41 Works

Local adaptation in thermal tolerance for a tropical butterfly across ecotone and rainforest habitats

Michel AK Dongmo, Rachid Hanna, Thomas B Smith, KKM Fiaboe, Abraham Fomena & Timothy C Bonebrake
Thermal adaptation to habitat variability can determine species vulnerability to environmental change. For example, physiological tolerance to naturally low thermal variation in tropical forests species may alter their vulnerability to climate change impacts, compared with open habitat species. However, the extent to which habitat-specific differences in tolerance derive from within-generation versus across-generation ecological or evolutionary processes are not well characterized. Here we studied thermal tolerance limits of a Central African butterfly (Bicyclus dorothea) across two...

Coexistence within an endangered predator–prey community in California vernal pools

Arianne F. Messerman, Adam G. Clause, Shantel V. L. Catania, H. Bradley Shaffer & Christopher A. Searcy
1. Globally endangered ecosystems, like ephemeral wetlands, are often critical habitat for multiple interacting imperiled species. To conserve this biodiversity, managers must consider both species-specific resource requirements and mechanisms for endangered species coexistence under variable habitat conditions. 2. We examined communities native to California playa pools, ephemeral wetlands that have declined by >90% from their historic extent. Specifically, we describe the diet of a federally Threatened amphibian (Ambystoma californiense), and characterize interactions between this amphibian...

Individual trial data on path choice in response to risk in Linepithema humile

Peter Nonacs & Emily Lessig
Ant colonies are likely able to access food locations by multiple paths that can vary predictably in length or mortality risk. To favor one path over another requires ants to perceive, communicate and act upon important differences in length and risk between paths. Here we present replicate Linepithema humile colonies with four equal-length paths to a sugar source. The paths vary in probabilities of encountering a risk cue that range from 0 to 100%. The...

Data for: Dorsal premammillary projection to periaqueductal gray controls escape vigor from innate and conditioned threats

Peter Schuette, Weisheng Wang, Mimi La-Vu, Brooke Tobias, Marta Ceko, Philip Kragel, Fernando Reis, Shiyu Ji, Megha Sehgal, Sandra Maesta-Pereira, Meghmik Chakerian, Alcino Silva, Newton Canteras, Tor Wager, Jonathan Kao & Avishek Adhikari
Escape from threats has paramount importance for survival. However, it is unknown if a single circuit controls escape from innate and conditioned threats. The hypothalamic dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) may control escape, as it is strongly activated by escape-inducing threats and projects to the region most implicated in escape, the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG). We show that in mice cholecystokinin (cck)-expressing PMd cells are activated during escape, but not other defensive behaviors. PMd-cck ensemble activity...

Odor boosts visual object approach in flies

Karen Y. Cheng & Mark Frye
Multisensory integration is synergistic - input from one sensory modality might modulate the behavioral response to another. Work in flies has shown that a small visual object presented in the periphery elicits innate aversive steering responses in flight, likely representing an approaching threat. Object aversion is switched to approach when paired with a plume of food odor. The ‘open loop’ design of prior work facilitated the observation of changing valence. How does odor influence visual...

Resolving the consequences of gradual phenotypic plasticity for populations in variable environments

Samuel Fey, Colin Kremer, Tamara Layden & David Vasseur
Phenotypic adjustments following environmental change are ubiquitous and trait changes arising through phenotypic plasticity often lag behind their environmental stimuli. Evolutionary biologists seeking to understand how adaptive plasticity can evolve have extensively studied this phenomenon. However, the ecological consequences of common features of plastic responses to environmental variability, including gradual phenotypic change (i.e., slower than the pace of environmental change), are underappreciated. We present a framework based on the unifying concept of phenotype x environment...

Improving metabarcoding taxonomic assignment: A case study of fishes in a large marine ecosystem

Zachary Gold
DNA metabarcoding is an important tool for molecular ecology. However, its effectiveness hinges on the quality of reference sequence databases and classification parameters employed. Here we evaluate the performance of MiFish 12S taxonomic assignments using a case study of California Current Large Marine Ecosystem fishes to determine best practices for metabarcoding. Specifically, we use a taxonomy cross-validation by identity framework to compare classification performance between a global database comprised of all available sequences and a...

Data from: Limited refugia and high velocity range-shifts predicted for bat communities in drought-risk areas of the Northern Hemisphere

Rachel Blakey, Mattia Piccioli Cappelli, Daniel Taylor, Jon Flanders, Trish Badeen, Sally Butts, Winifred Frick & Hugo Rebelo
Species occupying semi-arid and dry regions around the globe face an uncertain future due to increases in the frequency and severity of droughts. In this study we modelled the potential effect of climate change on bat communities within two high-drought risk regions of the world and assessed the magnitude and direction of the predicted shifts in climatic suitability, locating climate change refugia and identifying species at greatest risk of population declines. To do this, we...

Hematoma expansion shift analysis to assess acute intracerebral hemorrhage treatments

Vignan Yogendrakumar, Tim Ramsay, Bijoy Menon, Adnan Qureshi, Jeffrey Saver & Dar Dowlatshahi
Objective: Hematoma expansion (HE) is commonly analyzed as a dichotomous outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) trials. In this proof-of-concept study, we propose a “HE shift” analysis model as a method to improve the evaluation of candidate ICH therapies. Methods: Using data from the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-2) trial, we performed HE shift analysis in response to intensive blood pressure lowering by generating polychotomous strata based on a) previously established HE definitions,...

Fastq files related to publication: At Palmyra Atoll, the fish‐community environmental DNA signal changes across habitats but not with tides

Kevin D. Lafferty, Ana E. Garcia‐Vedrenne, John P. McLaughlin, Jasmine N. Childress, Marisa F. Morse & Christopher L. Jerde
At Palmyra Atoll, the environmental DNA (eDNA) signal on tidal sand flats was associated with fish biomass density and captured 98%–100% of the expected species diversity there. Although eDNA spilled over across habitats, species associated with reef habitat contributed more eDNA to reef sites than to sand-flat sites, and species associated with sand-flat habitat contributed more eDNA to sand-flat sites than to reef sites. Tides did not disrupt the sand-flat habitat signal. At least 25...

Male-like female morphs in hummingbirds: the evolution of a widespread sex-limited plumage polymorphism

Eleanor Diamant, Jay J. Falk & Dustin R. Rubenstein
Differences in the way males and females look or behave are common in animals. However, discrete variation within sexes (sex-limited polymorphism) also occurs in several vertebrate and invertebrate lineages. In birds, female-limited polymorphism (FLP) in which some females resemble males in coloration is most prominent in hummingbirds, a group known for its morphological and behavioural sexual dimorphism. Yet, it remains unclear whether this intrasexual colour variation in hummingbirds arises through direct selection on females, or...

Bats partition activity in space and time in a large, heterogeneous landscape

Elizabeth Beilke, Rachel Blakey & Joy O'Keefe
Diverse species assemblages theoretically partition along multiple resource axes to maintain niche separation between all species. Temporal partitioning has received less attention than spatial or dietary partitioning but may facilitate niche separation when species overlap along other resource axes. We conducted a broad-scale acoustic study of the diverse and heterogeneous Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the Appalachian Mountains. Between 2015 and 2016, we deployed acoustic bat detectors at 50 sites (for a total of...

Data from: Virulent disease epidemics can increase host density by depressing foraging of hosts

Rachel Penczykowski, Marta Shocket, Jessica Housley Ochs, Brian Lemanski, Hema Sundar, Meghan Duffy & Spencer Hall
All else equal, parasites that harm host fitness should depress densities of their hosts. However, parasites that alter host traits may increase host density via indirect ecological interactions. Here, we show how depression of foraging rate of infected hosts can produce such a hydra effect. Using a foraging assay, we quantified reduced foraging rates of a zooplankton host infected with a virulent fungal parasite. We then parameterized a dynamical model of hosts, parasites, and resources...

Woody encroachment happens via intensification, not extensification, of species ranges in an African savanna

Yong Zhou, Morgan Tingley, Madelon Case, Corli Coetsee, Gregory Kiker, Rheinhardt Scholtz, Freek Venter & Carla Staver
Widespread woody encroachment is a prominent concern for savanna systems as it is often accompanied by losses in productivity and biodiversity. Extensive ecosystem-level work has advanced our understanding of its causes and consequences. However, there is still debate over whether local management can override regional and global drivers of woody encroachment, and it remains largely unknown how encroachment influences woody community assemblages. Here, we examined species-level changes in woody plant distributions and size structure from...

Encapsulation of ribozymes inside model protocells leads to faster evolutionary adaptation

Yei-Chen Lai, Ziwei Liu & Irene Chen
Functional biomolecules, such as RNA, encapsulated inside a protocellular membrane are believed to have comprised a very early, critical stage in the evolution of life, since membrane vesicles allow selective permeability and create a unit of selection enabling cooperative phenotypes. The biophysical environment inside a protocell would differ fundamentally from bulk solution, due to the microscopic confinement. However, the effect of the encapsulated environment on ribozyme evolution has not been previously studied experimentally. Here we...

Mechanisms of reduced interspecific interference between territorial species

Shawn McEachin, Jonathan P. Drury, Christopher N. Anderson & Gregory F. Grether
Interspecific territoriality is a complex interaction between species that can affect ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Interspecifically aggressive species often exhibit spatial or temporal shifts in activity which tend to reduce the amount of competition experienced. We studied 14 unique species pairs of rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina) across 15 different sites and several study periods from 2005-2017 to analyze the effect of interspecific aggression on fine-scale spatial partitioning and interspecific differences in microhabitat use. Specifically, we examined...

Co-expression networks in Chlamydomonas reveal significant rhythmicity in batch cultures and empower gene function discovery

Patrice Salomé & Sabeeha Merchant
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a choice reference system for the study of photosynthesis and chloroplast metabolism, cilium assembly and function, lipid and starch metabolism, and metal homeostasis. Despite decades of research, the functions of thousands of genes remain largely unknown, and new approaches are needed to categorically assign genes to cellular pathways. Growing collections of transcriptome and proteome data now allow a systematic approach based on integrative co-expression analysis. We used a...

Data from: Evaluating the tradeoff between offspring number and survivorship across fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals

David Anderson
Species differ widely in their strategies of resource allocation to offspring size and number, ranging from teleost fishes and amphibians that produce many tiny offspring to reptiles and mammals that produce relatively few large offspring. Trade-offs between offspring survivorship and fecundity are thought to limit the success of any particular reproductive strategy, but these trade-offs have not been evaluated quantitatively across the full range of variability in offspring size and number. Here we examine the...

Nanitic scan sample data for division of labor in incipient Pogonomyrmex rugosus colonies

Peter Nonacs & Brittany Enzmann
Division of labor (DOL) is a principal characteristic of workers in mature colonies of many social insect species. In newly initiated ant colonies, however, the first workers (called nanitics) are few in number and much smaller in size than workers of mature colonies. This limited workforce must nevertheless perform most of the tasks of a mature colony, and it is unknown if they also exhibit DOL. In this study, we tracked several inside-nest and outside-nest...

Data from: The utility of environmental DNA from sediment and water samples for recovery of observed plant and animal species from four Mojave Desert springs

MAURA PALACIOS MEJIA, Emily Curd, Kiumars Edalati, Mark Renshaw, Roy Dunn, Daniel Potter, Naomi Fraga, Jenna Moore, Justin Saiz, Robert Wayne & Sophie Parker
Background: Mojave Desert springs are fragile ecosystems, hosting endemic plants and animals, which are threatened by the increasing human demand for water and climate change. To develop management practices that will protect the groundwater-dependent ecosystems at Mojave Desert springs, real-time, low cost biodiversity monitoring and assessments are required. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding uses DNA shed from organisms (e.g. skin cells, feces, pollen, etc.) that is present in water, air, soil, or sediment samples to assess...

Predicting intraspecific trait variation among California’s grasses

Brody Sandel, Claire Pavelka, Thomas Hayashi, Lachlan Charles, Jennifer Funk, Fletcher Halliday, Gaurav Kandlikar, Andrew Kleinhesslink, Nathan Kraft, Loralee Larios, Tesa Madsen-McQueen & Marko Spasojevic
1. Plant species can show considerable morphological and functional variation along environmental gradients. This intraspecific trait variation (ITV) can have important consequences for community assembly, biotic interactions, ecosystem functions and responses to global change. However, directly measuring ITV across many species and wide geographic areas is often infeasible. Thus, a method to predict spatial variation in a species’ functional traits could be valuable. 2. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), height and leaf area (LA)...

Habitat structure mediates vulnerability to climate change through its effects on thermoregulatory behavior

Lauren Neel, Michael Logan, Daniel Nicholson, Christina Miller, Albert Chung, Inbar Maayan, Zach Degon, Madeline DuBois, John David Curlis, Q Taylor, Kaitlin Keegan, Owen McMillan, Jonathan Losos & Christian Cox
Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because they are thermal specialists, having evolved in aseasonal thermal environments. However, even within the tropics, habitat structure can influence opportunities for behavioral thermoregulation. Open (and edge) habitats likely promote more effective thermoregulation due to the high spatial heterogeneity of the thermal landscape, while forests are thermally homogenous and may constrain opportunities for behavioral buffering of environmental temperatures. Nevertheless, the ways in which behavior...

Negative linkage disequilibrium between amino acid changing variants reveals interference among deleterious mutations in the human genome

Jesse Garcia & Kirk Lohmueller
While there has been extensive work on patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for neutral loci, the extent to which negative selection impacts LD is less clear. Forces like Hill-Robertson interference and negative epistasis are expected to lead to deleterious mutations being found on distinct haplotypes. However, the extent to which these forces depend on the selection and dominance coefficients of deleterious mutations and shape genome-wide patterns of LD in natural populations with complex demographic histories...

Body size and environment influence both intraspecific and interspecific variation in daily torpor use across hummingbirds

Austin Spence & Morgan Tingley
1. Torpor, or a regulated drop in body temperature and metabolic rate, allows animals to inhabit energetically costly environments, but among torpor-using species, we have a poor understanding of how plasticity in torpor use relates to the experienced environment. 2. To better understand the ecology of daily torpor, we completed the largest study to date on the intraspecific variation of daily torpor use in hummingbirds by exposing 149 individuals of two hummingbird species to ambient...

Registration Year

  • 2021
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Affiliations

  • University of California Los Angeles
    39
  • Yale University
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  • University of California, Irvine
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  • Columbia University
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  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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  • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
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  • University of Connecticut
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  • University of California, Santa Barbara
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  • University of Florida
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  • University of Sao Paulo
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