50 Works

Data from: An integrative approach to understanding the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa (Cactaceae), a threatened endemic Chilean genus from the Atacama Desert

Isabel Larridon, Helmut E. Walter, Pablo C. Guerrero, Milén Duarte, Mauricio A. Cisternas, Carol Peña Hernández, Kenneth Bauters, Pieter Asselman, Paul Goetghebeur & Marie-Stéphanie Samain
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Species of the endemic Chilean cactus genus Copiapoa have cylindrical or (sub)globose stems that are solitary or form (large) clusters and typically yellow flowers. Many species are threatened with extinction. Despite being icons of the Atacama Desert and well loved by cactus enthusiasts, the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa has not yet been studied using a molecular approach. METHODS: Sequence data of three plastid DNA markers (rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, ycf1) of 39...

Data from: Woody climbers show greater population genetic differentiation than trees: insights into the link between ecological traits and diversification

Ernesto Gianoli, Cristian Torres-Diaz, Eduardo Ruiz, Cristian Salgado-Luarte, Marco A. Molina-Montenegro, Alfredo Saldaña & Rodrigo S. Ríos
The climbing habit is a key innovation in plants: climbing taxa have higher species richness than non-climbing sister groups. We evaluated the hypothesis that climbing plant species show greater among-population genetic differentiation than non-climber species. We compared the among-population genetic distance in woody climbers (8 species, 30 populations) and trees (7 species, 29 populations) coexisting in 9 communities in a temperate rainforest. We also compared within-population genetic diversity in co-occurring woody climbers and trees in...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of the Chilean clade of Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) based on sequence capture data

Alejandra Panzera, Adam D. Leaché, Guillermo D'Elía & Pedro F. Victoriano
The genus Liolaemus is one of the most ecologically diverse and species-rich genera of lizards worldwide. It currently includes more than 250 recognized species, which have been subject to many ecological and evolutionary studies. Nevertheless, Liolaemus lizards have a complex taxonomic history, mainly due to the incongruence between morphological and genetic data, incomplete taxon sampling, incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization. In addition, as many species have restricted and remote distributions, this has hampered their examination...

Data from: Efficiency of ddRAD target enriched sequencing across spiny rock lobster species (Palinuridae: Jasus)

Carla A. Souza, Nicholas Murphy, Cecilia Villacorta-Rath, Laura N. Woodings, Irina Ilyushkina, Cristian E. Hernandez, Bridget S. Green, James J. Bell & Jan M. Strugnell
Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) and target capture sequencing methods are used to explore population and phylogenetic questions in non-model organisms. ddRADseq offers a simple and reliable protocol for population genomic studies, however it can result in a large amount of missing data due to allelic dropout. Target capture sequencing offers an opportunity to increase sequencing coverage with little missing data and consistent orthologous loci across samples, although this approach has generally been...

Data from: Thorson’s rule, life history evolution and diversification of benthic octopuses (Cephalopoda: Octopodoidea)

Christian M. Ibáñez, Enrico L. Rezende, Roger D. Sepúlveda, Jorge Avaria-Llautureo, Cristián E. Hernández, Javier Sellanes, Elie Poulin & María Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas
Here we evaluate the so-called Thorson’s rule, which posits that direct-development and larger eggs are favored towards the poles in marine organisms and whose validity been the subject of considerable debate in the literature, combining an expanded phenotypic dataset encompassing 60 species of benthic octopuses with a new molecular phylogeny. Phylogenetic reconstruction shows two clades: clade 1 including species of the families Eledonidae, Megaleledonidae, Bathypolypodidae and Enteroctopodidae, and clade 2 including species of Octopodidae. Egg...

Morphometric Response of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) to Lake Colonization in Chile

Margaret Mercer, Peter C. Searle, Roberto Cifuentes, Evelyn Habit & Mark C. Belk
Body and head shape in fish responds to environmental factors such as water flow rate, food sources, and niche availability. However, the way in which fish respond to these environmental factors varies. In Central Chile, multiple river and lake systems along the coast provide an ideal study site to investigate these types of shape changes. We use geometric morphometrics to characterize shape differences in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) between river and lake populations. Lake fish converge...

Data from: Multiple late-Pleistocene colonisation events of the Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) reveal the recent arrival of native Antarctic vascular flora

E. M. Biersma, C. Torres-Díaz, K. K. Newsham, M. A. Vidal, G. Ballesteros, C. C. Figueroa, W. P. Goodall-Copestake, M.A. Leppe, M. Cuba-Díaz, M. A. Valladares, L. R. Pertierra, P. Convey, I. S. Acuña-Rodríguez, G. A. Collado & M. A. Molina-Montenegro
Aim: Antarctica’s remote and extreme terrestrial environments are inhabited by only two species of native vascular plants. We assessed genetic connectivity amongst Antarctic and South American populations of one of these species, Colobanthus quitensis, to determine its origin and age in Antarctica. Location: Maritime Antarctic, sub-Antarctic islands, South America Taxon: Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) Methods: Four chloroplast markers and one nuclear marker were sequenced from 270 samples from a latitudinal transect spanning 21–68° S....

Humpback whale song comparison for the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

Elena Schall, Divna Djokic, Erin Ross-Marsh, Javier Oña, Judith Denkinger, Julio Ernesto Baumgarten, Linilson Rodrigues Padovese, Marcos R. Rossi-Santos, Maria Isabel Carvalho Goncalves, Renata Santoro Sousa-Lima, Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Simon Elwen, Susannah Buchan, Tess Gridley & Ilse Van Opzeeland
The results of comparative song analyses between the ASSO and the Ecuadorian and Brazilian breeding populations and recordings from the Chilean, South African and Namibian migration routes revealed that individuals from at least three humpback whale breeding populations most likely migrate to shared feeding grounds in the ASSO. Humpback whales from different populations potentially mix at different times (i.e., years) at feeding hotspots of variable locations.

Data from: Concholepas concholepas Ferritin H-like subunit (CcFer): molecular characterization and single nucleotide polymorphism associated to innate immune response

Jacqueline Chávez-Mardones, Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Waleska Maldonado-Aguayo & Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Ferritin has been shown as the principal protein of iron storage and iron detoxification, playing a pivotal role for the cellular homeostasis in living organisms. However, recent studies in marine invertebrates have suggested its association with innate immune system. In the present study, one Ferritin subunit was identified from the gastropod Concholepas concholepas (CcFer), which was fully characterized by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends technique. Simultaneously, a challenge test was performed to evaluate the immune...

Data from: Temporal genetic variance and propagule-driven genetic structure characterize naturalized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a Patagonian lake impacted by trout farming

Javiera Nidia Benavente, Lisa Wishard Seeb, James Edward Seeb, Ivan Arismendi, Cristián Esteban Hernández, Gonzalo Gajardo, Ricardo Galleguillos, Maria Ignacia Cádiz, Selim Seman Musleh & Daniel Gomez-Uchida
Knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of invasions—a theme addressed by invasion genetics as a discipline—is still scarce amid well documented ecological impacts of non-native species on ecosystems of Patagonia in South America. One of the most invasive species in Patagonia’s freshwater systems and elsewhere is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The species was introduced in Chile during the early twentieth century for stocking and promoting recreational fishing and, during the late twentieth century, for farming purposes...

Data from: Genetic variation of loci potentially under selection confounds species-genetic diversity correlations in a fragmented habitat

Angeline Bertin, Nicolas Gouin, Alex Baumel, Ernesto Gianoli, Juan Serratosa, Rodomiro Osorio & Stéphanie Manel
Positive species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDCs) are often thought to result from the parallel influence of neutral processes on genetic and species diversity. Yet, confounding effects of non-neutral mechanisms have not been explored. Here, we investigate the impact of non-neutral genetic diversity on SGDCs in high Andean wetlands. We compare correlations between plant species diversity (SD) and genetic diversity (GD) calculated with and without loci potentially under selection (outlier loci). The study system includes 2188 specimens...

Data from: Plastic responses contribute to explaining altitudinal and temporal variation in potential flower longevity in high Andean Rhodolirion montanum

Diego Andrés Pacheco, Leah S. Dudley, Josefina Cabezas, Lohengrin A. Cavieres & Mary T. K. Arroyo
The tendency for flower longevity to increase with altitude is believed by many alpine ecologists to play an important role in compensating for low pollination rates at high altitudes due to cold and variable weather conditions. However, current studies documenting an altitudinal increase in flower longevity in the alpine habitat derive principally from studies on open-pollinated flowers where lower pollinator visitation rates at higher altitudes will tend to lead to flower senescence later in the...

Data from: Microclimate variability in alpine ecosystems as stepping stones for non-native plant establishment above their current elevational limit

Jonas J. Lembrechts, Jonathan Lenoir, Martin A. Nuñez, Aníbal Pauchard, Charly Geron, Gilles Bussé, Ann Milbau & Ivan Nijs
Alpine environments are currently relatively free from non-native plant species, although their presence and abundance have recently been on the rise. It is however still unclear whether the observed low invasion levels in these areas are due to an inherent resistance of the alpine zone to invasions or whether an exponential increase in invasion is just a matter of time. Using a seed-addition experiment on north- and south-facing slopes (cf. microclimatic gradient) on two mountains...

Data from: Ontogenetic shape trajectory of Trichomycterus areolatus varies in response to water velocity environment

Peter Searle, Margaret Mercer, Evelyn Habit & Mark Belk
Body and head shape among fishes both vary between environments influenced by water velocity and across ontogeny. Although the shape changes associated with variation in average water velocity and ontogeny are well documented, few studies have tested for the interaction between these two variables (i.e., does ontogenetic shape variation differ between velocity environments). We use geometric morphometrics to characterize shape differences in Trichomycterus areolatus, a freshwater catfish found in high and low-velocity environments in Chile....

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses of echinoid diversification prompt a re-evaluation of their fossil record

Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Jeffrey R Thompson, Avery S Hatch, Marina F McCowin, A Frances Armstrong, Simon E Coppard, Felipe Aguilera, Omri Bronstein, Andreas Kroh, Rich Mooi & Greg W Rouse
Echinoids are key components of modern marine ecosystems. Despite a remarkable fossil record, the emergence of their crown group is documented by few specimens of unclear affinities, rendering their early history uncertain. The origin of sand dollars, one of its most distinctive clades, is also unclear due to an unstable phylogenetic context. We employ eighteen novel genomes and transcriptomes to build a phylogenomic dataset with a near-complete sampling of major lineages. With it, we revise...

A song of wind and ice: increased frequency of marine cold-spells in southwestern Patagonia and their possible effects on giant kelp forests

Alejandra Mora-Soto, Catalina Aguirre, Jose Luis Iriarte, Mauricio Palacios, Erasmo C. Macaya & Marc Macias-Fauria
In contrast to other coastal regions of the world, the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) ecosystem in southwestern Patagonia has been persistent in area and associated biodiversity in the last decades. In this ecoregion, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) records have consistently remained below the upper thermal threshold for kelp survival, however no studies have analysed the spatiotemporal variability of SSTs and their anomalies across the geographical diversity of the southwestern Patagonian coastline. We explored the geographical...

Data from: Phylogeography of the catfish Hatcheria macraei reveals a negligible role of drainage divides in structuring populations

Peter J. Unmack, Juan P. Barriga, Miguel A. Battini, Evelyn M. Habit & Jerald B. Johnson
Southern South America provides a set of unusual geographic features that make it particularly interesting for studying phylogeography. The Andes Mountains run along a north-to-south axis and act as a barrier to gene flow for much of the biota of this region, with southern portions experiencing extensive historic glaciation. Geological data reveal a series of drainage reversals, shifting from Pacific Ocean outlets to Atlantic Ocean outlets due to glacier formation that dammed and reversed rivers....

Data from: Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis

Nicolás I. Segovia, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Elie Poulin & Pilar A. Haye
Marine benthic organisms inhabit a heterogeneous environment in which connectivity between populations occurs mainly through dispersive larval stages, while local selective pressures acting on early life history stages lead to non-random mortality, shaping adaptive genetic structure. In order to test the influence of local adaptation and neutral processes in a marine benthic species with low dispersal, in this study we used Genotyping by Sequencing technology to compare the neutral and putatively selected signals (neutral and...

Data from: Invasive species and postglacial colonization: their effects on the genetic diversity of a Patagonian fish

Iván Vera-Escalona, Evelyn Habit & Daniel E. Ruzzante
The present distribution of Patagonian species is the result of a complex history involving Quaternary refugial populations, Holocene range expansions, and demographic changes occurring during the Anthropocene. Invasive salmonids were introduced in Patagonia during the last century, occupying most rivers and lakes, preying on, and competing with native species, including the fish Galaxias platei. Here we used G. platei as a case study to understand how long-term (i.e. population differentiation during the Holocene) and short-term...

Worldwide bird assemblages across urban-wildland gradients

Daniel Sol, Cesar Gonzalez-Lagos & Dario Moreira
We gathered presence/absence and abundance data from published studies and reports for 319 well-characterized assemblages spanning 50 cities from Africa, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. We focused on cities with comparable survey data within urban habitats and in nearby natural habitat. The final dataset contains almost 10,000 records for 1507bird species, 66 of which are introduced (non-native) in at least one study region. Species abundance per unit area or unit time were available...

Human-induced habitat fragmentation effects on connectivity, diversity and population persistence of an endemic fish, Percilia irwini, in the Biobío river basin (Chile)

Francisca Valenzuela-Aguayo, Gregory McCracken, Aliro Manosalva, Evelyn Habit & Daniel Ruzzante
An understanding of how genetic variability is distributed in space is fundamental for the conservation and maintenance of diversity in spatially fragmented and vulnerable populations. While fragmentation can occur from natural barriers it can also be exacerbated by anthropogenic activities such as hydroelectric power plant development. Whatever the source, fragmentation can have significant ecological effects, including the disruptions of migratory processes and gene flow among populations. In Chile, the Biobío river basin exhibits a high...

What Peer-review Experiences Can Offer To Early Career Scientists And To The Scientific Community

Gwenaëlle Gremion, Mathieu Casado, Kelsey Aho, Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Nicolas Champollion, Emily Choy, Sarah L. Connors, Rahul Dey, Alfonso Fernandez, Gerlis Fugmann, Juan Höfer, Shridhar Jawak, Martine Lizotte, Sarah Maes, Kyle Mayers, Katja Mintenbeck, Jhon Fredy Mojica Moncada, Prashant H. Pandit, Elvira Poloczanska, Paul Rosenbaum, Elisa Seyboth, Sarah Shakil & Maud van Soest

Historical warming consistently decreased size, dispersal and speciation rate of fish

Jorge Avaria-Llautureo, Chris Venditti, Marcelo Rivadeneira, Oscar Inostroza-Michael, Reinaldo Rivera, Cristián Hernández & Cristian Canales-Aguirre
There is ongoing debate as to whether fish body size will decrease with global warming and how these changes may impact dispersal ability and speciation rate. Theory predicts that, under warmer temperatures, fish grow to a smaller size, undergo a reduction in dispersal ability and increase speciation rates. However, evaluations of such predictions are hampered owing to the lack of empirical data spanning both wide temporal and geographical scales. Here, using phylogenetic methods, we show...

Phylogenetic data for: High diversity of new and known Phytophthora species from phylogenetic Clade 10 in natural ecosystems of Asia, Europe and the Americas

Thomas Jung, Ivan Milenković, Tamara Corcobado, Tomáš Májek, Josef Janoušek, Tomáš Kudláček, Michal Tomšovský, Zoltán Nagy, Álvaro Durán, Marthin Tarigan, Eugenio Sanfuentes Von Stowasser, Raghuwinder Singh, Monique Ferreira, Joan Webber, Bruno Scanu, Nguyen Minh Chi, Pham Quang Thu, Muhammad Junaid, Ade Rosmana, Baharuddin Baharuddin, Tutik Kuswinanti, Nasri Nasri, Koji Kageyama, Ayaka Hieno, Hayato Masuya … & Marília Horta Jung
During extensive surveys of Phytophthora diversity, 14 new species were detected in natural ecosystems in Chile, Louisiana, Sweden, Ukraine, Vietnam and Indonesia. Multigene phylogeny based on the nuclear LSU, rpl10, ITS, ßtub, enl, hsp90, tef-1α, ras-ypt1 and tigA and the mitochondrial cox1, nadh1 and rps10 gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to phylogenetic Clade 10 which is structured into three subclades. Subclades 10a and 10b comprise soil- and waterborne species with nonpapillate sporangia and variable...

Data from: Microbial life in a fjord: metagenomic analysis of a microbial mat in Chilean Patagonia

Juan A. Ugalde, Maria J. Gallardo, Camila Belmar, Práxedes Muñoz, Nathaly Ruiz-Tagle, Sandra Ferrada-Fuentes, Carola Espinoza, Eric E. Allen & Victor A. Gallardo
The current study describes the taxonomic and functional composition of metagenomic sequences obtained from a filamentous microbial mat isolated from the Comau fjord, located in the northernmost part of the Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic composition of the microbial community showed a high proportion of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including a high number of sequences that were recruited to the genomes of Moritella marina MP-1 and Colwellia psycherythraea 34H, suggesting the presence of populations related to...

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