128 Works

Data from: Niche partitioning in a sympatric cryptic species complex

Jessica J. Scriven, Penelope R. Whitehorn, David Goulson, Matthew C. Tinsley, Dave Goulson & Matthew. C. Tinsley
Competition theory states that multiple species should not be able to occupy the same niche indefinitely. Morphologically, similar species are expected to be ecologically alike and exhibit little niche differentiation, which makes it difficult to explain the co-occurrence of cryptic species. Here, we investigated interspecific niche differentiation within a complex of cryptic bumblebee species that co-occur extensively in the United Kingdom. We compared the interspecific variation along different niche dimensions, to determine how they partition...

Data from: Pattern and process in hominin brain size evolution are scale-dependent

Andrew Du, Andrew M. Zipkin, Kevin G. Hatala, Elizabeth Renner, Jennifer L. Baker, Serena Bianchi, Kallista H. Bernal & Bernard A. Wood
A large brain is a defining feature of modern humans, yet there is no consensus regarding the patterns, rates, and processes involved in hominin brain size evolution. We use a reliable proxy for brain size in fossils, endocranial volume (ECV), to better understand how brain size evolved at both clade- and lineage-level scales. For the hominin clade overall, the dominant signal is consistent with a gradual increase in brain size. This gradual trend appears to...

Data from: Environmental variation causes different (co) evolutionary routes to the same adaptive destination across parasite populations

Stuart K.J.R. Auld, June Brand & Stuart K. J. R. Auld
Epidemics are engines for host-parasite coevolution, where parasite adaptation to hosts drives reciprocal adaptation in host populations. A key challenge is to understand whether parasite adaptation and any underlying evolution and coevolution is repeatable across ecologically realistic populations that experience different environmental conditions, or if each population follows a completely unique evolutionary path. We established twenty replicate pond populations comprising an identical suite of genotypes of crustacean host, Daphnia magna, and inoculum of their parasite,...

Data from: Evolution of pre-copulatory and post-copulatory strategies of inbreeding avoidance and associated polyandry

A. Bradley Duthie, Greta Bocedi, Ryan R. Germain & Jane M. Reid
Inbreeding depression is widely hypothesised to drive adaptive evolution of pre-copulatory and post-copulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance, which in turn are hypothesised to affect evolution of polyandry (i.e., female multiple mating). However, surprisingly little theory or modelling critically examines selection for pre-copulatory or post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, or both strategies, given evolutionary constraints and direct costs, or examines how evolution of inbreeding avoidance strategies might feed back to affect evolution of polyandry. Selection for post-copulatory inbreeding...

Soil profile descriptions, biomass data and vegetation species from a joint sampling event at Sourhope, Scotland, 2000 [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

S. Buckland, C. Cornish, N. Ray, P. Bruneau, L. Dawson & J. Ross
This dataset includes: biomass data for roots, shoots and litter in soil core samples, vegetation species abundance data for sampled soil blocks, and soil profile descriptions (horizon types & depths) with corresponding pH and moisture content values by horizon for soil blocks. All data were collected during a joint sampling event, held at Sourhope, Scotland, where co-ordinated sampling took place on the 27-28th July 2000 involving groups from within the NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme. A...

Data from: Floristic variation within kerangas (heath) forest: re-evaluation of data from Sarawak and Brunei

E. F. Brunig & D. McC. Newbery
The variation in species composition of trees greater-than-or-equal-to 7.6 cm gbh in thirty-eight plots (mostly c. 0.2 ha in extent) from physiognomically-defined kerangas forest were re-analyzed by principal components analysis ordination (species centering and standardization by sample norm). Analyses were performed separately on basal area abundances, on the densities of trees in three size classes (greater-than-or-equal-to 7.6, greater-than-or-equal-to 30.5 and greater-than-or-equal-to 61.0 cm gbh) and on the density of small and large trees (7.6- <...

Data from: The influence of topography and soil phosphorus on the vegetation of Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroun

Duncan W. Thomas, David M. Newbery, P. G. Waterman & J. S. Gartlan
All living trees (≥ 30 cm gbh) were enumerated in 135 80×80 m plots, each subdivided into four 40×40 m subplots, and arranged along four 5 km transect lines in the Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroun. For each plot altitude, slope and the extent of permanent and seasonal swamps were recorded. Four hundred and eleven taxa were recognized of which 66% were identified to species. Mean tree density was 471 ha−1, basal area 27.6 m2 ha−1...

Data from: Natural selection and outbreeding depression suggest adaptive differentiation in the invasive range of a clonal plant

Pauline Oliveira Pantoja, Charles Eliot Timothy Paine & Mario Vallejo-Marin
Analyses of phenotypic selection and demography in field populations are powerful ways to establishing the potential role of natural selection in shaping evolution during biological invasions. Here we use experimental F2 crosses between native and introduced populations of Mimulus guttatus to estimate the pattern of natural selection in part of its introduced range, and to seek evidence of outbreeding depression of colonists. The F2s combined the genome of an introduced population with the genome of...

Data from: Lake and catchment-scale determinants of aquatic vegetation across almost 1000 lakes and the contrasts between lake types

Junyao Sun, Peter D. Hunter, Andrew N. Tyler & Nigel J. Willby
Aim: The factors controlling macrophyte (aquatic plant) composition are complex, recent research showing that the well-studied filtering effects of lake environmental factors are constrained by hydrological and landscape factors. We investigated the factors determining macrophyte composition in lakes over water body and catchment- scales and the transferability of this pattern across lake types. Location: Almost 1000 lakes distributed across Britain. Taxon: Lake macrophytes. Methods: Lakes were partitioned into five types based on subdivision of alkalinity...

Data from: Does body size predict the buzz-pollination frequencies used by bees?

Paul A De Luca, Stephen L Buchmann, Candace Galen, Andrew C Mason & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Body size is an important trait linking pollinators and plants. Morphological matching between pollinators and plants is thought to reinforce pollinator fidelity, as the correct fit ensures that both parties benefit from the interaction. We investigated the influence of body size in a specialized pollination system (buzz‐pollination) where bees vibrate flowers to release pollen concealed within poricidal stamens. Specifically, we explored how body size influences the frequency of buzz‐pollination vibrations. Body size is expected to...

Data from: Behavioural patterns of vocal greeting production in four primate species

Pawel Fedurek, Christof Neumann, Yaelle Bouquet, Stephanie Mercier, Martina Magris, Fredy Quintero & Klaus Zuberbühler
Social animals have evolved a range of signals to avoid aggressive and facilitate affiliative interactions. Vocal behaviour is especially important in this respect with many species, including various primates, producing acoustically distinct ‘greeting calls’ when two individuals approach each other. While the ultimate function of greeting calls has been explored in several species, little effort has been made to understand the mechanisms of this behaviour across species. The aim of this study was to explore...

Data from: Changes in liana density over 30 years in a Bornean rain forest supports the escape hypothesis

David Newbery, Cedric Zahnd & Elaine Campbell
In two permanent plots of lowland dipterocarp forest at Danum a liana census in 1988 was repeated in 2018 using the same method. Trees ≥ 30 cm gbh (girth at breast height) were recorded for number of lianas ≥ 2 cm gbh on their stems. The forest was evidently in a late stage of recovery from a large natural disturbance. Over the interval, mean number of lianas per tree decreased by 22 and 34 %...

The Significance of Requirements in Medical Device Software Development

Martin McHugh, Abder-Rahman Ali & Fergal McCaffery

Endosperm-based incompatibilities in hybrid monkeyflowers

Taliesin Kinser, Ronald Smith, Amelia Lawrence, Arielle Cooley, Mario Vallejo-Marín, Gregory Conradi Smith & Joshua Puzey
The sexual endosperm is an angiosperm innovation central to flowering plant reproduction. Genomic interactions between parental alleles control its development and help determine seed viability. These interactions are characterized by genomic imprinting, where expression from certain genes is parent-specific. Unsuccessful imprinting has been linked to failed hybridization between plants of different species or ploidies. Here, we describe an endosperm-based barrier between Mimulus guttatus, a diploid, and M. luteus, an allotetraploid. Hybrid seeds suffer from underdeveloped...

Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil organic matter fractions along grassland-to-forest conversion chronosequences across Scotland in 2018

F.X. Joly & J.A. Subke
This dataset contains the carbon and nitrogen content of soil organic matter fractions collected along grassland-to-forest conversion chronosequences. Four chronosequences of grassland-to-forest conversion were used across Scotland, from Alyth to Craik. Soil samples were collected in summer 2018. Soil samples were collected using soil corers. In 2020, soil samples were fractionated in the laboratory, and the elemental composition of bulk soil and soil fraction samples was determined. The goal of the study was to determine...

Less is more: the impact of auto lender risk on household auto purchases

Ian Lange, Caitlin McKennie & Mirko Moro
Credit risk can be an impediment to new auto purchases, especially for electric vehicles. This paper looks at the elimination of auto loan cramdowns for Chapter 13 bankruptcy proceedings, where the loan value is made equal to the auto value, on three outcomes: auto value, likelihood of new auto, and loan-to-value ratio of new autos. Using a difference-in-difference approach based on a state's historical use of Chapter 13 bankruptcy, we show that household's secure better...

Data from: Morphometric discrimination of two allozymically diagnosed sibling species of the Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Muller complex (Acanthocephala) in the North Sea.

Matthew T. Wayland, David I. Gibson & Christina Sommerville
Allozyme electrophoresis was used to detect biological species of the E. gadi complex from gadids from the northern North Sea. A fixed difference at one of nine enzyme loci surveyed confirmed the existence of two reproductively isolated, sympatric species. Mixed infections of two E. gadi spp. (termed A and B) were observed in Gadus morhua and Pollachius virens. E. gadi sp. B was also found in Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Merlangius merlangus. The presence of gravid...

Data from: Correlated evolution of mating system and floral display traits in flowering plants and its implications for the distribution of mating system variation

Carol Goodwillie, Risa D. Sargent, Susan Kalisz, Richard H. Ree, David A. Moeller, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Christopher G. Eckert, Alice A. Winn, Elizabeth Elle, Monica A. Geber & Mark O. Johnston
Reduced allocation to structures for pollinator attraction is predicted in selfing species. We explored the association between outcrossing and floral display in a broad sample of angiosperms. We used the demonstrated relationship to test for bias against selfing species in the outcrossing rate distribution, the shape of which has relevance for the stability of mixed mating. Relationships between outcrossing rate, flower size, flower number and floral display, measured as the product of flower size and...

Data from: Bergmann's body size rule operates in facultatively endothermic insects: evidence from a complex of cryptic bumblebee species

Jessica J. Scriven, Penelope R. Whitehorn, Dave Goulson & Matthew C. Tinsley
According to Bergmann’s rule we expect species with larger body size to inhabit locations with a cooler climate, where they may be well adapted to conserve heat and resist starvation. This rule is generally applied to endotherms. In contrast, body size in ectothermic invertebrates has been suggested to follow the reverse ecogeographic trend: these converse Bergmann’s patterns may be driven by the ecological constraints of shorter season length and lower food availability in cooler high...

Data from: Unravelling the evolutionary history and future prospects of endemic species restricted to former glacial refugia

Orly Razgour, Irene Salicini, Carlos Ibáñez, Ettore Randi & Javier Juste
The contemporary distribution and genetic composition of biodiversity bear a signature of species’ evolutionary histories and the effects of past climatic oscillations. For many European species, the Mediterranean peninsulas of Iberia, Italy and the Balkans acted as glacial refugia and the source of range recolonization, and as a result, they contain disproportionately high levels of diversity. As these areas are particularly threatened by future climate change, it is important to understand how past climatic changes...

Data from: Parasite transmission in a natural multihost-multiparasite community

Stuart K. Auld, Catherine L. Searle & Meghan A. Duffy
Understanding the transmission and dynamics of infectious diseases in natural communities requires understanding the extent to which the ecology, evolution and epidemiology of those diseases are shaped by alternative hosts. We performed laboratory experiments to test how parasite spillover affected traits associated with transmission in two co-occurring parasites: the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Both parasites were capable of transmission from the reservoir host (Daphnia dentifera) to the spillover host (Ceriodaphnia dubia),...

Data from: Fuels and fires influence vegetation via above- and below-ground pathways in a high-diversity plant community

Paul R. Gagnon, Heather A. Passmore, Matthew Slocum, Jonathan A. Myers, Kyle E. Harms, William J. Platt & C. E. Timothy Paine
1. Fire strongly influences plant populations and communities around the world, making it an important agent of plant evolution. Fire influences vegetation through multiple pathways, both above- and belowground. Few studies have yet attempted to tie these pathways together in a mechanistic way through soil heating even though the importance of soil heating for plants in fire-prone ecosystems is increasingly recognized. 2. Here we combine an experimental approach with structural equation modelling (SEM) to simultaneously...

Data from: A seascape genetic analysis reveals strong biogeographical structuring driven by contrasting processes in the polyploid saltmarsh species Puccinellia maritima and Triglochin maritima.

Romuald Rouger & Alistair S. Jump
Little is known about the processes shaping population structure in saltmarshes. It is expected that the sea should act as a powerful agent of dispersal. Yet, in contrast, import of external propagules into a saltmarsh is thought to be small. To determine the level of connectivity between saltmarsh ecosystems at a macro-geographical scale, we characterised and compared the population structure of two polyploid saltmarsh species, Puccinellia maritima and Triglochin maritima based on a seascape genetics...

Data from: Genetic inactivation of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) eggs using UV-irradiation: observations and perspectives

Julie Colleter, David J. Penman, Stephane Lallement, Christian Fauvel, Tanja Hanebrekke, Renate D. Osvik, Hans C. Eilertsen, Helena D'Cotta, Beatrice Chatain & Stefano Peruzzi
Androgenesis is a form of uniparental reproduction leading to progenies inheriting only the paternal set of chromosomes. It has been achieved with variable success in a number of freshwater species and can be attained by artificial fertilization of genetically inactivated eggs following exposure to gamma (γ), X-ray or UV irradiation (haploid androgenesis) and by restoration of diploidy by suppression of mitosis using a pressure or thermal shock. The conditions for the genetic inactivation of the...

Data from: Genetic variation and clonal diversity in introduced populations of Mimulus guttatus assessed by genotyping at 62 single nucleotide polymorphism loci

Pauline O. Pantoja, Violeta I. Simon-Porcar, Joshua R. Puzey & Mario Vallejo-Marin
Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly being used to study non-native populations. SNPs are relatively information poor on a per locus basis, but allow genotyping more loci than others markers (e.g., microsatellites) and have the advantage of consistent allele calls between studies. Aims: We investigated the utility of a newly developed set of SNP markers, suitable for high throughput genotyping to characterise genotypic variation and population structure in non-native populations of the facultative clonal...

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  • University of Stirling
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • University of Edinburgh
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Dalhousie University
  • University of Zurich
  • Whitman College
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • Sao Paulo State University