594 Works

Data from: Don’t put all your eggs in one basket: a cost-effective and powerful method to optimize primer choice for rRNA environmental community analyses using the Fluidigm Access Array

Shawn P. Brown, Astrid Ferrer, James W. Dalling & Katy D. Heath
With the increasing democratization of high-throughout sequencing (HTS) technologies, along with the concomitant increase in sequence yield per dollar, many researchers are exploring HTS for microbial community ecology. Many elements of experimental design can drastically affect the final observed community structure, notably the choice of primers for amplification prior to sequencing. Some targeted microbes can fail to amplify due to primer-targeted sequence divergence and be omitted from obtained sequences, leading to differences among primer pairs...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Constraints on mammalian forelimb development: insights from developmental disparity

Darcy L. Ross, Jonathan D. Marcot, Keith J. Betteridge, Nanette Nasone-Yoder, C. Scott Bailey, Karen E. Sears, Darcy Ross & Nanette Nascone-Yoder
Tetrapod limb development has been studied extensively for decades, yet the strength and role of developmental constraints in this process remains unresolved. Mammals exhibit a particularly wide array of limb morphologies associated with various locomotion modes and behaviors, providing a useful system for identifying periods of developmental constraint and conserved developmental mechanisms or morphologies. In this study, landmark-based geometric morphometrics are used to investigate levels and patterns of morphological diversity (disparity) among the developing forelimbs...

Data from: Agonistic character displacement of genetically based male colour patterns across darters

Rachel L. Moran & Rebecca C. Fuller
Agonistic character displacement (ACD) occurs when selection to avoid maladaptive interspecific aggression leads to the evolution of agonistic signals and/or associated behavioural biases in sympatry. Here we test for a pattern consistent with ACD in male colour pattern in darters (Percidae: Etheostoma). Male colour pattern has been shown to function in male-male competition rather than female mating preferences in several darter species. Additionally, males bias their aggression towards conspecific over heterospecific males in sympatry but...

Data from: CRISPR-induced distributed immunity in microbial populations

Lauren M. Childs, Whitney E. England, Mark J. Young, Joshua S. Weitz & Rachel J. Whitaker
In bacteria and archaea, viruses are the primary infectious agents, acting as virulent, often deadly pathogens. A form of adaptive immune defense known as CRISPR-Cas enables microbial cells to acquire immunity to viral pathogens by recognizing specific sequences encoded in viral genomes. The unique biology of this system results in evolutionary dynamics of host and viral diversity that cannot be fully explained by the traditional models used to describe microbe-virus coevolutionary dynamics. Here, we show...

Data from: Variation in coexisting birds to exploit spatial heterogeneity in small mammal activity

Quinn C. Emmering, Janice K. Kelly, Richard S. Ostfeld & Kenneth A. Schmidt
Breeding nest site selection is often the first defense against nest predation risk. To be effective, this mechanism requires site-specific spatial heterogeneity in predator abundance which produces predator-poor space, prey's ability to assess spatial heterogeneity in risk, and few or weak constraints on the ability to settle in within predator-poor space. We used a 15-year dataset on forested grids that provided extensive records of fledging success of veeries (Catharus fuscescens) and ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) in...

Becoming A Trans Inclusive Library - Library Employee Survey

Spencer D. C. Keralis & Syamil Yakin
This data set contains survey results from a 2021 survey of University of Illinois University Library employees conducted as part of the Becoming A Trans Inclusive Library Project to evaluate the awareness of University of Illinois faculty, staff, and student employees regarding transgender identities, and to assess the professional development needs of library employees to better serve trans and gender non-conforming patrons. The survey instrument is available in the IDEALS repository: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/110080.

Data from: aTRAM - automated Target Restricted Assembly Method: a fast method for assembling loci across divergent taxa from next-generation sequencing data

Julie M Allen, Daisie I. Huang, Quentin C Cronk & Kevin P Johnson
Background: Assembling genes from next-generation sequencing data is not only time consuming but computationally difficult, particularly for taxa without a closely related reference genome. Assembling even a draft genome using de novo approaches can take days, even on a powerful computer, and these assemblies typically require data from a variety of genomic libraries. Here we describe software that will alleviate these issues by rapidly assembling genes from distantly related taxa using a single library of...

Data from: Do density-driven mating system differences explain reproductive incompatibilities between populations of a placental fish?

Matthew Schrader, Joseph Travis & Rebecca C Fuller
Matrotrophy, the provisioning of embryos between fertilization and birth, creates the potential for conflict between mothers and embryos over the level of maternal investment. This conflict is predicted to drive the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations with different mating systems. In this study we examine whether density-driven mating system differences explain the patterns of asymmetric reproductive isolation observed in previous studies involving four populations of the matrotrophic least killifish, Heterandria formosa. Minimum sire number...

Data from: Evaluating statistical multiple sequence alignment in comparison to other alignment methods on protein data sets

Michael Nute, Ehsan Saleh & Tandy Warnow
The estimation of multiple sequence alignments of protein sequences is a basic step in many bioinformatics pipelines, including protein structure prediction, protein family identification, and phylogeny estimation. Statistical co-estimation of alignments and trees under stochastic models of sequence evolution has long been considered the most rigorous technique for estimating alignments and trees, but little is known about the accuracy of such methods on biological benchmarks. We report the results of an extensive study evaluating the...

Data from: The perceptual and chemical basis of egg discrimination in communally nesting Greater Anis (Crotophaga major)

Mark E. Hauber, Miri Dainson, Daniel T. Baldassarre, Marouf Hossain, Mande Holford & Christina Riehl
The eggshells of communally breeding Greater Anis (Crotophaga major) consist of a blue-green pigmented calcite matrix overlaid by a chalky white layer of vaterite, both of which are polymorphs of calcium carbonate. The white vaterite layer is intact in freshly laid eggs and may function in protecting the eggs from mechanical damage, but it also abrades during incubation to reveal the blue calcite shell underneath. Previous research has shown that this color change serves a...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Data from: The genomic landscape of ribosomal peptides containing thiazole and oxazole heterocycles

Courtney L. Cox, James R. Doroghazi & Douglas A. Mitchell
Background: Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a burgeoning class of natural products with diverse activity that share a similar origin and common features in their biosynthetic pathways. The precursor peptides of these natural products are ribosomally produced, upon which a combination of modification enzymes installs diverse functional groups. This genetically encoded peptide-based strategy allows for rapid diversification of these natural products by mutation in the precursor genes merged with unique combinations of...

Data from: Consequences of climatic thresholds for projecting fire activity and ecological change

Adam M. Young, Philip E. Higuera, John T. Abatzoglou, Paul A. Duffy & Feng Sheng Hu
Aim: Ecological properties governed by threshold relationships can exhibit heightened sensitivity to climate, creating an inherent source of uncertainty when anticipating future change. We investigated the impact of threshold relationships on our ability to project ecological change outside the observational record (e.g., the 21st century), using the challenge of predicting late‐Holocene fire regimes in boreal forest and tundra ecosystems. Location: Boreal forest and tundra ecosystems of Alaska. Time period: 850–2100 CE. Major taxa studied: Not...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: Weighting effective number of species measures by abundance weakens detection of diversity responses

Yong Cao & Charles Patrick Hawkins
1. The effective number of species (ENS) has been proposed as a robust measure of species diversity that overcomes several shortcomings of both diversity indices and species richness measures. However, it is not yet clear if ENS improves interpretation and comparison of biodiversity monitoring data, and ultimately resource management decisions. 2. We used simulations of five stream macroinvertebrate assemblages and spatially extensive field data of stream fishes and mussels to show (1) how different ENS...

Data from: A gain-of-function polymorphism controlling complex traits and fitness in nature

Kasavajhala V. S. K. Prasad, Bao-Hua Song, Carrie Olson-Manning, Jill T. Anderson, Cheng-Ruei Lee, M. Eric Schranz, Aaron J. Windsor, Maria J. Clauss, Antonio J. Manzaneda, Ibtehaj Naqvi, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Sanjeewa G. Rupasinghe, Mary A. Schuler & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Identification of the causal genes that control complex trait variation remains challenging, limiting our appreciation of the evolutionary processes that influence polymorphisms in nature. We cloned a quantitative trait locus that controls plant defensive chemistry, damage by insect herbivores, survival, and reproduction in the natural environments where this polymorphism evolved. These ecological effects are driven by duplications in the BCMA (branched-chain methionine allocation) loci controlling this variation and by two selectively favored amino acid changes...

A Bayesian optimal escape model reveals bird species differ in their capacity to habituate to humans

Nicholas Sutton, Michael Weston, Patrick Guay, Jenna Tregoweth & James O'Dwyer
The capacity to habituate to, or tolerate, the close proximity of humans varies among wildlife species and may mediate population and species viability. Some species readily habituate to human proximity while others remain sensitive. These differences are important for predicting human impact on wildlife, but can be difficult to quantify given wildlife responses are highly idiosyncratic and are often context-dependent. A general method for assimilating multiple sources of information and variation in individual responses is...

Adaptive shifts underlie the divergence in wing morphology in bombycoid moths

Brett Aiello, Milton Tan, Usama Bin Sikandar, Alexis Alvey, Burhanuddin Bhinderwala, Katalina Kimball, Jesse Barber, Chris Hamilton, Akito Kawahara & Simon Sponberg
The evolution of flapping flight is linked to the prolific success of insects. Across Insecta, wing morphology diversified, strongly impacting aerodynamic performance. In the presence of ecological opportunity, discrete adaptive shifts and early bursts are two processes hypothesized to give rise to exceptional morphological diversification. Here, we use the diverse sister-families Sphingidae and Saturniidae to answer how the evolution of aerodynamically important traits is linked to clade divergence and through what process(es) these traits evolve....

A tale of two conifers: Migration across a dispersal barrier outpaced regional expansion from refugia

Matias Fernandez, Feng Sheng Hu, Daniel Gavin, Guillaume De Lafontaine & Katy Heath
Aim: Understanding how climate refugia and migration over great distances have facilitated species survival during past climate changes is crucial for evaluating contemporary threats to biodiversity, particularly in the face of dispersal barriers. We address this longstanding question on the refugial origins and post-glacial development of mesic forests. Location: Pacific Northwest, North America. Taxon: Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) Methods: Range-wide genotyping-by-sequencing (ddRADseq) of both study species and a pollen reconstruction...

Data from: The complex genetics of symbiotic extended phenotypes across environments in a model mutualism

Rebecca Batstone, Hanna Lindgren, Cassandra Allsup, Laura Goralka, Alex Riley, Michael Grillo, Amy Marshall-Colon & Katy Heath
A goal of modern biology is to develop the genotype-phenotype (G→P) map, a predictive understanding of how genomic information generates trait variation that forms the basis of both natural and managed communities. As microbiome research advances, however, it has become clear that many of these traits are symbiotic extended phenotypes, being governed by genetic variation encoded not only by the host’s own genome, but also by the genomes of myriad cryptic symbionts. Building a reliable...

Re-evaluating deep neural networks for phylogeny estimation: the issue of taxon sampling

Martin Grosshauser, Paul Zaharias & Tandy Warnow
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are powerful machine learning models that are widely used for classification problems, and have been recently proposed for quartet tree phylogeny estimation (Survorov et al. Systematic Biology 2020 and Zou et al. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2020). Here we present a study evaluating recently trained DNNs (from Zou et al., MBE 2020) in comparison to a collection of standard phylogeny estimation methods, including UPGMA, neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood,...

Polyethylene upcycling to long-chain alkylaromatics by tandem hydrogenolysis/aromatization

Fan Zhang, Manhao Zeng, Ryan Yappert, Jiakai Sun, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Anne LaPointe, Baron Peters, Mahdi Abu-Omar & Susannah Scott
The current scale of plastics production and the accompanying waste disposal problems represent a largely untapped opportunity for chemical upcycling. Tandem catalytic conversion by Pt/g-Al2O3 converts various polyethylene grades in high yields (up to 80 wt%) to low molecular-weight liquid/wax products, in the absence of added solvent or H2, with little production of light gases. The major components are valuable long-chain alkylaromatics and alkylnaphthenes (average ca. C30, Ð = 1.1). Coupling exothermic hydrogenolysis with endothermic...

Data from: Long-term persistence of wildlife populations in a pastoral area

Christian Kiffner, John Kioko, Jack Baylis, Camille Beckwith, Craig Brunner, Christine Burns, Vasco Chavez-Molina, Sara Cotton, Laura Glazik, Ellen Loftis, Megan Moran, Caitlin O’Neill, Ole Theisinger & Bernard Kissui
Facilitating coexistence between people and wildlife is a major conservation challenge in East Africa. Some conservation models aim to balance the needs of people and wildlife, but the effectiveness of these models is rarely assessed. Using a case-study approach, we assessed the ecological performance of a pastoral area in northern Tanzania (Manyara Ranch) and established a long-term wildlife population monitoring programme (carried out intermittently from 2003-2008 and regularly from 2011-2019) embedded in a distance sampling...

Phylogeny estimation given sequence length heterogeneity

Vladimir Smirnov & Tandy Warnow
Abstract Phylogeny estimation is a major step in many biological studies, and has many well known challenges. With the dropping cost of sequencing technologies, biologists now have increasingly large datasets available for use in phylogeny estimation. Here we address the challenge of estimating a tree given large datasets with a combination of full-length sequences and fragmentary sequences, which can arise due to a variety of reasons, including sample collection, sequencing technologies, and analytical pipelines. We...

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