230 Works

Data from: Drosophila FoxP mutants are deficient in operant self-learning

Ezequiel Mendoza, Julien Colomb, Jürgen Rybak, Hans-Joachim Pflüger, Troy Zars, Constance Scharff & Björn Brembs
Intact function of the Forkhead Box P2 (FOXP2) gene is necessary for normal development of speech and language. This important role has recently been extended, first to other forms of vocal learning in animals and then also to other forms of motor learning. The homology in structure and in function among the FoxP gene members raises the possibility that the ancestral FoxP gene may have evolved as a crucial component of the neural circuitry mediating...

Data from: Evidence for non-allopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert

Federico Luebert, Pit Jacobs, Hartmut H. Hilger & Ludo A. H. Muller
The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In non-allopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this paper, we analysed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used...

Data from: Beyond predation: the zoophytophagous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus induces tomato resistance against spider mites

Maria L. Pappas, Anke Steppuhn, Daniel Geuss, Nikoleta Topalidou, Aliki Zografou, Maurice W. Sabelis & George D. Broufas
Many predatory insects that prey on herbivores also feed on the plant, but it is unknown whether plants affect the performance of herbivores by responding to this phytophagy with defence induction. We investigate whether the prior presence of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) on tomato plants affects plant resistance against two different herbivore species. Besides plant-mediated effects of M. pygmaeus on herbivore performance, we examined whether a plant defence trait that is known to...

Data from: Relaxed predation results in reduced phenotypic integration in a suite of dragonflies

Dirk Johannes Mikolajewski, Linda Rüsen, Rüdiger Mauersberger, Frank Johansson & Jens Rolff
While changes in magnitude of single traits responding to selective agents have been studied intensively, little is known about selection shaping networks of traits and their patterns of co-variation. However, this is central for our understanding of phenotypic evolution since traits are embedded in a multivariate environment with selection affecting a multitude of traits simultaneously rather than individually. Here, we investigate inter- and intraspecific patterns of trait integration (trait correlations) in the larval abdomen of...

Data from: The evolution of bat nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors

Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Lisandra M. Zepeda-Mendoza, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Maria L. Méndez-Ojeda, Carlos F. Arias & Alex D. Greenwood
We characterized the nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) of a New World bat species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), and through a comparative molecular evolutionary approach searched for general adaptation patterns among the nucleic acid sensing TLRs of eight different bats species belonging to three families (Pteropodidae, Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae). We found that the bat TLRs are evolving slowly and mostly under purifying selection and that the divergence pattern of such receptors is...

Data from: Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stabilize litter-derived carbon in soil?

Erik Verbruggen, Jan Jansa, Edith C. Hammer & Matthias C. Rillig
1. Fine roots and mycorrhiza often represent the largest input of carbon (C) into soils, and are therefore of primary relevance to the soil C balance. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have previously been found to increase litter decomposition which may lead to reduced soil C stocks, but these studies have focused on immediate decomposition of relatively high amounts of high-quality litter and may therefore not hold in many ecological settings over longer terms. 2. Here...

Polymorphisms in dipeptidyl peptidase 4 reduce host cell entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

Hannah Kleine-Weber, Simon Schroeder, Nadine Krüger, Alexander Prokscha, Hassan Y. Naim, Marcel A. Müller, Christian Drosten, Stefan Pöhlmann & Markus Hoffmann
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a severe respiratory disease in humans. The MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein mediates viral entry into target cells. For this, MERS-CoV S engages the host cell protein dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, CD26) and the interface between MERS-CoV S and DPP4 has been resolved on the atomic level. Here, we asked whether naturally-occurring polymorphisms in DPP4, that alter amino acid residues required for MERS-CoV S binding, influence cellular entry...

Data from: Phylogeography of the small Indian civet and origin of introductions to western Indian Ocean islands

Philippe Gaubert, Riddhi Patel, Geraldine Veron, Steve M. Goodman, Maraike Willsch, Raquel Vasconcelos, Andre Lourenço, Marie Sigaud, Fabienne Justy, Bheem Dutt Joshi, Joerns Fickel & Abdreas Wilting
The biogeographic dynamics affecting the Indian subcontinent, East and Southeast Asia during the Plio-Pleistocene has generated complex biodiversity patterns. We assessed the molecular biogeography of the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) through mitogenome and cytochrome b + control region sequencing of 89 historical and modern samples to (i) establish a time-calibrated phylogeography across the species’ native range and (ii) test introduction scenarios to western Indian Ocean islands. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified three geographic lineages (East...

Data from: Timing of head movements is consistent with energy minimization in walking ungulates

David M. Loscher, Fiete Meyer, Kerstin Kracht & John A. Nyakatura
Many ungulates show a conspicuous nodding motion of the head when walking. Until now, the functional significance of this behaviour remained unclear. Combining in vivo kinematics of quadrupedal mammals with a computer model, we show that the timing of vertical displacements of the head and neck is consistent with minimizing energy expenditure for carrying these body parts in an inverted pendulum walking gait. Varying the timing of head movements in the model resulted in increased...

Data from: Orientation of native versus translocated juvenile Lesser Spotted Eagles (Clanga pomarina) on the first autumn migration

Bernd Ulrich Meyburg, Ugis Bergmanis, Thorsten Langgemach, Kai Graszynski, Arno Hinz, Ingo Borner, Christiane Meyburg & Wouter M.G. Vansteelant
The ontogeny of migration routines used by wild birds remains unresolved. Here we investigated the migratory orientation of juvenile lesser spotted eagles (LSE) (Clanga pomarina) based on translocation and satellite tracking. Between 2004 and 2016, 85 second-hatched juveniles (Abels) were reared in captivity for release into the declining German population, including 50 birds that were translocated 940 km from Latvia. In 2009, we tracked 12 translocated juveniles, as well as 8 native juveniles and 9...

Data from: ‘Fix me another marguerite!’: species delimitation in a group of intensively hybridising lineages of ox-eye daisies (Leucanthemum Mill., Compositae-Anthemideae)

Florian Wagner, Sabine Härtl, Robert Vogt & Christoph Oberprieler
Delineating species boundaries in the framework of the multi-species coalescent (MSC) proves to be a reliable, objective, and reproducible method in an increasing number of studies. However, the underlying model assumes the lack of gene flow after speciation; an assumption which may be frequently violated in plant evolution. The present study evaluates the robustness of currently available species delimitation methods implemented in BEAST (BFD, BFD, and DISSECT) in the closely-knit ox-eye daisy group around Leucanthemum...

Post-embryonic development of Fritzolenellus suggests the ancestral morphology of the early developmental stages in Trilobita

Lukáš Laibl, Jörg Maletz & Pascal Olschewski
Trilobite development has been intensively explored during past decades, but information about ancestral character combinations in the early developmental stages of trilobites remains virtually unknown. Trilobites of the superfamily Olenelloidea are one of the earliest diverging groups. Study of their development coupled with the development of other early diverging trilobite groups can provide crucial information about the ancestral morphology of trilobite early stages. Herein we describe numerous well-preserved specimens of the olenelloid trilobite Fritzolenellus lapworthi....

Data analysis from: Demographic consequences of changing body size in a terrestrial salamander

Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Floriane Plard, Kristine L. Grayson & Ulrich K. Steiner
Changes in climate can alter individual body size, and the resulting shifts in reproduction and survival are expected to impact population dynamics and viability. However, appropriate methods to account for size-dependent demographic changes are needed, especially in understudied yet threatened groups such as amphibians. We investigated individual and population-level demographic effects of changes in body size for a terrestrial salamander using capture-mark-recapture data. For our analysis, we implemented an integral projection model parameterized with capture-recapture...

Data from: Recolonizing grey wolves increase parasite infection risk in their prey

Ines Lesniak, Ilja Heckmann, Mathias Franz, Alex D. Greenwood, Emanuel Heiltinger, Heribert Hofer, Oliver Krone & Emanuel Heitlinger
The recent recolonization of Central Europe by the European grey wolf (Canis lupus) provides an opportunity to study the dynamics of parasite transmission for cases when a definitive host returns after a phase of local extinction. We investigated whether a newly established wolf population increased the prevalence of those parasites in ungulate intermediate hosts representing wolf prey, whether some parasite species are particularly well adapted to wolves, and the potential basis for such adaptations. We...

How biological invasions affect animal behaviour: a global, cross-taxonomic analysis

Florian Ruland & Jonathan Jeschke
1. In the Anthropocene, species are faced with drastic challenges due to rapid, human-induced changes, such as habitat destruction, pollution and biological invasions. In the case of invasions, native species may change their behaviour to minimise the impacts they sustain from invasive species, and invaders may also adapt to the conditions in their new environment in order to survive and establish self-sustaining populations. 2. We aimed at giving an overview of which changes in behaviour...

Root trait responses to drought are more heterogeneous than leaf trait responses

Yudi M. Lozano, Yudi Lozano, Carlos Aguilar-Trigueros, Isabelle Flaig & Matthias Rillig
Drought can strongly modify plant diversity and ecosystem processes. As droughts are expected to intensify in the future, it is important to better understand plant responses to this global driver. Root traits are an overlooked but powerful predictor of plant responses to drought because they are in direct contact with the soil environment and are responsible for taking up nutrients and water. Here, we determine which root traits are sensitive to drought and the magnitude...

Early posttraumatic autonomic and endocrine markers to predict posttraumatic stress symptoms after a preventive intervention with oxytocin

Sinha Engel, Mirjam van Zuiden, Jessie. L. Frijling, Saskia B. J. Koch, Laura Nawijn, Rinde L. W. Yildiz, Sarah Schumacher, Christine Knaevelsrud, Jos A. Bosch, Dick J. Veltman & Miranda Olff
Efficient prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) needs to target individuals with an increased risk for adverse outcome after trauma. Prognostic or prescriptive biological markers assessed early posttrauma may inform personalized treatment recommendations. To test prognostic and prescriptive effects of early (posttraumatic) autonomic and endocrine markers on PTSD symptom development. Autonomic and endocrine markers were assessed within 12 days posttrauma and before treatment initiation within a randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating repeated oxytocin administration as preventive...

Data from: Selection for associative learning of color stimuli reveals correlated evolution of this learning ability across multiple stimuli and rewards.

Maartje Liefting, Katja M. Hoedjes, Cécile Le Lann, Hans M. Smid & Jacintha Ellers
We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with...

Plant communities, grazing intensity, soil properties and decomposers in grasslands across elevation in the Eastern Carpathians in Ukraine

Oksana Buzhdygan & Svitlana Rudenko
This data set contains information on plant community properties, grazing intensity, elevation, soil properties and density of soil decomposers collected in 2006 and 2007 from the 31 semi-natural grasslands exposed to cattle grazing along elevation gradient at large topographic scale ranging from the Carpathian Mountains, across the adjacent foothills to the plain areas. Plant community properties are represented by the following variables for each of the 31 study grassland: number of species (species number 100...

Data from: What factors increase the vulnerability of native birds to the impacts of alien birds?

Thomas Evans, Jonathan Jeschke, Liu Chunlong, David Redding, Çağan Şekercioğlu & Tim Blackburn
This dataset accompanies a published paper (Evans et al. 2021) which aims to identify the factors that influence the vulnerability of native bird species to the impacts of alien bird species. In this paper we used mixed-effects models to test 14 variables that we hypothesised to influence vulnerability: this is a dataset of the 14 varaibles. We carried out our analyses using ten sets of these 14 variables: we provide all ten sets of these...

Data from: Functional group, biomass, and climate change effects on ecological drought in semiarid grasslands

Scott D. Wilson, Daniel R. Schlaepfer, John B. Bradford, William K. Lauenroth, Michael C. Duniway, Sonia A. Hall, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav, G. Jia, Ariuntsetseg Lkhagva, Seth M. Munson, David A. Pyke & Britta Tietjen
Water relations in plant communities are influenced both by contrasting functional groups (grasses, shrubs) and by climate change via complex effects on interception, uptake and transpiration. We modelled the effects of functional group replacement and biomass increase, both of which can be outcomes of invasion and vegetation management, and climate change on ecological drought (soil water potential below which photosynthesis stops) in 340 semiarid grassland sites over 30-year periods. Relative to control vegetation (climate and...

Data from: Long-term population dynamics of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis): a cross-system analysis

David L. Strayer, Boris V. Adamovich, Rita Adrian, David C. Aldridge, Csilla Balogh, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Hannah B. Fried-Petersen, László G.‐Tóth, Amy L. Hetherington, Thomas S. Jones, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Jacqueline B. Madill, Oleg A. Makarevich, J. Ellen Marsden, Andre L. Martel, Dan Minchin, Thomas F. Nalepa, Ruurd Noordhuis, Timothy J. Robinson, Lars G. Rudstam, Astrid N. Schwalb, David R. Smith, Alan D. Steinman & Jonathan M. Jeschke
Dreissenid mussels (including the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel D. rostriformis) are among the world's most notorious invasive species, with large and widespread ecological and economic effects. However, their long‐term population dynamics are poorly known, even though these dynamics are critical to determining impacts and effective management. We gathered and analyzed 67 long‐term (>10 yr) data sets on dreissenid populations from lakes and rivers across Europe and North America. We addressed five...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Umweltwahrnehmungen im England des 14. Jahrhunderts

Maximilian Schuh
1000 Worte Forschung: laufendes Habilitationsprojekt in Mittelalterlicher Geschichte, Friedrich-Meinecke-Institut, Geschichte des hohen und späten Mittelalters, Freie Universität Berlin

Die theoriegeleitete Erfassung früher naturwissenschaftlicher (Leistungs-)Potenziale im Übergangsprozess von der Kita in die Grundschule aus Perspektive einer inklusiven Begabungsförderung.

Freya Müller, Tobias Mehrtens & Hilde Köster
Der Beitrag befasst sich mit dem frühen Erkennen naturwissenschaftlicher (Begabungs-) Potenziale im Übergangsprozess von der Kita in die Grundschule. Hierfür wird ein multiperspektivisches, theoriebasiertes Modell zur Beschreibung vorgestellt. Darüber hinaus wird die Konzeption zweier, dem Ansatz des Design-Based Research (DBR) folgenden Forschungsprojekte präsentiert. Das Ziel der Forschungsvorhaben besteht darin, mithilfe der aus dem Modell abgeleiteten Indikatoren Instrumente zur Bildungsdokumentationen von frühen Potenzialen für beide Bereiche zu entwickeln und zu evaluieren. Im Ausblick kommt es zur...

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