190 Works

Global Diversification Dynamics Since the Jurassic: Low Dispersal and Habitat-Dependent Evolution Explain Hotspots of Diversity and Shell Disparity in River Snails (Viviparidae)

Björn Stelbrink, Romy Richter, Frank Köhler, Frank Riedel, Ellen Strong, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Christian Albrecht, Torsten Hauffe, Timothy Page, David Aldridge, Arthur Bogan, Li-Na Du, Marivene Manuel-Santos, Ristiyanti Marwoto, Alena Shirokaya & Thomas Von Rintelen
The Viviparidae, commonly known as River Snails, is a dominant group of freshwater snails with a nearly worldwide distribution that reaches its highest taxonomic and morphological diversity in Southeast Asia. The rich fossil record is indicative of a probable Middle Jurassic origin on the Laurasian supercontinent where the group started to diversify during the Cretaceous. However, it remains uncertain when and how the biodiversity hotspot in Southeast Asia was formed. Here, we used a comprehensive...

Data from: Gene expression response to a nematode parasite in novel and native eel hosts

Seraina E. Bracamonte, Paul R. Johnston, Michael T. Monaghan & Klaus Knopf
Invasive parasites are involved in population declines of new host species worldwide. The high susceptibilities observed in many novel hosts have been attributed to the lack of protective immunity to the parasites which native hosts acquired during their shared evolution. We experimentally infected Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) and European eels (A. anguilla) with Anguillicola crassus, a nematode parasite that is native to the Japanese eel and invasive in the European eel. We inferred gene expression...

Guadalupe-Tonantzin: una santa transcultural

Stephanie Schütze
pp. 166-178 Parting from an event at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Guadalupe/ Our Lady of Guadalupe Shrine in Des Plaines Illinois, near Chicago, this article shows how this sacred space acquired cross-cultural political significance for the struggle of Mexican migrants in the United States. It explores the connection between the religious symbol of the Virgin of Guadalupe and the political activism of Mexican migrants. Its political significance is a historically rooted notion that...

Öffentliche Güter im Recht der Europäischen Union

Christian Calliess
Die Europäische Union (EU) verspricht ihren Bürger:innen viel, ist aber von ihren Zuständigkeiten her oftmals nicht in der Lage zu „liefern“. Die EU sichert einen stabilen Euroraum (Art. 119 Abs. 2 AEUV) zu, kann diesen aber – wie die Erschütterungen im Zuge der weltweiten Finanzkrise im Jahre 2008 und die hiermit in Zusammenhang stehende Staatsschuldenkrise gezeigt haben – mangels wirtschafts- und fiskalpolitischer Kompetenzen nicht gewährleisten. Die EU verspricht den Bürger:innen Freizügigkeit ohne Grenzkontrollen in einem...

Soil conditions drive belowground trait space in temperate agricultural grasslands

Tom Lachaise, Joana Bergmann, Norbert Hölzel, Valentin Klaus, Till Kleinebecker, Matthias Rillig & Mark Van Kleunen
Plant belowground organs perform essential functions, including water and nutrient uptake, anchorage, vegetative reproduction and recruitment of mutualistic soil microbiota. Recently, multivariate analyses showed that root traits of species can largely be linked to a ‘conservation’ and a ‘collaboration’ gradient. Here, we tested whether this species-level bidimensional belowground trait space also exists at the community level in grasslands. Furthermore, we tested whether the position of grassland communities in belowground trait space relates to environmental variables....

Recent headwall deglaciation and retreat from cosmogenic 10Be in medial moraine debris of a Swiss valley glacier

Katharina Wetterauer, Dirk Scherler , Leif S. Anderson & Hella Wittmann
Debris-covered glaciers are fed from steep bedrock hillslopes that tower above the ice, so-called headwalls. Recent observations in high-alpine glacial environments suggest that rock walls are increasingly destabilized due to climate warming. An increase in debris delivery to glacier surfaces will modify glacial mass balances, as surface debris cover impacts on the melt behavior of the ice underneath. Consequently, we expect that the response of debris-covered glaciers to climate change is likely linked to how...

Tectonic accretion controls erosional cyclicity in the Himalaya

Dirk Scherler , Sanjay Kumar Mandal & Hella Wittmann
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, India(3);The evolution of Earth’s climate over geological timescales is linked to surface erosion by weathering of silicate minerals and burial of organic carbon. However, methodological difficulties in reconstructing erosion rates through time and feedbacks among tectonics, climate, and erosion spurred an ongoing debate on mountain erosion sensitivity to tectonic and climate forcing. A key question is whether late Cenozoic climate cooling has increased global erosion rates...

Millennial variability, hydrological and limnological changes during MIS3-2 in Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala

Rodrigo Martinez-Abarca, Michelle Abstein , Philipp Hoelzmann , Thorsten Bauersachs , Liseth Pérez , Mona Stockhecke , Sergio Cohuo Duran & Antje Schwalb
Heinrich Stadials and Greenland Interstadials are abrupt climate variations that are observed in the Northern Hemisphere throughout Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 3-2. Lake Petén Itzá, northern Guatemala, is a key site for paleoclimate investigations due to its sensitivity to changes in climate forcing such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In this study, we reconstructed the hydrology and limnology of Lake Petén Itzá during MIS3-2 based on geochemical...

In-situ silicon isotopes in mantle wedge serpentinites - a new proxy for slab dehydration reactions

Sonja Geilert , Elmar Albers , Daniel A. Frick , Christian T. Hansen & Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
The Mariana forearc provides a unique natural laboratory to study slab dehydration in an active subduction zone by its deep-rooted mud volcanism. To test if mantle wedge serpentinites would record the source fluid composition and thus the dehydration reactions in the slab, we investigated silicon (Si) isotopic compositions (δ30Si) in serpentine veins by in-situ femtosecond laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry. Our samples were recovered during IODP Expedition 366 and originate from three mud volcanoes that...

Resilience of people with chronic medical conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic: a 1-year longitudinal prospective survey

Lorenzo Tarsitani, Irene Pinucci, Federico Tedeschi, Martina Patanè, Davide Papola, Christina Palantza, Ceren Acarturk, Emma Björkenstam, Richard Bryant, Sebastian Burchert, Camille Davisse-Paturet, Amanda Díaz-García, Rachel Farrel, Daniela C. Fuhr, Brian J. Hall, Anja C. Huizink, Agnes Iok Fong Lam, Gülşah Kurt, Ingmar Leijen, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz, Naser Morina, Catherine Panter-Brick, Fredrick Dermawan Purba, Soledad Quero, Soraya Seedat … & Corrado Barbui
Abstract Backgrounds Individuals with chronic medical conditions are considered highly exposed to COVID-19 pandemic stress, but emerging evidence is demonstrating that resilience is common even among them. We aimed at identifying sustained resilient outcomes and their predictors in chronically ill people during the first year of the pandemic. Methods This international 4-wave 1-year longitudinal online survey included items on socio-demographic characteristics, economic and living situation, lifestyle and habits, pandemic-related issues, and history of mental disorders....

PanDDA-analyzed data of a crystallographic fragment screening of F2X-Universal Library vs. AR

Tatjana Barthel, Jan Wollenhaupt, Gustavo M. A. Lima, Markus C. Wahl & Manfred S. Weiss
A crystallographic fragment screening (CFS) has been performed on a spliceosomal yeast protein-protein complex of Aar2 and the RNaseH-like domain of Prp8 (AR). The F2X-Universal Library is a fragment library representing the commercially available chemical space of fragments. 917 fragments have been individually screened via crystal soaking. The datasets that could be successfully auto-processed and auto-refined had been subjected to a Pan-Dataset Density Analysis (PanDDA) (Pearce et al., 2017). This analysis allows to find low...

MEDICC2: whole-genome doubling aware copy-number phylogenies for cancer evolution

Tom L. Kaufmann, Marina Petkovic, Thomas B. K. Watkins, Emma C. Colliver, Sofya Laskina, Nisha Thapa, Darlan C. Minussi, Nicholas Navin, Charles Swanton, Peter Van Loo, Kerstin Haase, Maxime Tarabichi & Roland F. Schwarz
Abstract Aneuploidy, chromosomal instability, somatic copy-number alterations, and whole-genome doubling (WGD) play key roles in cancer evolution and provide information for the complex task of phylogenetic inference. We present MEDICC2, a method for inferring evolutionary trees and WGD using haplotype-specific somatic copy-number alterations from single-cell or bulk data. MEDICC2 eschews simplifications such as the infinite sites assumption, allowing multiple mutations and parallel evolution, and does not treat adjacent loci as independent, allowing overlapping copy-number events....

Redox conditions during deserpentinization in western Elba Island, Italy.

Malte Kalter & Wolfgang Bach
The observation of oxidized arc melts has led to a discussion about the redox conditions during the dehydration reactions of serpentinites in subduction zones. The discussed range of oxygen fugacities (fO2) between+5 and -2 log units relatively to the QFM buffer allows sulfur to be present either as oxidized or reduced species. This work investigates the development of the fO2 with serpentines form the western part of the island Elba in Italy. We compared observations...

Cytologic scoring of equine exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage: Performance of human experts and a deep learning-based algorithm

Christof A. Bertram, Christian Marzahl, Alexander Bartel, Jason Stayt, Federico Bonsembiante, Janet Beeler-Marfisi, Ann K. Barton, Ginevra Brocca, Maria E. Gelain, Agnes Gläsel, Kelly du Preez, Kristina Weiler, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Katharina Breininger, Marc Aubreville, Andreas Maier, Robert Klopfleisch & Jenny Hill
Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is a relevant respiratory disease in sport horses, which can be diagnosed by examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells using the total hemosiderin score (THS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of annotators and to validate a deep learning-based algorithm for the THS. Digitized cytological specimens stained for iron were prepared from 52 equine BALF samples. Ten annotators produced a THS for each...

Additional file 7 of Timing matters: age-dependent impacts of the social environment and host selection on the avian gut microbiota

Öncü Maraci, Anna Antonatou-Papaioannou, Sebastian Jünemann, Kathrin Engel, Omar Castillo-Gutiérrez, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski & Barbara A. Caspers
Additional file 7. The mean abundance and the standard deviation of the microbial families identified in the Bengalese finch.

Additional file 9 of Timing matters: age-dependent impacts of the social environment and host selection on the avian gut microbiota

Öncü Maraci, Anna Antonatou-Papaioannou, Sebastian Jünemann, Kathrin Engel, Omar Castillo-Gutiérrez, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski & Barbara A. Caspers
Additional file 9. Alpha diversity of different sample types based on (A) Shannon's diversity index, and (B) Faith's phylogenetic diversity at 5, 10 and 35 dph. The lines within the box plots indicate the medians, and the lower and upper boundaries of the boxes indicate the 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively. Whiskers above and below the boxes correspond to 1.5 times the interquartile range (IQR) above and below the 25th and 75th percentiles, respectively.

Additional file 4 of Timing matters: age-dependent impacts of the social environment and host selection on the avian gut microbiota

Öncü Maraci, Anna Antonatou-Papaioannou, Sebastian Jünemann, Kathrin Engel, Omar Castillo-Gutiérrez, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski & Barbara A. Caspers
Additional file 4. nMDS plots of the dissimilarities of the gut microbiota across Zebra finch Ontogeny based on (A) Bray-Curtis dissimilarities, (B) Weighted UniFrac distances.

Additional file 1 of Timing matters: age-dependent impacts of the social environment and host selection on the avian gut microbiota

Öncü Maraci, Anna Antonatou-Papaioannou, Sebastian Jünemann, Kathrin Engel, Omar Castillo-Gutiérrez, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski & Barbara A. Caspers
Additional file 1. Sample numbers used in the study.

Data from: Parental and hybrid Daphnia from the D. longispina complex: long-term dynamics in genetic structure and significance of overwintering modes

Johanna Griebel, Sabine Gießler, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
In recent decades, hybridization has become a focus of attention because of its role in evolutionary processes. However, little is known about changes in genetic structure within and between parental species and hybrids over time. Here, we studied processes of genetic change in parental species and hybrids from the Daphnia longispina complex (Crustacea, Cladocera) over a period of six years across ten habitats. These cyclical parthenogens respond to fluctuating environments by switching from asexual to...

Data from: Extreme environments facilitate hybrid superiority - the story of a successful Daphnia galeata × longispina hybrid clone

Johanna Griebel, Sabine Gießler, Monika Poxleitner, Amanda Navas Faria, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
Hybridization within the animal kingdom has long been underestimated. Hybrids have often been considered less fit than their parental species. In the present study, we observed that the Daphnia community of a small lake was dominated by a single D. galeata × D. longispina hybrid clone, during two consecutive years. Notably, in artificial community set-ups consisting of several clones representing parental species and other hybrids, this hybrid clone took over within about ten generations. Neither...

Data from: Evolution and biogeography of the endemic Roucela complex (Campanulaceae: Campanula) in the eastern Mediterranean

Andrew A. Crowl, Clayton J. Visger, Guilhem Mansion, Ralf Hand, Hsin-Hui Wu, Georgia Kamari, Dimitrios Phitos & Nico Cellinese
At the intersection of geological activity, climatic fluctuations, and human pressure, the Mediterranean Basin – a hotspot of biodiversity – provides an ideal setting for studying endemism, evolution, and biogeography. Here, we focus on the Roucela complex (Campanula subgenus Roucela), a group of 13 bellflower species found primarily in the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Plastid and low-copy nuclear markers were employed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and estimate divergence times within the Roucela complex using both concatenation...

Data from: Honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of hornet predators and alarm component

Zhengwei Wang, Yufeng Qu, Shihao Dong, Ping Wen, Jianjun Li, Ken Tan & Randolf Menzel
In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina), mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence...

Data from: Biostratigraphy and geometric morphometrics of conchostracans (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) from the Late Triassic fissure deposits of Cromhall Quarry, UK

Jacob D. Morton, David I. Whiteside, Manja Hethke & Michael J. Benton
The enigmatic fissure deposits of south-eastern England and southern Wales are famous for their unique assemblage of Late Triassic vertebrates, although their age is contentious. While recent studies of palynomorphs have dated some as Rhaetian, their conchostracan (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) assemblages have not been described in detail nor used in biostratigraphy. We find that species determination of British Late Triassic conchostracans requires detailed observations of size, shape and ornamentation. We provide evidence that although Euestheria brodieana...

Data from: Transition from conventional to light-emitting diode street lighting changes activity of urban bats

Daniel Lewanzik & Christian C. Voigt
Light pollution is rapidly increasing and can have deleterious effects on biodiversity, yet light types differ in their effect on wildlife. Among the light types used for street lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are expected to become globally predominant within the next few years. In a large-scale field experiment, we recorded bat activity at 46 street lights for 12 nights each and investigated how the widespread replacement of conventional illuminants by LEDs affects urban bats: we...

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