144 Works

Attitudes of White South Africans Towards the Truth and Reconciliation Commission 1996

Gunnar Theissen & Brandon Hamber

Bee diversity in island-like habitats (kettle holes) to assess connectivity in agricultural landscapes - Part 1 of data collection

Sissi Lozada-Gobilard
During June and July of 2017, wild bees were collected using color traps (blue, yellow and white pans) in small water bodies called kettle holes embedded in agricultural landscapes in the north of Germany. After all wild bees were identified to species level, from a subset of samples we measured the Intertegular distance ITD (distance between the wings) as body size and searched for functional traits regarding sociality (solitary, eusocial, parasitic) nesting type (below- or...

Geophysical Survey at Morgantina

Stephen Kay, Monika Trümper , Michael Heinzelmann & Elena Pomar
Geophysical surveys were conducted at Morgantina in 1970, 2012 and 2018, with the objective of better understanding the city plan of the Archaic city on the Cittadella Hill and the Classical and Hellenistic city on the Serra Orlando Ridge. This paper focuses on the results of the 2018 survey conducted over three sectors on the Serra Orlando Ridge. It demonstrates that magnetometry was successful in rapidly recording subsurface archaeological features across the site, including the...

Demmin, Germany (October 2015) - An EnMAP Preparatory Flight Campaign

Maximilian Brell, Daniel Spengler, Thomas Ruhtz, Kathrin Ward, Sabine Chabrillat, Karl Segl, Saskia Foerster & Sibylle Itzerott
The dataset is composed of Hyspex (VNIR/SWIR) hyperspectral imagery acquired during airplane overflights on October 1, 2015 within the Demmin Research Area. The acquisition conditions were cloud free. The dataset includes two mosaics generated based on 9 HySpex flight lines. The dataset also includes Level 2A EnMAP-like imagery simulated using the end-to-end Simulation tool (EeteS). Additionally, a soil database focusing on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) with geographic coordinates, SOC content, texture and spectral...

Si isotope thermometry in silicified carbonate

Michael Tatzel , Marcus Oelze , Moritz Liesegang , Maria Stuff & Michael Wiedenbeck
Cherts, including silicified carbonates, are one of the most detailed and alteration resistant archives of near-surface environments. Yet, the information disclosed in form of stable isotope ratios of Si and O cannot be confidently translated into conditions prevailing at the Earth surface in deep time. Thermometry based on δ18O is compromised by the lack of knowledge about the fluid’s δ18O value and attempts to determine Si sources or temperatures from δ30Si remain unsatisfying. We investigated...

The Freeway Fix: Infrastructure, Affect, and the Politics and Aesthetics of Distance in Joan Didion's Play It as It Lays

Maxime D. McKenna
This essay reconsiders the many scenes of freeway driving in Joan Didion's Play It as It Lays (1970) through the critical lens of infrastructure to argue that the novel finds in the built environment a model for its own distanced narrative style. The novel's engagements with everyday infrastructure like the freeway encourage us to imagine a personal "affective fix" operating alongside David Harvey's theory of the "spatial fix," which describes how large-scale midcentury infrastructure projects...

Longing to Belong: Disease, Nostalgia, and Exile in Ling Ma's Severance

Sonja Pyykkö
The word nostalgia originally referred to a literal disease: a lethargic condition experienced by soldiers and seamen, thought to be caused by homesickness. These days, nostalgia is more often used in a broader sense of a sustained attachment to the past, whether real or mythical, individual or communal. Because the past is always by definition beyond retrieval, nostalgia is often considered a harmful, even self-delusional condition: No longer a literal disease, nostalgia has instead become...

Mobility Transition Model - excerpt from 2018 Decision Theatre scenario data

Andreas Geiges, Steffen Fürst, Gesine Steudle, Sarah Wolf & Carlo Jaeger

Voter Dynamics on Clustered Networks

Jan-Hendrik Niemann
The dynamical behavior of social systems can be described by agent-based models. One famous and important model for the description of voting behavior is the so-called (extended) voter model where agents decide between various options based on different rules. A key factor is the interaction network, that is what information the agents obtain and how they interact with each other. This data set provides simulation data to analyze the influence of the interaction network. A...

Data from: Evolution and biogeography of the endemic Roucela complex (Campanulaceae: Campanula) in the eastern Mediterranean

Andrew A. Crowl, Clayton J. Visger, Guilhem Mansion, Ralf Hand, Hsin-Hui Wu, Georgia Kamari, Dimitrios Phitos & Nico Cellinese
At the intersection of geological activity, climatic fluctuations, and human pressure, the Mediterranean Basin – a hotspot of biodiversity – provides an ideal setting for studying endemism, evolution, and biogeography. Here, we focus on the Roucela complex (Campanula subgenus Roucela), a group of 13 bellflower species found primarily in the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Plastid and low-copy nuclear markers were employed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and estimate divergence times within the Roucela complex using both concatenation...

Data from: Biostratigraphy and geometric morphometrics of conchostracans (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) from the Late Triassic fissure deposits of Cromhall Quarry, UK

Jacob D. Morton, David I. Whiteside, Manja Hethke & Michael J. Benton
The enigmatic fissure deposits of south-eastern England and southern Wales are famous for their unique assemblage of Late Triassic vertebrates, although their age is contentious. While recent studies of palynomorphs have dated some as Rhaetian, their conchostracan (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) assemblages have not been described in detail nor used in biostratigraphy. We find that species determination of British Late Triassic conchostracans requires detailed observations of size, shape and ornamentation. We provide evidence that although Euestheria brodieana...

Data from: Analysis of morphological variability in the clam shrimp Eosestheria middendorfii (Crustacea, Spinicaudata) from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and its implications for spinicaudatan taxonomy

Manja Hethke, Franz T. Fürsich, Jacob D. Morton & Baoyu Jiang
Unresolved taxonomic issues regarding spinicaudatans, clam shrimps that formed the most abundant faunal element in the lacustrine Barremian to Aptian Yixian Formation, have hampered palaeoecological and evolutionary interpretations of this key fossil group. Here, we analyse morphological variability in East Asian clam-shrimp taxa by quantifying: (1) size and shape; and (2) ornamental features (radial lirae distances). Intergeneric variability was examined using 51 specimens of various East Asian Mesozoic taxa, 16 of which were chosen for...

Data from: Honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of hornet predators and alarm component

Zhengwei Wang, Yufeng Qu, Shihao Dong, Ping Wen, Jianjun Li, Ken Tan & Randolf Menzel
In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina), mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence...

Data from: Ecological conditions alter cooperative behaviour and its costs in a chemically defended sawfly

Carita Lindstedt, Antti Miettinen, Dalial Freitak, Tarmo Ketola, Andrés López-Sepulcre, Elina Mäntylä & Hannu Pakkanen
The evolution of cooperation and social behaviour is often studied in isolation from the ecology of organisms. Yet, the selective environment under which individuals evolve is much more complex in nature, consisting of ecological and abiotic interactions in addition to social ones. Here we measured the life-history costs of cooperative chemical defence in a gregarious social herbivore, Diprion pini pine sawfly larvae, and how these costs vary under different ecological conditions. We ran a rearing...

Data from: Interplay between fungicides and parasites: tebuconazole, but not copper, suppresses infection in a Daphnia-Metschnikowia experimental model

Ana Patrícia Cuco, Nelson Abrantes, Fernando Gonçalves, Justyna Wolinska & Bruno B. Castro
Natural populations are commonly exposed to complex stress scenarios, including anthropogenic contamination and their biological enemies (e.g., parasites). The study of the pollutant-parasite interplay is especially important, given the need for adequate regulations to promote improved ecosystem protection. In this study, a host-parasite model system (Daphnia spp. and the microparasitic yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata) was used to explore the reciprocal effects of contamination by common agrochemical fungicides (copper sulphate and tebuconazole) and parasite challenge. We conducted...

Survival of antimicrobial peptide resistant Staphylococcus aureus in mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) with manipulated AMPexpression

Jens Rolff & Baydaa El Shazely
Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are essential immune effectors of multicellular organisms. Bacteria can evolve resistance to AMPs. Surprisingly, when used to challenge the insect Tenebrio molitor, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to an abundant beetle AMP (tenecin 1) and also pleiotropically to phagocytosis did not increase host mortality or bacterial load compared to infections with wild-type S. aureus. A possible explanation is that antimicrobial resistance is costly due to collaterally increased sensitivity of AMP-resistant strains to other immune...

Data from: Can fractal dimensions objectivize gastropod shell morphometrics? A case study from Lake Lugu (SW China)

Robert Wiese, Kyle Harrington, Kai Hartmann, Manja Hethke, Thomas Von Rintelen, Hucai Zhang, Le-Jia Zhang & Frank Riedel
Morphometrics are fundamental for statistical analyses of fossils, particularly because soft parts or DNA are rarely preserved and thus hard parts such as shells are commonly the only source of information. Geometric morphometrics i.e. landmark analysis has been successfully established but exhibits a couple of shortcomings. On the one hand landmarking is rather subjective and on the other hand the application at the level of micro-sculpture is difficult. With the aid of high-resolution 3D scanning...

Increased immune marker variance in a population of invasive birds

Hanna Prüter, Mathias Franz, Sönke Twietmeyer, Niklas Böhm, Gudrun Middendorff, Ruben Portas, Jörg Melzheimer, Holger Kolberg, Georg Von Samson‐Himmelstjerna, Alex D. Greenwood, Dörte Lüchow, Kristin Mühldorfer & Gábor Árpád Czirják
Immunity and parasites have been linked to the success of invasive species. Especially lower parasite burden in invasive populations has been suggested to enable a general downregulation of immune investment (Enemy Release and Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability Hypotheses). Simultaneously, keeping high immune competence towards potentially newly acquired parasites in the invasive range is essential to allow population growth. To investigate the variation of immune effectors of invasive species, we compared the mean and variance...

EFFECTS OF MICROPLASTICS AND DROUGHT ON SOIL ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND MULTIFUNCTIONALITY

Yudi M. Lozano, Carlos A. Aguilar-Trigueros, Gabriela Onandia, Stefanie Maaß, Tingting Zhao & Matthias C. Rillig
Microplastics in soils have become an important threat for terrestrial systems as they may potentially alter the geochemical/biophysical soil environment and can interact with drought. As microplastics may affect soil water content, this could exacerbate the well-known negative effects of drought on ecosystem functionality. Thus, functions including litter decomposition, soil aggregation or those related with nutrient cycling can be altered. Despite this potential interaction, we know relatively little about how microplastics, under different soil water...

Data from: Parental and hybrid Daphnia from the D. longispina complex: long-term dynamics in genetic structure and significance of overwintering modes

Johanna Griebel, Sabine Gießler, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
In recent decades, hybridization has become a focus of attention because of its role in evolutionary processes. However, little is known about changes in genetic structure within and between parental species and hybrids over time. Here, we studied processes of genetic change in parental species and hybrids from the Daphnia longispina complex (Crustacea, Cladocera) over a period of six years across ten habitats. These cyclical parthenogens respond to fluctuating environments by switching from asexual to...

Data from: Transition from conventional to light-emitting diode street lighting changes activity of urban bats

Daniel Lewanzik & Christian C. Voigt
Light pollution is rapidly increasing and can have deleterious effects on biodiversity, yet light types differ in their effect on wildlife. Among the light types used for street lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are expected to become globally predominant within the next few years. In a large-scale field experiment, we recorded bat activity at 46 street lights for 12 nights each and investigated how the widespread replacement of conventional illuminants by LEDs affects urban bats: we...

Data from: Do microplastic particles affect Daphnia magna at the morphological, life history and molecular level?

Hannes Imhof, Jakub Rusek, Michaela Thiel, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Laforsch & Hannes K. Imhof
Microplastic particles are ubiquitous not only in marine but also in freshwater ecosystems. However, the impacts of microplastics, consisting of a large variety of synthetic polymers, on freshwater organisms remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of two polymer mixtures on the morphology, life history and on the molecular level of the waterflea Daphnia magna (three different clones). Microplastic particles of ~40 µm were supplied at a low concentration (1% of the food particles) leading...

Data from: Extreme environments facilitate hybrid superiority - the story of a successful Daphnia galeata × longispina hybrid clone

Johanna Griebel, Sabine Gießler, Monika Poxleitner, Amanda Navas Faria, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
Hybridization within the animal kingdom has long been underestimated. Hybrids have often been considered less fit than their parental species. In the present study, we observed that the Daphnia community of a small lake was dominated by a single D. galeata × D. longispina hybrid clone, during two consecutive years. Notably, in artificial community set-ups consisting of several clones representing parental species and other hybrids, this hybrid clone took over within about ten generations. Neither...

Die theoriegeleitete Erfassung früher naturwissenschaftlicher (Leistungs-)Potenziale im Übergangsprozess von der Kita in die Grundschule aus Perspektive einer inklusiven Begabungsförderung.

Freya Müller, Tobias Mehrtens & Hilde Köster
Der Beitrag befasst sich mit dem frühen Erkennen naturwissenschaftlicher (Begabungs-) Potenziale im Übergangsprozess von der Kita in die Grundschule. Hierfür wird ein multiperspektivisches, theoriebasiertes Modell zur Beschreibung vorgestellt. Darüber hinaus wird die Konzeption zweier, dem Ansatz des Design-Based Research (DBR) folgenden Forschungsprojekte präsentiert. Das Ziel der Forschungsvorhaben besteht darin, mithilfe der aus dem Modell abgeleiteten Indikatoren Instrumente zur Bildungsdokumentationen von frühen Potenzialen für beide Bereiche zu entwickeln und zu evaluieren. Im Ausblick kommt es zur...

Umweltwahrnehmungen im England des 14. Jahrhunderts

Maximilian Schuh
1000 Worte Forschung: laufendes Habilitationsprojekt in Mittelalterlicher Geschichte, Friedrich-Meinecke-Institut, Geschichte des hohen und späten Mittelalters, Freie Universität Berlin

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