56 Works

L’élection présidentielle en Uruguay : défaite du Front large et autonomisation de l’extrême droite (Les Études du CERI, n°245-246)

Damien LARROUQUÉ
Après quinze ans à la tête de l’Uruguay, le Front large (FA), coalition de partis de gauche emmenée par Daniel Martínez, a perdu au second tour de l’élection présidentielle le 25 novembre 2019, face au candidat du Parti national (PN) ou blanco, Luis Lacalle Pou, par 48,8 contre 47,3 % des suffrages et 3,8 % de votes blancs ou nuls. Compte tenu de l’écart minime entre les deux candidats (moins de trente mille voix), la...

Data from: Genomic predictions and genome-wide association study of resistance against Piscirickettsia salmonis in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) using ddRAD sequencing

Agustin Barría, Kris A. Christensen, Grazyella M. Yoshida, Katharina Correa, Ana Jedlicki, Jean Paul Lhorente, William S. Davidson & José Manuel Yáñez
Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the main infectious diseases affecting coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) farming, and current treatments have been ineffective for the control of this disease. Genetic improvement for P. salmonis resistance has been proposed as a feasible alternative for the control of this infectious disease in farmed fish. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) strategies allow genotyping of hundreds of individuals with thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which can be used to perform genome...

Data from: A comprehensive transcriptome of early development in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

Alok Patel, Phillip Dettleff, Eric Hernández, Victor Martinez & E. Hernandez
Seriola lalandi is an ecologically and economically important species that is globally distributed in temperate and subtropical marine waters. The aim of this study was to identify large numbers of genic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and differential gene expression (DGE) related to the early development of normal and deformed S. lalandi larvae using high-throughput RNA-seq data. A de novo assembly of reads generated 40 066 genes ranging from 300 bases to 64 799 bases with...

Data from: Differences in endophyte communities of introduced trees depend on the phylogenetic relatedness of the receiving forest

Michael J. Gundale, Juan P. Almeida, Håkan Wallander, David A. Wardle, Paul Kardol, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson Hegethorn, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Duane A. Peltzer, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Bill Mason, Nicholas Rosenstock & Marie-Charlotte Nilsson
Plant species sometimes perform extraordinarily well when introduced to new environments, through achieving higher growth rates, individual biomasses or higher densities in their receiving communities compared to their native range communities. One hypothesis proposed to explain enhanced performance in species’ new environments is that their soil microbial communities may be different and provide greater benefit than microbial communities encountered in species’ native environments. However, detailed descriptions of soil biota associated with species in both their...

Data from: The influence of the arid Andean high plateau on the phylogeography and population genetics of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in South America

Juan Carlos Marín, Benito A. Gonzalez, Elie Poulin, Ciara S. Casey & Warren E. Johnson
A comprehensive study of the phylogeography and population genetics of the largest wild artiodactyl in the arid and cold-temperate South American environments, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), was conducted to detail patterns of molecular genetic structure related with phylogeographic history, barriers to gene flow, to describe and contrast the evolutionary history and patterns of gene flow among populations. Analyses of 514 bp of mtDNA sequence and 14 biparentally-inherited microsatellite markers of 314 individuals from 17 localities...

Data from: Variation in fine-scale genetic structure and local dispersal patterns between peripheral populations of a South American passerine bird

Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Yanina Poblete, Élfego Cuevas, Sylvia Kuhn, Alexander Girg, Kim Teltscher, Elie Poulin, Bart Kempenaers & Rodrigo A. Vasquez
The distribution of suitable habitat influences natal and breeding dispersal at small spatial scales, resulting in strong micro-geographic genetic structure. Although environmental variation can promote inter-population differences in dispersal behavior and local spatial patterns, the effects of distinct ecological conditions on within-species variation in dispersal strategies and in fine-scale genetic structure remain poorly understood. We studied local dispersal and fine-scale genetic structure in the thorn-tailed rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda), a South American bird that breeds along...

Data from: Evolutionary diversity in tropical tree communities peaks at intermediate precipitation

Danilo M. Neves, Kyle G. Dexter, Timothy R. Baker, Fernanda Coelho De Souza, Ary T. Oliveira-Filho, Luciano P. Queiroz, Haroldo C. Lima, Marcelo F. Simon, Gwilym P. Lewis, Ricardo A. Segovia, Luzmila Arroyo, Carlos Reynel, José L. Marcelo-Peña, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Daniel Villarroel, G. Alexander Parada, Aniceto Daza, Reynaldo Linares-Palomino, Leandro V. Ferreira, Rafael P. Salomão, Geovane S. Siqueira, Marcelo T. Nascimento, Claudio N. Fraga & R. Toby Pennington
Global patterns of species and evolutionary diversity in plants are primarily determined by a temperature gradient, but precipitation gradients may be more important within the tropics, where plant species richness is positively associated with the amount of rainfall. The impact of precipitation on the distribution of evolutionary diversity, however, is largely unexplored. Here we detail how evolutionary diversity varies along precipitation gradients by bringing together a comprehensive database on the composition of angiosperm tree communities...

Neutral and adaptive loci reveal fine-scale population structure in Eleginops maclovinus from North Patagonia

Cristian B. Canales-Aguirre, Wesley A. Larson, Garret J. McKinney, C. Eliza Claure, J. Dellis Rocha, Santiago G. Ceballos, Maria I. Cádiz, José M. Yáñez & Daniel Gómez-Uchida
Patagonia is an understudied area, especially when it comes to population genomic studies with relevance to fishery management. However, the dynamic and heterogeneous landscape in this area can harbor important but cryptic genetic population structure. Once such information is revealed, it can be integrated into the management of infrequently investigated species. Eleginops maclovinus is a protandrous hermaphrodite species with economic importance for local communities that is currently managed as a single genetic unit. In this...

Gestos performativos en el documental chileno: Ningún lugar en ninguna parte (2004), El corredor (2004) y El astuto mono Pinochet contra la moneda de los cerdos (2004)

Iván Veas

Data from: Comparing genomic signatures of domestication in two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations with different geographical origins

Maria E. Lopez, Laura Benestan, Jean-Sebastien Moore, Charles Perrier, John Gilbey, Alex Di Genova, Alejandro Maass, Diego Díaz, Jean-Paul Lhorente, Katharina Correa, Roberto Neira, Louis Bernatchez & José M. Yáñez
Selective breeding and genetic improvement have left detectable signatures on the genomes of domestic species. The elucidation of such signatures is fundamental for detecting genomic regions of biological relevance to domestication and improving management practices. In aquaculture, domestication was carried out independently in different locations worldwide, which provides opportunities to study the parallel effects of domestication on the genome of individuals that have been selected for similar traits. In the present study, we aimed to...

Data from: Extinction and recolonization of maritime Antarctica in the limpet Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908) during the last glacial cycle: toward a model of Quaternary biogeography in shallow Antarctic invertebrates

Claudio A. González-Wevar, Thomas Saucède, Simon A. Morley, Steven L. Chown & Elie Poulin
Quaternary glaciations in Antarctica drastically modified geographical ranges and population sizes of marine benthic invertebrates and thus affected the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation. Here, we present new genetic information in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna, a dominant Antarctic benthic species along shallow ice-free rocky ecosystems. We examined the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in this broadcast spawner along maritime Antarctica and from the peri-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Genetic analyses showed...

Data from: Plastic responses contribute to explaining altitudinal and temporal variation in potential flower longevity in high Andean Rhodolirion montanum

Diego Andrés Pacheco, Leah S. Dudley, Josefina Cabezas, Lohengrin A. Cavieres & Mary T. K. Arroyo
The tendency for flower longevity to increase with altitude is believed by many alpine ecologists to play an important role in compensating for low pollination rates at high altitudes due to cold and variable weather conditions. However, current studies documenting an altitudinal increase in flower longevity in the alpine habitat derive principally from studies on open-pollinated flowers where lower pollinator visitation rates at higher altitudes will tend to lead to flower senescence later in the...

Data from: Complementarity of statistical treatments to reconstruct worldwide routes of invasion: the case of the Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis

Eric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Jonathan Lundgren, Robert Koch, Benoît Facon, Audrey Grez, Antoon Loomans, Thibaut Malausa, Oldrich Nedved, Emma Rhule, Arnstein Staverlokk, Tove Steenberg & Arnaud Estoup
Inferences about introduction histories of invasive species remain challenging because of the stochastic demographic processes involved. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help to overcome these problems, but such method requires a prior understanding of population structure over the study area, necessitating the use of alternative methods and an intense sampling design. In this study, we made inferences about the worldwide invasion history of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis by various population genetics statistical methods, using a...

Data from: Assessing the effects of human activities on the foraging opportunities of migratory shorebirds in Austral high-latitude bays

Juan G. Navedo, Claudio Verdugo, Ignacio Rodríguez-Jorquera, Jose M. Abad-Gómez, Cristián G. Suazo, Luis E. Castañeda, Valeria Araya, Jorge Ruiz & Jorge S. Gutiérrez
Human presence at intertidal areas could impact coastal biodiversity, including migratory waterbird species and the ecosystem services they provide. Assessing this impact is therefore essential to develop management measures compatible with migratory processes and associated biodiversity. Here, we assess the effects of human presence on the foraging opportunities of Hudsonian godwits (Limosa haemastica, a trans-hemispheric migratory shorebird) during their non-breeding season on Chiloé Island, southern Chile. We compared bird density and time spent foraging in...

Data from: Scale-dependent responses of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms in a habitat transformation scenario

Francisco E. Fontúrbel, Pedro Jordano & Rodrigo Medel
Transformed habitats are the result of deliberate replacement of native species by an exotic monoculture, involving changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. Despite this, transformed habitats are becoming more common and constitute a major biodiversity change driver, little is known about the scale-dependent responses of plant-animal mutualisms. Aiming to test the multi-scale responses of pollination and seed dispersal in a habitat transformation scenario, we examined a gradient of native and transformed habitats at three spatial...

Data from: Decoupled evolution of foliar freezing resistance, temperature-niche and morphological leaf traits in Chilean Myrceugenia

Fernanda Pérez, Luis Felipe Hinojosa, Carmen Gloria Ossa, Francisa Campano & Francisca Campano
1. Phylogenetic conservatism of tolerance to freezing temperatures has been cited to explain the tendency of plant lineages to grow in similar climates. However there is little information about whether or not freezing resistance is conserved across phylogenies, and whether conservatism of physiological traits could explain conservatism of realized climatic niches. Here we compared the phylogenetical lability of realized climatic niche, foliar freezing resistance, and four morphological leaf traits that are generally considered adaptations to...

Socioeconomic status affects the incidence of COVID-19 in Chilean multiple sclerosis patients

Carlos Guevara
Objective: To investigate the frequency of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMSs) living in a high socioeconomic vulnerability area in Chile. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we compared the frequency of COVID-19 in 52 Chilean pwMSs on disease-modifying treatments (DMTs), living in urban municipalities with low-income/high-poverty levels, with that previously reported in pwMSs living in municipalities with high-income/low-poverty rates in Santiago, Chile. Demographic and clinical features of the pwMSs were obtained...

Influence of the haemosporidian Leucocytozoon spp. over reproductive output in a wild Neotropical passerine, the Thorn-tailed Rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda

Elfego Cuevas, Carolina Orellana-Peñailillo, Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Pamela Espíndola-Hernández, Rodrigo A. Vásquez & Verónica Quirici
Life-history theory predicts that hosts may adjust the costs of parasites by altering their reproductive effort. Haemosporidian parasites can affect the reproductive output of wild birds in multiple ways. Thorn-tailed Rayaditos Aphrastura spinicauda breeding in Navarino Island, Southern Chile (55°-40° S) experience high prevalence of the haemosporidian Leucocytozoon spp., which opens the possibility of exploring how these parasites may affect reproductive output in a Neotropical bird species. We compared several variables describing reproductive output (laying...

2019 Copiapo

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Slow-slip events have recently been detected along the Chilean subduction in the Atacama region (Klein et al., GRL 2018). To monitor the seismicity associated with such events, we have deployed 3 broadband stations to complete the chilean network in the region. These stations will be on the field for three years (the end of the deployment is planed in 2022).

Data from: A down-shifting Eu 3+ -doped Y 2 WO 6 /TiO 2 photoelectrode for improved light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

Jaime Llanos, Ivan Brito, Dario Espinoza, Ramkumar Sekar & Paulraj Manidurai
Y1.86Eu0.14WO6 phosphors were prepared using a solid-state reaction method. Their optical properties were analysed, and they was mixed with TiO2, sintered, and used as a photoelectrode (PE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The as-prepared photoelectrode was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC with TiO2:Y1.86Eu0.14WO6 (100:2.5) was 25.8% higher than that of a DSCC using pure TiO2 as PE. This high efficiency...

Data from: Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification

Thomas J. Givnish, Daniel Spalink, Mercedes Ames, Stephanie P. Lyon, Steven J. Hunter, Alejandro Zuluaga, William J. D. Iles, Mark A. Clements, Mary T. K. Arroyo, James Leebens-Mack, Lorena Endara, Ricardo Kriebel, Kurt M. Neubig, W. Mark Whitten, Norris H. Williams & Kenneth M. Cameron
Orchids are the most diverse family of angiosperms, with over 25 000 species, more than mammals, birds and reptiles combined. Tests of hypotheses to account for such diversity have been stymied by the lack of a fully resolved broad-scale phylogeny. Here, we provide such a phylogeny, based on 75 chloroplast genes for 39 species representing all orchid subfamilies and 16 of 17 tribes, time-calibrated against 17 angiosperm fossils. A supermatrix analysis places an additional 144...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity leads to higher plasticity in dry-edge populations of a semiarid Chilean shrub: insights into climate change responses

Ana Lázaro-Nogal, Silvia Matesanz, Alice Godoy, Fernanda Pérez-Trautman, Ernesto Gianoli & Fernando Valladares
1.Interannual variability in climatic conditions should be taken into account in climate change studies in semiarid ecosystems. It may determine differentiation in phenotypic plasticity among populations, with populations experiencing higher environmental heterogeneity showing higher levels of plasticity. 2.The ability of populations to evolve key functional traits and plasticity may determine the survival of plant populations under the drier and more variable climate expected for semiarid ecosystems. 3.Working with populations of the semiarid Chilean shrub Senna...

Data from: Epiphytes improve host plant water use by microenvironment modification

Daniel E. Stanton, Jackelyn Huallpa Chávez, Luis Villegas, Francisco Villasante, Juan Armesto, Lars O. Hedin & Henry Horn
1. Epiphytes have the potential to modify the canopy environments in which they grow. Accurately evaluating the impact of epiphytes can be challenging, since plants without epiphytes may also otherwise differ from host plants, and experimental removal is impractical and difficult to replicate in many forests. 2. We studied the impacts of epiphytes (primarily fruticose lichens and Tillandsia spp.) on host plants (Eulychnia saint-pieana and Caesalpinia spinosa) in two fog ecosystems in Chile (Pan de...

Data from: Genomic variation underlying complex life history traits revealed by genome sequencing in Chinook salmon

Shawn R. Narum, Alex Di Genova, Steven J. Micheletti, Alejandro Mass & Alejandro Maass
A broad portfolio of phenotypic diversity in natural organisms can buffer against exploitation and increase species persistence in disturbed ecosystems. The study of genomic variation that accounts for ecological and evolutionary adaptation can represent a powerful approach to extend understanding of phenotypic variation in nature. Here we present a chromosome-level reference genome assembly for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; 2.36 Gb) that enabled association mapping of life history variation and phenotypic traits for this species. Whole...

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