166 Works

Data from: Changing the habitat: the evolution of inter-correlated traits to escape from predators

Dirk J. Mikolajewski, Kristin Scharnweber, Bin Jiang, Sebastian Leicht, Ruediger Mauersberger & Frank Johansson
Burst escape speed is an effective and widely used behaviour for evading predators, with burst escape speed relying on several different morphological features. However, we know little about how behavioural and underlying morphological attributes change in concert as a response to changes in selective predation regime. We studied inter-correlated trait differentiation of body shape and burst-swim-mediating morphology in response to a habitat shift related reduction in burst escape speed using larvae of the dragonfly genus...

Data from: No evidence that plant-soil feedback effects of native and invasive plant species under greenhouse conditions are reflected in the field

Conrad Schittko, Christian Runge, Marek Strupp, Sascha Wolff & Susanne Wurst
Plant–soil feedback (PSF) may affect above-ground higher trophic levels in glasshouse experiments, but evidence from field studies on the relevance of these multitrophic interactions for plant performance is lacking. Therefore, we examined whether PSF effects of several native and invasive plant species occur also in the field and influence plant damage by above-ground herbivores. Root zone soil from an abandoned urban field was used as inocula for the PSF experiment. First, we grew eight urban...

Data from: Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and belowground arthropod communities

Klaus Birkhofer, Martin M. Gossner, Tim Diekötter, Claudia Drees, Olga Ferlian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Volkmar Wolters, Susanne Wurst, Andrey S. Zaitsev & Henrik G. Smith
1. Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Belowground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than aboveground arthropods. 2. Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs. forest)...

Data from: Transcriptome profiling of ontogeny in the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus

Emma L. Berdan, Jonas Finck, Paul R. Johnston, Isabelle Waurick, Camila J. Mazzoni & Frieder Mayer
Acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera:Acrididae) are widely used model organisms for developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological research. Although there has been recent influx of orthopteran transcriptomic resources, many use pooled ontogenetic stages obscuring information about changes in gene expression during development. Here we developed a de novo transcriptome spanning 7 stages in the life cycle of the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Samples from different stages encompassing embryonic development through adults were used for transcriptomic profiling, revealing patterns of...

Data from: Demographic variability and heterogeneity among individuals within and among clonal bacteria strains

Lionel Jouvet, Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas & Ulrich K. Steiner
Identifying what drives individual heterogeneity has been of long interest to ecologists, evolutionary biologists and biodemographers, because only such identification provides deeper understanding of ecological and evolutionary population dynamics. In natural populations one is challenged to accurately decompose the drivers of heterogeneity among individuals as genetically fixed or selectively neutral. Rather than working on wild populations we present here data from a simple bacterial system in the lab, Escherichia coli. Our system, based on cutting-edge...

Data from: Cell-specific responses to the cytokine TGFβ are determined by variability in protein levels

Jette Strasen, Uddipan Sarma, Marcel Jentsch, Stefan Bohn, Caibin Sheng, Daniel Horbelt, Petra Knaus, Stefan Legewie & Alexander Loewer
The cytokine TGFβ provides important information during embryonic development, adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Alterations in the cellular response to TGFβ are involved in severe human diseases. To understand how cells encode the extracellular input and transmit its information to elicit appropriate responses, we acquired quantitative time-resolved measurements of pathway activation at the single cell level. We established dynamic time warping to quantitatively compare signaling dynamics of thousands of individual cells and described heterogeneous single-cell...

Data from: Legacy effects of herbivory enhance performance and resistance of progeny plants

Dinesh Kafle & Susanne Wurst
1. Herbivory-induced changes in plant resistance and tolerance traits can mediate the interaction between spatially and temporally separated above- and belowground herbivores. However, it is unknown how long the impact of transient herbivory events last or if legacy effects can be detected systemically in the plant and across plant generations. 2. Here, we studied the impact of transient aboveground herbivory by the specialist caterpillar Manduca sexta on the plant traits of wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata...

Data from: Spatial and topical imbalances in biodiversity research

Laura Tydecks, Jonathan Jeschke, Max Wolf, Gabriel Singer, Klement Tockner & Jonathan M. Jeschke
The rapid erosion of biodiversity is among the biggest challenges human society is facing. Concurrently, major efforts are in place to quantify changes in biodiversity, to understand the consequences for ecosystem functioning and human wellbeing, and to develop sustainable management strategies. Based on comprehensive bibliometric analyses covering 134,321 publications, we report systematic spatial biases in biodiversity-related research. Research is dominated by wealthy countries, while major research deficits occur in regions with disproportionately high biodiversity as...

Data from: Expanding the toolbox of nutrient limitation studies: novel method of soil microbial in-growth bags to evaluate nutrient demands in tropical forests

Tessa Camenzind, Stefan Scheu & Matthias C. Rillig
1.Ecosystem processes and the organisms involved are generally limited by the availability of one or more element in soil, an important phenomenon to consider for our understanding of ecosystem functioning and future changes. Especially in tropical forests, typically growing on nutrient depleted soils, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or other limitations are assumed. However, large‐scale nutrient manipulation experiments revealed complex site‐specific patterns and several authors raised the need for novel approaches to reveal deeper mechanistic insights...

Data from: Statistical context dictates the relationship between feedback-related EEG signals and learning

Matthew R. Nassar, Rasmus Bruckner & Michael J. Frank
Learning should be adjusted according to the surprise associated with observed outcomes but calibrated according to statistical context. For example, when occasional changepoints are expected, surprising outcomes should be weighted heavily to speed learning. In contrast, when uninformative outliers are expected to occur occasionally, surprising outcomes should be less influential. Here we dissociate surprising outcomes from the degree to which they demand learning using a predictive inference task and computational modeling. We show that the...

Within-individual trophic variability drives short-term intraspecific trait variation in natural populations

Camille Musseau, Simone Vincenzi, Frédéric Santoul, Stéphanie Boulêtreau, Dusan Jesensek & Alain Crivelli
1. Intra-specific trait variability (ITV) maintains functional diversity in populations and communities, and plays a crucial role in ecological and evolutionary processes such as trophic cascades or speciation. Furthermore, functional variation within a species and its populations can help buffer against harmful environmental changes. Trait variability within species can be observed from differences among populations, and between- and within individuals. In animals, ITV can be driven by ontogeny, the environment in which populations live, and...

The diverse nature of island isolation and its effect on land-bridge insular faunas

Yuval Itescu, Johannes Foufopoulos, Panayiotis Pafilis & Shai Meiri
Aim Isolation is a key factor in island biology. It is usually defined as the distance to the geographically nearest mainland, but multiple alternatives exist. We explored how testing different isolation indices affects the inference of isolation effects on faunal characteristics. We focused on land-bridge islands and compared the relationships of multiple spatial and temporal (i.e., through time) isolation indices with community-, population-, and individual-level characteristics (species richness, population density, and body size, respectively). Location...

Data of \"An experimental study of fungal olivine weathering\"

Ruben Gerrits
This file contains all the data used for the figures shown in the Dissertation of Ruben Gerrits with the title "An experimental study of fungal olivine weathering".

Social norms and cultural diversity in the development of third-party punishment

Bailey House, Patricia Kanngiesser, H. Clark Barrett, Süheyla Yilmaz, Andrew Marcus Smith, Carla Sebastian-Enesco, Alejandro Erut & Joan Silk
Human cooperation is likely supported by our tendency to punish selfishness in others. Social norms play an important role in motivating third-party punishment, and also in explaining societal differences in prosocial behavior. However, there has been little work directly linking social norms to the development of third-party punishment across societies. In this study, we explored the impact of normative information on the development of third-party punishment in 603 children aged 4-14 years, across six diverse...

Below- and aboveground traits explain local abundance, and regional, continental and global occurrence frequencies of grassland plants

Tom Lachaise, Joana Bergmann, Matthias Rillig & Mark Van Kleunen
1. Plants vary widely in how common or rare they are, but whether commonness of species is associated with functional traits is still debated. This might partly be because commonness can be measured at different spatial scales, and because most studies focus solely on aboveground functional traits. 2. We measured five root traits and seed mass on 241 Central European grassland species, and extracted their specific leaf area, height, mycorrhizal status and bud-bank size from...

Das Hokkaido Universum. Buch und Film

Mayke Wagner & Pavel E. Tarasov
Mitmach- und Entdeckerbücher zur ostasiatischen Archäologie 3

Marsvulkan Olympus Mons. Der größte Vulkan unseres Sonnensystems

Oliver Jorzik & Dierk Spreen
Der Olympus Mons auf dem Mars ist der größte und beeindruckendste Vulkan im Sonnensystem. Er gehört zum Typus der Schildvulkane und liegt über einem „Hotspot“. Er gilt als erloschen, vielleicht ruht er aber auch bloß. Wie auch auf der Erde, spielen Vulkane auf dem Mars eine wichtige Rolle in der Planetengeschichte. Dennoch ist diese Geschichte völlig anders verlaufen.

Data from: Higher dominance rank is associated with lower glucocorticoids in wild female baboons: A rank metric comparison

Emily Levy, Laurence Gesquiere, Emily McLean, Mathias Franz, J Kinyua Warutere, Serah Sayialel, Raphael Mututua, Tim Wango, Vivian Oudu, Jeanne Altmann, Elizabeth Archie & Susan Alberts
In vertebrates, glucocorticoid secretion occurs in response to energetic and psychosocial stressors that trigger the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Measuring glucocorticoid concentrations can therefore shed light on the stressors associated with different social and environmental variables, including dominance rank. Using 14,172 fecal samples from 237 wild female baboons, we test the hypothesis that high-ranking females experience fewer psychosocial and/or energetic stressors than lower-ranking females. We predicted that high-ranking females would have lower fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) concentrations...

How to make a little worm pump like a big worm

Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Alexander P. Gerhard, Jürgen Krücken, Claude Charvet & cedric neveu

A reversal in sensory processing accompanies ongoing ecological divergence and speciation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Cheyenne Tait, Hinal Kharva, Marco Schubert, Daniel Kritsch, Andy Sombke, Jürgen Rybak, Jeffrey Feder & Shannon Olsson
Changes in behavior often drive rapid adaptive evolution and speciation. However, the mechanistic basis for behavioral shifts is largely unknown. The tephritid fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella is an example of ecological specialization and speciation in action via a recent host plant shift from hawthorn to apple. These flies primarily utilize specific odors to locate fruit, and because they mate only on or near host fruit, changes in odor preference for apples versus hawthorns translate directly...

Selinunt, Italien. Selinunt. Die Arbeiten des Jahres 2019

Ortwin Dally, Jon Albers, Heike Bücherl, Sophie Helas, Agnes Henning, Frédéric Mège, Arnaud Coutelas, Alf Lindroos & Jesper Olsen
The report contains the results of various research and excavation activities of the DAI Rome and its cooperation partners in Selinunt from the year 2019. The third and final campaign took place in the Agora, work continued on temples A and O, floor examinations were carried out in various houses on the Acropolis, a new DFG project was started in the east port, and in the Baglio Florio of the Parco Archeologico di Selinunte at...

Data from: Seeing the wood despite the trees: exploring the impact of human disturbance on plant diversity, community structure, and standing biomass in fragmented high Andean forests

Mariasole Calbi
High Andean forests harbor a remarkably high biodiversity and play a key role in providing vital ecosystem services for neighboring cities and settlements. However, they are among the most fragmented and threatened ecosystems in the neotropics. To preserve their unique biodiversity, a deeper understanding of the effects of anthropogenic perturbations on them is urgently needed. Here, we characterized the plant communities of high Andean forest remnants in the hinterland of Bogotá in 32 0.04 ha...

Zum Aufstieg des autoritären Populismus. Michael Zürn im Gespräch mit Bernhard Zangl

Michael Zürn
Autoritär-populistische Parteien haben in fast allen liberalen Demokratien in Westeuropa ein Wählerpotential von ca. 20 Prozent der Stimmen. Viel wichtiger noch: Ein erheblicher Anteil der Weltbevölkerung wird von autoritären Populisten regiert. Die bekanntesten Namen sind Bolsonaro, Modi, Erdogan, Orban, Kaczyński, Maduro, Putin und bis vor Kurzem allen voran Trump. Das sind fast alles große Länder, was den autoritären Populismus so wirkmächtig für die internationale Ordnung macht. Der autoritäre Populismus hat sich in relativ kurzer Zeit...

Evidence for reduced immune gene diversity and activity during the evolution of termites

Shulin He, Thorben Sieksmeyer, Yanli Che, M. Alejandra Esparza Mora, Ronald Banasiak, Mark C. Harrison, Petr Stiblik, Šobotník Jan, Zongqing Wang, Paul Johnston, Dino P. McMahon, Jan Šobotník & Paul R. Johnston
This dataset contains data from a termite immunity related study described in the paper: “He Shulin, Sieksmeyer Thorben, Che Yanli, Mora M. Alejandra Esparza, Stiblik Petr, Banasiak Ronald, Harrison Mark C., Šobotník Jan, Wang Zongqing, Johnston Paul R. and McMahon Dino P. 2021Evidence for reduced immune gene diversity and activity during the evolution of termitesProc. R. Soc. B.288:20203168.http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.3168”. The study investigates the evolution of termite molecular immune system: evolution of immune gene family along a...

Large-scale drivers of relationships between soil microbial properties and organic carbon across Europe

Linnea C Smith, Alberto Orgiazzi, Nico Eisenhauer, Simone Cesarz, Alfred Lochner, Arwyn Jones, Felipe Bastida, Guillaume Patoine, Thomas Reitz, François Buscot, Matthias Rillig, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Anika Lehmann & Carlos Guerra
The aim of this study was to quantify direct and indirect relationships between soil microbial community properties (potential basal respiration, microbial biomass) and abiotic factors (soil, climate) in three major land-cover types. Location: Europe Time period: 2018 Major taxa studied: Microbial community (fungi and bacteria) We collected 881 soil samples from across Europe in the framework of the Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame Survey (LUCAS). We measured potential soil basal respiration at 20ºC and microbial...

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