosaurian phylogenetic analyses, major aspects of the skeletal anatomy, taxonomy, ontogeny, and evolutionary relationships of this dinosaur remain unknown. Skeletons of this species were collected from the middle and lower part of the Kayenta Formation in the Navajo Nation of Arizona. Redescription of the holotype, referred, and previously...

Data from: Replicated landscape genetic and network analyses reveal wide variation in functional connectivity for American pikas

Jessica A. Castillo, Clinton W. Epps, Mackenzie R. Jeffress, Chris Ray, Thomas J. Rodhouse & Donelle Schwalm
Landscape connectivity is essential for maintaining viable populations, particularly for species restricted to fragmented habitats or naturally arrayed in metapopulations and facing rapid climate change. The importance of assessing both structural connectivity (the physical distribution of favorable habitat patches) and functional connectivity (how species move among habitat patches) for managing such species is well understood. However, the degree to which functional connectivity for a species varies among landscapes, and the resulting implications for conservation, have...

Data from: Ecological release lead to novel otogenetic diet shift in kokanee (Oncoryhnchus nerka)

Kyle R. Shedd, Frank A. Von Hippel, James J. Willacker, Troy R. Hamon, Ora L. Schlei, John K. Wenburg, Joe L. Miller, Scott Pavey & Scott A. Pavey
We investigate adaptive resource polymorphism in kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Jo-Jo Lake, Alaska by determining whether previously observed niche expansion occurs at the population or individual level. Utilizing morphological, genetic, and stable isotope techniques, we found no evidence of discrete trophic morphotypes as previously described, but instead found evidence for an ontogenetic diet shift. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate a 40% decrease in the proportion of benthic feeding and an increase of 1 trophic...

Data from: Integrating water quality monitoring and diatom community trends to determine landscape-level change in protected lakes.

Joy Ramstack Hobbs, Adam Heathcote, David VanderMeulen & Mark Edlund
These data represent water quality measurements and diatom counts from surface sediments collected from lakes in five National Park units in the Great Lakes Region (USA) between 2005 and 2018. Water quality measurements were made three times annually during the growing season; data are presented as growing season means. Surface sediment samples were collected from the same lakes every 3-5 years over more than a decade to analyze diatom community turnover. Diatom data are presented...

An underwater Serengeti: Seagrass-mediated effects on intake and cultivation grazing behavior of a marine megaherbivore

Alexandra Gulick, Robert Johnson, Laura Palma, Ashley Kusel, Clayton Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Alan Bolten & Karen Bjorndal
Populations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), a megaherbivore that consumes seagrasses via cultivation grazing, are recovering worldwide. Information on plant-mediated effects on herbivore foraging behavior is critical to understanding plant-herbivore interactions and sustainability of grazing as ecosystems continue to change. In a Caribbean seagrass ecosystem, we use stationary cameras and benthic surveys to evaluate effects of seagrass morphology and leaf nitrogen content on green turtle grazing behavior. Thalassia testudinum leaf morphology has significant effects on...

Data from: Genome-wide expression reveals multiple systemic effects associated with detection of anticoagulant poisons in bobcats (Lynx rufus)

Devaughn Fraser, Alice Mouton, Laurel E.K. Serieys, Steve Cole, Scott Carver, Sue Vandewoude, Michael Lappin, Seth P.D. Riley, Robert Wayne & Laurel E. K. Serieys
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are indiscriminate toxicants that threaten non-target predatory and scavenger species through secondary poisoning. Accumulating evidence suggests that AR exposure may have disruptive sublethal consequences on individuals that can affect fitness. We evaluated AR-related effects on genome wide expression patterns in a population of bobcats in southern California. We identify differential expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, epithelial integrity, and both adaptive and innate immune function. Further, we...

Data from: Genetic source-sink dynamics among naturally structured and anthropogenically fragmented puma populations

Kyle D. Gustafson, Roderick B. Gagne, T. Winston Vickers, Seth P.D. Riley, Christopher C. Wilmers, Vernon C. Bleich, Becky M. Pierce, Marc Kenyon, Tracy L. Drazenovich, Jeff A. Sikich, Walter M. Boyce & Holly B. Ernest
Fragmentation of wildlife populations is increasing on a global scale and understanding current population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and genetic connectivity is key to informing wildlife management and conservation. We genotyped 992 pumas (Puma concolor) at 42 previously developed microsatellite loci and identified 10 genetic populations throughout the states of California and Nevada, USA. Although some genetic populations had large effective population sizes, others were small and inbred. Genetic diversity was extremely variable (heterozygosity, uHe...

Data from: Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations

Laurel E. K. Serieys, Amanda Lea, John P. Pollinger, Seth P. D. Riley & Robert K. Wayne
Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996-2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite...

Data from: Increased accuracy of species lists developed for alpine lakes using morphology and cytochrome oxidase I for identification of specimens

Kristy Deiner, Roland A. Knapp, Daniel M. Boiano & Bernie May
The first step in many community ecology studies is to produce a species list from a sample of individuals. Community ecologists now have two viable ways of producing a species list: morphological and barcode identification. In this study, we compared the taxonomic resolution gained by a combined use of both methods and tested whether a change in taxonomic resolution significantly impacted richness estimates for benthic macroinvertebrates sampled from ten lakes in Sequoia National Park, USA....

eDNA metabarcoding as a biomonitoring tool for marine protected areas

Zachary Gold, Joshua Sprague, David Kushner, Erick Zerecero & Paul Barber
Monitoring of marine protected areas (MPAs) is critical for marine ecosystem management, yet current protocols rely on SCUBA-based visual surveys that are costly and time consuming, limiting their scope and effectiveness. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is a promising alternative for marine ecosystem monitoring, but more direct comparisons to visual surveys are needed to understand the strengths and limitations of each approach. This study compares fish communities inside and outside the Scorpion State Marine Reserve off...

Juvenile survival of a burned forest specialist in response to variation in fire characteristics

Andrew Stillman, Teresa Lorenz, Philip Fischer, Rodney Siegel, Robert Wilkerson, Matthew Johnson & Morgan Tingley
1. Pyrodiversity, defined as variation in fire history and characteristics, has been shown to catalyze post-fire biodiversity in a variety of systems. However, the demographic and behavioral mechanisms driving the responses of individual species to pyrodiversity remain largely unexplored. 2. We used a model post-fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), to examine the relationship between fire characteristics and juvenile survival while controlling for confounding factors. 3. We radio-tracked fledgling black-backed woodpeckers in burned forests...

Conditional natal dispersal provides a mechanism for populations tracking resource pulses after fire

Andrew Stillman, Teresa Lorenz, Rodney Siegel, Robert Wilkerson, Matthew Johnson & Morgan Tingley
Animals that persist in spatially structured populations face the challenge of tracking the rise and fall of resources across space and time. To combat these challenges, theory predicts that species should use conditional dispersal strategies that allow them to emigrate from patches with declining resources and colonize new resource patches as they appear. We studied natal dispersal movements in the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), a species known for its strong association with recent post-fire forests...

Data from: Migrating bison engineer the green wave

Chris Geremia, Jerod Merkle, Daniel Eacker, Rick Wallen, P.J. White, Mark Hebblewhite & Matthew Kauffman
Newly emerging plants provide the best forage for herbivores. To exploit this fleeting resource, migrating herbivores align their movements to surf the wave of spring green-up. With new technology to track migrating animals, the Green Wave Hypothesis has steadily gained empirical support across a diversity of migratory taxa. This hypothesis assumes the green wave is controlled by variation in climate, weather, and topography, and its progression dictates the timing, pace, and extent of migrations. However,...

Repeated fire shifts carbon and nitrogen cycling by changing plant inputs and soil decomposition across ecosystems

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Sarah Hobbie, Peter Reich, Ari Jumpponen, Jack Brookshire, Anthony Caprio, Corli Coetsee & Robert Jackson
Fires shape the biogeochemistry and functioning of many ecosystems, and fire frequencies are changing across much of the globe. Frequent fires can change soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage by altering the quantity and chemistry of plant inputs through changes in plant biomass and composition as well as altering decomposition of soil organic matter. How decomposition rates change with shifting inputs remains uncertain because most studies focus on the effects of single fires, where...

Sensory pollutants alter bird phenology and fitness across a continent

Clinton Francis, Masayuki Senzaki, Jesse Barber, Jenny Phillips, Neil Carter, Caren Cooper, Mark Ditmer, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher McClure, Daniel Mennitt, Luke Tyrrell, Jelena Vukomanovic & Ashley Wilson
Expansion of anthropogenic noise and night-lighting across our planet is of increasing conservation concern Despite growing knowledge of physiological and behavioural responses to these stimuli from single-species and local-scale studies, whether these pollutants affect fitness is less clear, as is how and why species vary in their sensitivity to these anthropic stressors. Here, we leverage a large citizen science dataset paired with high-resolution noise and light data from across the contiguous United States to assess...

Ecosystem services enhanced through soundscape management link people and wildlife

Mitch Levenhagen, Zachary Miller, Alissa Petrelli, Lauren Ferguson, Yau-Huo Shr, Dylan Gomes, Derrick Taff, Crow White, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher Monz, Christopher McClure, Peter Newman, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Burgeoning urbanization, development and human activities have led to reduced opportunities for nature experience in quiet acoustic environments. Increasing noise affects both humans and wildlife alike. We experimentally altered human-caused sound levels in a paired study using informational signs that encouraged quiet behaviours in week-on, week-off blocks on the trail system of Muir Woods National Monument, California, USA to test if the soundscape influences both wildlife and human experiences. Using continuous measurements from acoustic recording...

Data from: Homing of invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida: evidence for map and compass senses in snakes

Shannon E. Pittman, Kristen M. Hart, Michael S. Cherkiss, Ray W. Snow, Ikuko Fujisaki, Brian J. Smith, Frank J. Mazzotti & Michael E. Dorcas
Navigational ability is a critical component of an animal's spatial ecology and may influence the invasive potential of species. Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are apex predators invasive to South Florida. We tracked the movements of 12 adult Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park, six of which were translocated 21–36 km from their capture locations. Translocated snakes oriented movement homeward relative to the capture location, and five of six snakes returned to within 5 km...

Data from: Estimating abundance of an open population with an N-mixture model using auxiliary data on animal movements

Alison C. Ketz, Therese L. Johnson, Ryan J. Monello, John A. Mack, Janet L. George, Benjamin R. Kraft, Margaret A. Wild, Mevin B. Hooten & N. Thompson Hobbs
Accurate assessment of abundance forms a central challenge in population ecology and wildlife management. Many statistical techniques have been developed to estimate population sizes because populations change over time and space, and to correct for the bias resulting from animals that are present in a study area but not observed. The mobility of individuals makes it difficult to design sampling procedures that account for movement into and out of areas with fixed jurisdictional boundaries. Aerial...

Data from: Urbanization and anticoagulant poisons promote immune dysfunction in bobcats

Laurel E.K. Serieys, Amanda J. Lea, Marta Epeldegui, Tiffany C. Armenta, Joanne Moriarty, Sue Vandewoude, Scott Carver, Janet Foley, Robert K. Wayne, Seth P.D. Riley, Christel H. Uittenbogaart, Laurel E. K. Serieys & Seth P. D. Riley
Understanding how human activities influence immune response to environmental stressors can support biodiversity conservation across increasingly urbanizing landscapes. We studied a bobcat (Lynx rufus) population in urban southern California that experienced a rapid population decline from 2002–2005 due to notoedric mange. Because anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) exposure was an underlying complication in mange deaths, we aimed to understand sublethal contributions of urbanization and ARs on 65 biochemical markers of immune and organ function. Variance in immunological...

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