65 Works

Data from: Ecological drivers of avian community assembly along a tropical elevation gradient

Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas, Bette A. Loiselle & Morgan W. Tingley
Community assembly theory hypothesizes that two main niche-based processes act to shape composition and organization of biological assemblages: abiotic filtering and biological interactions. Here, we conducted repeated surveys of bird abundance along an undisturbed elevational gradient in the tropical Andes to investigate (1) signals of deterministic processes driving community assembly and (2) potential mechanisms by which these forces operate (temperature, habitat complexity, fruit and insect availability), while correcting for imperfect detection and modeling species abundances...

Filtered SNP tables - Rangewide, Hamilton, Tejon, and Madera transects

Paul Gugger, Sorel Fitz-Gibbon, Ana Albarrán-Lara, Jessica Wright & Victoria Sork
Understanding how the environment shapes genetic variation provides critical insight about the evolution of local adaptation in natural populations. At multiple spatial scales and multiple geographic contexts within a single species, such information could address a number of fundamental questions about the scale of local adaptation and whether or not the same loci are involved at different spatial scales or geographic contexts. We used landscape genomic approaches from three local elevational transects and range-wide sampling...

Avian point-counts from Rhode Island and Connecticut used to test species distribution models

Valerie Steen, Morgan Tingley, Peter Paton & Chris Elphick
Spatial-biases are a common feature of presence-absence data from citizen scientists. Spatial thinning can mitigate errors in species distribution models (SDMs) that use these data. When detections or non-detections are rare, however, SDMs may suffer from class imbalance or low sample size of the minority (i.e. rarer) class. Poor predictions can result, the severity of which may vary by modeling technique. To explore the consequences of spatial bias and class imbalance in presence-absence data, we...

Longitudinal white-matter abnormalities in sports-related concussion: a diffusion MRI study of the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium

Yu-Chien Wu, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Nahla Elsaid, Zikai Lin, Qiuting Wen, Sourajit Mustafi, Larry Riggen, Kevin Koch, Andrew Nencka, Timothy Meier, Andrew Mayer, Yang Wang, Christopher Giza, John DiFiori, Kevin Guskiewicz, Jason Mihalik, Stephen LaConte, Stefan Duma, Steven Broglio, Andrew Saykin, Michael McCrea & Thomas McAllister
Objective To study longitudinal recovery trajectories of white-matter after sports-related concussion (SRC), we performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on collegiate athletes who sustained SRC. Methods Collegiate athletes (n=219, 82 concussed athletes, 68 contact-sport controls, and 69 non-contact-sport controls) were included from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. The participants completed clinical assessments and DTI at four time points: 24-48-hours post-injury, asymptomatic state, seven days following return-to-play, and six-months post-injury. Tract-based spatial statistics were...

Dynamic stimulation of visual cortex produces form vision in sighted and blind humans

Michael Beauchamp, Denise Oswalt, Ping Sun, Brett Foster, John Magnotti, Soroush Niketeghad, Nader Pouratain, William Bosking & Daniel Yoshor
A visual cortical prosthesis(VCP) has long been proposed as astrategy for restoringuseful vision to the blind, under the assumptionthat visual percepts of small spots of lightproduced withelectrical stimulation of visual cortex (phosphenes) will combine into coherent percepts of visual forms, like pixels on a video screen.We tested analternative strategy in which shapes were traced on the surface of visual cortex by stimulating electrodes in dynamic sequence. In both sighted and blind participants, dynamic stimulation enabled...

Foliar water uptake by coastal wetland plants: a novel water acquisition mechanism in arid and humid subtropical mangroves

Matthew Hayes, Samantha Chapman, Amber Jesse, Elizabeth O'Brien, Adam Langley, Remi Bardou, John Devaney, John Parker & Kyle C. Cavanaugh
1. Climate change alters freshwater availability in many ecosystems leading to shifts in distributions for many plants. Despite living exclusively in intertidal, saline environments, mangroves rely on non-saline water to maintain plant productivity. However, several mangrove species persist in arid environments where non-saline water from rain and groundwater sources are limited. Under these conditions, foliar water uptake from fog and mist may be an important water acquisition strategy. 2. We conducted a field experiment in...

Age and location influence the costs of compensatory and accelerated growth in a hibernating mammal

Sarah Heissenberger, Gabriela Pinho, Julien Martin & Daniel Blumstein
The increase of structural growth rates to compensate for a poor initial body condition, defined as compensatory growth, may have physiological costs, but little is known about its effects on individual fitness in the wild. Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) are obligate hibernators and depend on fat accumulation acquired during an approximately 4-month summer to survive overwinter. We investigated the costs to survival and longevity of rapid growth in a wild population of yellow-bellied marmots. We...

Multi-species occupancy models as robust estimators of community richness

Morgan W. Tingley, Christopher Nadeau & Manette Sandor
1. Understanding patterns of diversity is central to ecology and conservation, yet estimates of diversity are often biased by imperfect detection. In recent years, multi-species occupancy models (MSOM) have been developed as a statistical tool to account for species-specific heterogeneity in detection while estimating true measures of diversity. Although the power of these models has been tested in various ways, their ability to estimate gamma diversity – or true community size, N – is a...

Data from: A search for technosignatures from 14 planetary systems in the Kepler field with the Green Bank Telescope at 1.15–1.73 GHz

Jean-Luc Margot, Adam H. Greenberg, Pavlo Pinchuk, Akshay Shinde, Yashaswi Alladi, Srinivas Prasad MN, M. Oliver Bowman, Callum Fisher, Szilard Gyalay, Willow McKibbin, Brittany Miles, Donald Nguyen, Conor Power, Namrata Ramani, Rashmi Raviprasad, Jesse Santana & Ryan S. Lynch
This dataset describes candidate signal detections obtained at the Green Bank Telescope in 2016 and reprocessed with the 2020 UCLA SETI Group data processing pipeline. Analysis of Kepler mission data suggests that the Milky Way includes billions of Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. Current technology enables the detection of technosignatures emitted from a large fraction of the Galaxy. We describe a search for technosignatures that is sensitive to Arecibo-class transmitters...

Data from: Multiple routes to interspecific territoriality in sister species of North American perching birds

Madeline C. Cowen, Jonathan Drury & Gregory Grether
Behavioral interference between species can influence a wide range of ecological and evolutionary processes. Here we test foundational hypotheses regarding the origins and maintenance of interspecific territoriality, and evaluate the role of interspecific territoriality and hybridization in shaping species distributions and transitions from parapatry to sympatry in sister species of North American perching birds (Passeriformes). We found that interspecific territoriality is pervasive among sympatric sister species pairs, and that interspecifically territorial species pairs have diverged...

The start sites of sequences of 18S and 25S rRNA found to be exonuclease resistant as indicated by oligo attachment

Jacob Fleischmann, Miguel Rocha, Peter Hauser, Bhavani Gowda & Mary Pilapil
Abstract Background We have previously reported 18S and 25S ribosomal RNA molecules in Candida albicans resistant to processive 5´→3´ exonuclease, appearing as cells approached stationary growth phase. Initial analysis pointed to extra phosphate(s) at their 5’- end raising the possibility that they were newly transcribed. Here we report on additional experiments exploring this possibility and try to establish which of the RNA polymerases may be transcribing them. Results Oligo-ligation and primer extension again showed the...

Phonotactic learning with neural language models

Connor Mayer & Max Nelson

Iterative evolution of large-bodied hypercarnivory in canids benefits species but not clades

Mairin Balisi & Blaire Van Valkenburgh
Ecological specialization has costs and benefits at various scales: traits benefitting an individual may disadvantage its population, species or clade. In particular, large body size and hypercarnivory (diet over 70% meat) have evolved repeatedly in mammals; yet large hypercarnivores are thought to be trapped in a macroevolutionary “ratchet”, marching unilaterally toward decline. Here, we weigh the impact of this specialization on extinction risk using the rich fossil record of North American canids (dogs). In two...

On the cross-population generalizability of gene expression prediction models

Kevin L. Keys, Angel C.Y. Mak, Marquitta J. White, Walter L. Eckalbar, Andrew W. Dahl, Joel Mefford, Anna V. Mikhaylova, María G. Contreras, Jennifer R. Elhawary, Celeste Eng, Donglei Hu, Scott Huntsman, Sam S. Oh, Sandra Salazar, Michael A. Lenoir, Jimmie Chun Ye, Timothy A. Thornton, Noah Zaitlen, Esteban G. Burchard & Christopher R. Gignoux
The genetic control of gene expression is a core component of human physiology. For the past several years, transcriptome-wide association studies have leveraged large datasets of linked genotype and RNA sequencing information to create a powerful gene-based test of association that has been used in dozens of studies. While numerous discoveries have been made, the populations in the training data are overwhelmingly of European descent, and little is known about the generalizability of these models...

Data from: Environmental context shapes the long‐term role of nutrients in driving producer community trajectories in a top‐down dominated marine ecosystem

Rachel Clausing, Nicole E. Phillips & Peggy Fong
1. Two predominant anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems, nutrient enrichment and the removal of consumers, are predicted to interact in their effects on producer diversity. Yet, measures of diversity alone may not capture changes occurring in the underlying mechanisms structuring communities. Furthermore, evidence for these interactions in rocky intertidal systems is mixed and may be confounded by variable baseline productivity or short experimental durations that do not capture seasonality, environmental heterogeneity or successional processes. 2. We...

Data from: Beyond the limits: identifying the high-frequency detectors in the anuran ear

Ariadna Cobo-Cuan, T. Ulmar Grafe & Peter M. Narins
Despite the predominance of low-frequency hearing in anuran amphibians, a few frog species have evolved high-frequency communication within certain environmental contexts. Huia cavitympanum is the most remarkable anuran with regard to upper frequency limits; it is the first frog species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic signals. Characteristics of the Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions from the amphibian papilla and the basilar papilla were analysed to gain insight into the structures responsible for high-frequency/ultrasound sensitivity. Our results...

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding bioassessment of endangered fairy shrimp (Branchinecta spp.) - Part A

Zachary Gold, Adam Wall, Paul Barber, Emily Curd, N. Dean Pentcheff, Lee Ripma & Regina Wetzer
Fairy shrimp are integral components of vernal pool ecosystems, providing key food resources for migratory birds and amphibians. However, habitat degradation and land use change severely threaten the health of both vernal pools and the survival of fairy shrimp species. Branchinecta sandiegonensis has been particularly affected by urban and agricultural development in its small native range within San Diego County, California, USA. It is listed as an endangered species under both state and federal laws...

Intracrater Terminal Dune Fields in Arabia Terra, Mars

Taylor Dorn & Mackenzie Day
Craters are the most prevalent basins and potential depo-centers of sediment on Mars. Within these craters and extending from them, terminal dune fields and wind streaks are abundant, indicating active sediment transport and providing a way to study how wind and sediment interact with crater topography. Here, we explore the role of craters as both sources and sinks in the modern martian sedimentary cycle. Our results show that craters with low albedo wind streaks (indicative...

Data from: Little giants: a rapidly invading seagrass alters ecosystem functioning relative to native foundation species

Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Kelcie L. Chiquillo, Candice Cross, Peggy Fong, Thomas Kelley, C. Anna Toline, Regina Zweng & Demian A. Willette
The spread of invasive species is a major component of global ecological change and how and when to manage particular species is a diicult empirical question. Ideally, these decisions should be based on the speciic impacts of invading species including both their efects on native competitors and how they may or may not play similar roles in broader ecosystem functioning. Halophila stipulacea is an invasive seagrass currently spreading through the Caribbean, and as seagrasses are...

Data from: The American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) genoscape: implications for monitoring, management, and subspecies boundaries

Kristen Ruegg, Michaela Brinkmeyer, Christen M Bossu, Rachael Bay, Eric C Anderson & Julie Heath
Identifying population genetic structure is useful for inferring evolutionary process as well as defining subspecies boundaries and/or conservation units that can aid in species management. The American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is a widespread species with two described North American subspecies, (F. s. sparverius and F. s. paulus), the latter in the southeastern United States and the former across the remainder of its distribution. In many parts of their range, American kestrels have been declining, but...

Pelagiella exigua, an early Cambrian stem gastropod with chaetae: lophotrochozoan heritage and conchiferan novelty

Roger D. K. Thomas, Bruce Runnegar & Kerry Matt
Exceptionally well-preserved impressions of two bundles of bristles protrude from the apertures of small, spiral shells of Pelagiella exigua, recovered from the Kinzers Formation (Cambrian, Stage 4, “Olenellus Zone”, ~ 512 Ma) of Pennsylvania. These impressions are inferred to represent clusters of chitinous chaetae, comparable to those borne by annelid parapodia and some larval brachiopods. They provide an affirmative test in the early metazoan fossil record of the inference, from phylogenetic analyses of living taxa,...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Внутри горы бездействует... подтекст? К разгадке мандельштамовского кумира

Лада Панова
В настоящей статье предлагается расшифровка одного из самых темных стихотворений Осипа Мандельштама. Отправной точкой послужила следующая гипотеза: во «Внутри горы бездействует кумир» Мандельштам имеет дело с сакральностью власти автократа — феноменом, свойственным как Древнему Египту и Вавилону, так и русской истории, включая советский период. Образный строй стихотворения, его стилистика, словоупотребление, лирический сюжет и, наконец, причудливая, «матрешечная» интертекстуальная структура направлены на подрыв кумиропоклонничества по отношению к властителю. Недаром этот обобщенный персонаж показан отвратительным, старым, пережившим свой...

An incoherent feedforward loop interprets NFkappaB/RelA dynamics to determine TNF-induced necroptosis decisions

Marie Oliver Metzig
Balancing cell death is essential to maintain healthy tissue homeostasis and prevent disease. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) not only activates nuclear factor kB (NFkappaB), which coordinates the cellular response to inflammation, but may also trigger necroptosis, a pro-inflammatory form of cell death. Whether TNF-induced NFkappaB affects the fate decision to undergo TNF-induced necroptosis is unclear. Live-cell microscopy and model-aided analysis of death kinetics identified a molecular circuit that interprets TNF-induced NFkappaB/RelA dynamics to control necroptosis...

On collaborative reinforcement learning to optimize the redistribution of critical medical supplies throughout the COVID-19 pandemic

Bryan Bednarski
Objective: This work investigates how reinforcement learning and deep learning models can facilitate the near-optimal redistribution of medical equipment in order to bolster public health responses to future crises similar to the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: The system presented is simulated with disease impact statistics from the Institute of Health Metrics (IHME), Center for Disease Control, and Census Bureau[1, 2, 3]. We present a robust pipeline for data preprocessing, future demand inference, and a...

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  • University of California Los Angeles
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  • David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
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  • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
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