188 Works

Additional file 1 of MEDICC2: whole-genome doubling aware copy-number phylogenies for cancer evolution

Tom L. Kaufmann, Marina Petkovic, Thomas B. K. Watkins, Emma C. Colliver, Sofya Laskina, Nisha Thapa, Darlan C. Minussi, Nicholas Navin, Charles Swanton, Peter Van Loo, Kerstin Haase, Maxime Tarabichi & Roland F. Schwarz
Additional file 1: Supplementary Figures S1-S23 and Supplementary Tables S1-S3.

Additional file 4 of Timing matters: age-dependent impacts of the social environment and host selection on the avian gut microbiota

Öncü Maraci, Anna Antonatou-Papaioannou, Sebastian Jünemann, Kathrin Engel, Omar Castillo-Gutiérrez, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski & Barbara A. Caspers
Additional file 4. nMDS plots of the dissimilarities of the gut microbiota across Zebra finch Ontogeny based on (A) Bray-Curtis dissimilarities, (B) Weighted UniFrac distances.

Additional file 8 of Timing matters: age-dependent impacts of the social environment and host selection on the avian gut microbiota

Öncü Maraci, Anna Antonatou-Papaioannou, Sebastian Jünemann, Kathrin Engel, Omar Castillo-Gutiérrez, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski & Barbara A. Caspers
Additional file 8. LMM investigatigating alpha diversity in different sample types across time.

Additional file 9 of Timing matters: age-dependent impacts of the social environment and host selection on the avian gut microbiota

Öncü Maraci, Anna Antonatou-Papaioannou, Sebastian Jünemann, Kathrin Engel, Omar Castillo-Gutiérrez, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski & Barbara A. Caspers
Additional file 9. Alpha diversity of different sample types based on (A) Shannon's diversity index, and (B) Faith's phylogenetic diversity at 5, 10 and 35 dph. The lines within the box plots indicate the medians, and the lower and upper boundaries of the boxes indicate the 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively. Whiskers above and below the boxes correspond to 1.5 times the interquartile range (IQR) above and below the 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively.

Timing matters: age-dependent impacts of the social environment and host selection on the avian gut microbiota

Öncü Maraci, Anna Antonatou-Papaioannou, Sebastian Jünemann, Kathrin Engel, Omar Castillo-Gutiérrez, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski & Barbara A. Caspers
Abstract Background The establishment of the gut microbiota in early life is a critical process that influences the development and fitness of vertebrates. However, the relative influence of transmission from the early social environment and host selection throughout host ontogeny remains understudied, particularly in avian species. We conducted conspecific and heterospecific cross-fostering experiments in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) under controlled conditions and repeatedly sampled the faecal microbiota of these...

Data from: Resources alter the structure and increase stochasticity in bromeliad microfauna communities

Jana S. Petermann, Pavel Kratina, Nicolas A. C. Marino, A. Andrew M. MacDonald, Diane S. Srivastava & Nicholas A. C. Marino
Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources), top-down...

Data from: Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement

Tobias Degen, Oliver Mitesser, Elizabeth K. Perkin, Nina-Sophie Weiß, Martin Oehlert, Emily Mattig & Franz Hölker
1.Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. 2.In this study, we sought to determine if street lights could limit moth dispersal and...

Data from: Divergence of cuticular hydrocarbons in two sympatric grasshopper species and the evolution of fatty acid synthases and elongases across insects

Jonas Finck, Emma L. Berdan, Frieder Mayer, Bernhard Ronacher & Sven Geiselhardt
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation between insect species. The CHC profiles of two closely related sympatric grasshopper species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, differ mainly in the position of the first methyl group in major methyl-branched CHCs. The position of methyl branches is determined either by a fatty acid synthase (FAS) or by elongases. Both protein families showed an expansion in insects. Interestingly, the FAS family showed...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity of mate recognition systems prevents sexual interference between two sympatric leaf beetle species

Tobias Otte, Monika Hilker & Sven Geiselhardt
Maladaptive sexual interactions among heterospecific individuals (sexual interference) can prevent the coexistence of animal species. Thus, the avoidance of sexual interference by divergence of mate recognition systems is crucial for a stable coexistence in sympatry. Mate recognition systems are thought to be under tight genetic control. However, we demonstrate that mate recognition systems of two closely related sympatric leaf beetle species show a high level of host-induced phenotypic plasticity. Mate choice in the mustard leaf...

Protest Events in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1950-1993

Friedhelm Neidhardt & D. Rucht
This data collection contains data concerning protest events in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany and since 1980 for the territory of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Variables include point in time and weekday of the protest; length of the protest; report source; page in the newspaper; extent of report; origin of the report; number of reports and comments on the protest; area of mobilizing the protest; primary place of the protest; number...

Data from: Socio-economic impact classification of alien taxa (SEICAT)

Sven Bacher, Tim M. Blackburn, Franz Essl, Piero Genovesi, Jaakko Heikkilä, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Glyn Jones, Reuben Keller, Marc Kenis, Christoph Kueffer, Angeliki F. Martinou, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, David M. Richardson, Helen E. Roy, Wolf-Christian Saul, Riccardo Scalera, Montserrat Vila, John R. U. Wilson, Sabina Kumschick & Sabrina Kumschick
Many alien taxa are known to cause socio-economic impacts by affecting the different constituents of human well-being (security; material and non-material assets; health; social, spiritual and cultural relations; freedom of choice and action). Attempts to quantify socio-economic impacts in monetary terms are unlikely to provide a useful basis for evaluating and comparing impacts of alien taxa because they are notoriously difficult to measure and important aspects of human well-being are ignored. Here, we propose a...

Data from: Parasites driving host diversity: incidence of disease correlated with Daphnia clonal turnover

Patrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak & Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia – Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with...

Data from: The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world

Claudio Ottoni, Wim Van Neer, Bea De Cupere, Julien Daligault, Silvia Guimaraes, Joris Peters, Nikolai Spassov, Mary E. Prendergast, Nicole Boivin, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Adrian Bălăşescu, Cornelia Becker, Norbert Benecke, Adina Boroneant, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Jwana Chahoud, Alison Crowther, Laura Llorente, Nina Manaseryan, Hervé Monchot, Vedat Onart, Marta Osypińska, Olivier Putelat, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Jacqueline Studer … & Eva-Maria Geigl
The cat has long been important to human societies as a pest-control agent, object of symbolic value and companion animal, but little is known about its domestication process and early anthropogenic dispersal. Here we show, using ancient DNA analysis of geographically and temporally widespread archaeological cat remains, that both the Near Eastern and Egyptian populations of Felis silvestris lybica contributed to the gene pool of the domestic cat at different historical times. While the cat’s...

Data from: A point mutation in a herpesvirus co-determines neuropathogenicity and viral shedding

Mathias Franz, Laura B. Goodman, Gerlinde R. Van De Walle, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D. Greenwood, Laura Goodman, Gerlinde Van De Walle & Alex Greenwood
A point mutation in the DNA polymerase gene in equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is one determinant for the development of neurological disease in horses. Three recently conducted infection experiments using domestic horses and ponies failed to detect statistically significant differences in viral shedding between the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants. These results were interpreted as suggesting the absence of a consistent selective advantage of the neuropathogenic variant and therefore appeared to be inconsistent with a...

Data from: When homoplasy is not homoplasy: dissecting trait evolution by contrasting composite and reductive coding

Alejandro Torres-Montúfar, Thomas Borsch & Helga Ochoterena
The conceptualization and coding of characters is a difficult issue in phylogenetic systematics, no matter which inference method is used when reconstructing phylogenetic trees or if the characters are just mapped onto a specific tree. Complex characters are groups of features that can be divided into simpler hierarchical characters (reductive coding), although the implied hierarchical relational information may change depending on the type of coding (composite vs reductive). Up to now, there is no common...

Data from: Evolution of defence cocktails: antimicrobial peptide combinations reduce mortality and persistent infection

Caroline Zanchi, Paul R. Johnston & Jens Rolff
The simultaneous expression of costly immune effectors such as multiple antimicrobial peptides is a hallmark of innate immunity of multicellular organisms, yet the adaptive advantage remains unresolved. Here, we test current hypotheses on the evolution of such defence cocktails. We use RNAi gene knock-down to explore, the effects of three highly expressed antimicrobial peptides, displaying different degrees of activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, during an infection in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. We find that...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: The strength of negative plant-soil feedback increases from the intraspecific to the interspecific and the functional group level

Alexandra R. Bukowski, Conrad Schittko & Jana S. Petermann
1. One of the processes that may play a key role in plant species coexistence and ecosystem functioning is plant-soil feedback, the effect of plants on associated soil communities and the resulting feedback on plant performance. Plant-soil feedback at the interspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from different species) has been studied extensively, while plant-soil feedback at the intraspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from...

Data from: Costs and benefits of admixture between foreign genotypes and local populations in the field

Jun Shi, Jasmin Joshi, Katja Tielborger, Koen J. F. Verhoeven & Mirka Macel
Admixture is the hybridization between populations within one species. It can increase plant fitness and population viability by alleviating inbreeding depression and increasing genetic diversity. However, populations are often adapted to their local environments and admixture with distant populations could break down local adaptation by diluting the locally adapted genomes. Thus, admixed genotypes might be selected against and be outcompeted by locally adapted genotypes in the local environments. To investigate the costs and benefits of...

Data from: Phylogenetic diversity of two geographically overlapping species in the lichen genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae): Isolation by distance, environment, or fragmentation?

Robert Lücking, Bibiana Moncada & H. Thorsten Lumbsch
Aim: To test whether the degree of phylogenetic diversity differs in two congeneric, morphologically similar lichens that are both widespread and with a similar geographical range (Neotropics and Hawaii), but differ in altitudinal and habitat preferences, and whether the two species underwent isolation by distance (IBD), environment (IBE), or fragmentation (IBF). Location: South and Central America, Caribbean, Hawaii, Azores. Taxon: Sticta (Peltigeraceae). Methods: Analysis of 395 specimens across the study area; ITS barcoding marker; maximum...

Vulkanismus im Planetensystem. Ein Überblick

Ralf Jaumann
Vulkanismus ist schon auf unserem Planeten ein faszinierendes Phänomen. Nimmt man auch noch andere Himmelskörper in den Blick, dann zeigt sich, dass Vulkanismus ein grundlegender Prozess in unserem Sonnensystem ist.

Experimental tools for addressing effects of complex substance mixtures in soil

Matthias C. Rillig

Situationsspezifische mathematische Kompetenzen von (angehenden) frühpädagogischen Fachkräften.

Aljoscha Jegodtka & Joana Landwehr
Der Beitrag fokussiert die mathematischen Kompetenzen von Fachkräften, die im Rahmen der Pro-Komma-Studie erhoben wurden. Es werden die mathematikbezogenen Dispositionen von (angehenden) Fachkräften mit unterschiedlichen Qualifikationsstufen durch eine qualitative Inhaltsanalyse von Gruppendiskussionen analysiert und verglichen. Dabei wurden die Situationswahrnehmung und die Handlungsplanung fokussiert. Es konnten Unterschiede in den inhaltlichen Argumentationen der Fachkräfte aufgezeigt werden. Diese beziehen sich auf die Elaboriertheit der Aussagen und des einbezogenen Wissens und den Zusammenhang zwischen den anwendungsorientierten Überzeugungen und den...

Data from: Hodge decomposition of wall shear stress vector fields characterizing biological flows

Faniry H. Razafindrazaka, Pavel Yevtushenko, Konstantin Poelke, Konrad Polthier & Leonid Goubergrits
A discrete boundary-sensitive Hodge decomposition is proposed as a central tool for the analysis of wall shear stress (WSS) vector fields in aortic blood flows. The method is based on novel results for the smooth and discrete Hodge-Morrey-Friedrichs decomposition on manifolds with boundary and subdivides the WSS vector field into five components: gradient (curl-free), co-gradient (divergence-free), and three harmonic fields induced from the boundary, which are called the center, Neumann and Dirichlet fields. First, an...

Data from: Ecological stasis in Spinicaudata (Crustacea, Branchiopoda)? Early Cretaceous clam shrimp of the Yixian Formation of north‐east China occupied a broader realized ecological niche than extant members of the group

Manja Hethke, Franz T. Fürsich, Baoyu Jiang, Bo Wang, Patrick Chellouche & Stephen C. Weeks
The palaeoecology of Spinicaudata, the dominant group of benthic invertebrates in many pre-Cenozoic freshwater environments, remains poorly understood. In analogy with extant taxa, it has been oversimplified and often reduced to shallow, temporary environments characterised by few trophic levels, implying ecological stasis from the Devonian to the Recent. We excavated 43 horizons of the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Anjiagou and Hengdaozi beds) to evaluate whether spinicaudatan ecology can be simplified to such an extent. Sedimentological...

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