56 Works

Data from: Testing the effects of heterozygosity on growth rate plasticity in the seaweed Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta)

Cristobal F. Gallegos Sanchez, Jessica Beltrán, Verónica Flores, Alejandra V. González & Bernabé Santelices
Heterozygosity has been positively associated with fitness and population survival. However, the relationship between heterozygosity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity (i.e., plasticity which results in fitness homeostasis or improvement in changing environments), is unclear and has been poorly explored in seaweeds. In this study, we explored this relationship in the clonal red seaweed, Gracilaria chilensis by conducting three growth rate plasticity experiments under contrasting salinity conditions and by measuring heterozygosity with five microsatellite DNA markers. Firstly,...

Data from: Resolving the Northern Hemisphere source region for the long-distance dispersal event that gave rise to the South American endemic dung moss Tetraplodon fuegianus

Lily Lewis, Elisabeth M. Biersma, Sarah B. Carey, Kent Holsinger, Stuart F. McDaniel, Ricardo Rozzi, Bernard Goffinet & Lily R. Lewis
Premise of the study—American bipolar plant distributions characterize taxa at various taxonomic ranks but are most common in the bryophytes at infraspecific and infrageneric levels. A previous study on the bipolar disjunction in the dung moss genus Tetraplodon found that direct long-distance dispersal from North to South in the Miocene - Pleistocene accounted for the origin of the Southern American endemic Tetraplodon fuegianus, congruent with other molecular studies on bipolar bryophytes. The previous study, however,...

Data from: Ovule bet‐hedging at high elevation in the South American Andes: evidence from a phylogenetically‐controlled multispecies study

Mary T. K. Arroyo, Fernanda Perez, Paola Jara-Arancio, Diego Pacheco, Paula Vidal & María Francisca Flores
1. How animal‐pollinated plants support low and stochastic pollination in the high alpine is a key question in plant ecology. The ovule bet‐hedging hypothesis proposes compensation for stochastic pollination via ovule oversupply ín flowers allowing the benefits of windfall pollination events to be reaped. Under this hypothesis, ovule number is expected to increase from treeline upward on high mountains characterized by steep declines in flower visitation rates and increasingly more variable pollination. 2. Ovule/floret number...

Data from: Agreements between industry and academia on publication rights: a retrospective study of protocols and publications of randomized clinical trials

Benjamin Kasenda, Erik Von Elm, John J. You, Anette Blümle, Yuki Tomonaga, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Joerg J. Meerpohl, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K. Olu, Kari A. O. Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M. Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A. Akl, Dirk Bassler, Jason W. Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Francois Lamontagne, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz … & Matthias Briel
Background: Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings: We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical...

Data from: Extra-pair paternity in two populations of the socially monogamous Thorn-tailed Rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda (Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Yanina Poblete, Silvina Ippi, Bart Kempenaers & Rodrigo Vasquez
Studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) are key to understanding the ecological and evolutionary drivers of variation in avian mating strategies, but information is currently lacking for most tropical and sub-tropical taxa. We describe the occurrence of EPP in two populations of a South American socially monogamous bird, the Thorn-tailed Rayadito, based on data from 266 broods and 895 offspring that were sampled during six breeding seasons in north-central and southern Chile. In the northern population,...

Experimental admixture among geographically disjunct populations of an invasive plant yields a global mosaic of reproductive incompatibility and heterosis

Ramona E. Irimia, José L. Hierro, Soraia Branco, Gastón Sotes, Lohengrin A. Cavieres, Özkan Eren, Christopher J. Lortie, Kristine French, Ragan M. Callaway & Daniel Montesinos
1. Invasive species have the ability to rapidly adapt in the new regions where they are introduced. Classic evolutionary theory predicts that the accumulation of genetic differences over time in allopatric isolation may lead to reproductive incompatibilities resulting in decreases in reproductive success and, eventually, to speciation. However, experimental evidence for this theoretical prediction in the context of invasive species is lacking. We aimed to test for the potential of allopatry to determine reproductive success...

Conservation of Birds in Fragmented Landscapes Requires Protected Areas

Robert Timmers, Marijke Van Kuijk, Pita Verweij, Jaboury Ghazoul, Yann Hautier, William Laurance, Stefan Arriaga-Weiss, Robert Askins, Corrado Battisti, Åke Berg, Gretchen Daily, Cristián Estades, Beatrice Frank, Reiko Kurosawa, Rosamund Pojar, John Woinarski & Merel Soons
For successful conservation of biodiversity, it is vital to know whether protected areas in increasingly fragmented landscapes effectively conserve species. However, how large habitat fragments must be and what level of protection is required to sustain species, remains poorly known. We compiled a global dataset on almost 2000 bird species in 741 forest fragments varying in size and protection status, and show that protection is associated with higher bird occurrence, especially for threatened species. Protection...

Data from: A down-shifting Eu 3+ -doped Y 2 WO 6 /TiO 2 photoelectrode for improved light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

Jaime Llanos, Ivan Brito, Dario Espinoza, Ramkumar Sekar & Paulraj Manidurai
Y1.86Eu0.14WO6 phosphors were prepared using a solid-state reaction method. Their optical properties were analysed, and they was mixed with TiO2, sintered, and used as a photoelectrode (PE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The as-prepared photoelectrode was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC with TiO2:Y1.86Eu0.14WO6 (100:2.5) was 25.8% higher than that of a DSCC using pure TiO2 as PE. This high efficiency...

Data from: Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification

Thomas J. Givnish, Daniel Spalink, Mercedes Ames, Stephanie P. Lyon, Steven J. Hunter, Alejandro Zuluaga, William J. D. Iles, Mark A. Clements, Mary T. K. Arroyo, James Leebens-Mack, Lorena Endara, Ricardo Kriebel, Kurt M. Neubig, W. Mark Whitten, Norris H. Williams & Kenneth M. Cameron
Orchids are the most diverse family of angiosperms, with over 25 000 species, more than mammals, birds and reptiles combined. Tests of hypotheses to account for such diversity have been stymied by the lack of a fully resolved broad-scale phylogeny. Here, we provide such a phylogeny, based on 75 chloroplast genes for 39 species representing all orchid subfamilies and 16 of 17 tribes, time-calibrated against 17 angiosperm fossils. A supermatrix analysis places an additional 144...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity leads to higher plasticity in dry-edge populations of a semiarid Chilean shrub: insights into climate change responses

Ana Lázaro-Nogal, Silvia Matesanz, Alice Godoy, Fernanda Pérez-Trautman, Ernesto Gianoli & Fernando Valladares
1.Interannual variability in climatic conditions should be taken into account in climate change studies in semiarid ecosystems. It may determine differentiation in phenotypic plasticity among populations, with populations experiencing higher environmental heterogeneity showing higher levels of plasticity. 2.The ability of populations to evolve key functional traits and plasticity may determine the survival of plant populations under the drier and more variable climate expected for semiarid ecosystems. 3.Working with populations of the semiarid Chilean shrub Senna...

Data from: Epiphytes improve host plant water use by microenvironment modification

Daniel E. Stanton, Jackelyn Huallpa Chávez, Luis Villegas, Francisco Villasante, Juan Armesto, Lars O. Hedin & Henry Horn
1. Epiphytes have the potential to modify the canopy environments in which they grow. Accurately evaluating the impact of epiphytes can be challenging, since plants without epiphytes may also otherwise differ from host plants, and experimental removal is impractical and difficult to replicate in many forests. 2. We studied the impacts of epiphytes (primarily fruticose lichens and Tillandsia spp.) on host plants (Eulychnia saint-pieana and Caesalpinia spinosa) in two fog ecosystems in Chile (Pan de...

Data from: Genomic variation underlying complex life history traits revealed by genome sequencing in Chinook salmon

Shawn R. Narum, Alex Di Genova, Steven J. Micheletti, Alejandro Mass & Alejandro Maass
A broad portfolio of phenotypic diversity in natural organisms can buffer against exploitation and increase species persistence in disturbed ecosystems. The study of genomic variation that accounts for ecological and evolutionary adaptation can represent a powerful approach to extend understanding of phenotypic variation in nature. Here we present a chromosome-level reference genome assembly for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; 2.36 Gb) that enabled association mapping of life history variation and phenotypic traits for this species. Whole...

Data from: Maintenance of genetic diversity in an introduced island population of Guanacos after seven decades and two severe demographic bottlenecks: implications for camelid conservation

Benito A. González, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Rainer Von Borries, Warren E. Johnson, William L. Franklin & Juan C. Marín
Fifteen Guanacos were introduced to Staats Island in Falklands/Malvinas archipelago from Patagonia in the 1930s. After introduction, the Guanaco population increased to almost 400 animals that retained a footprint of the founding effect and bottleneck reflected in the genetic status of this isolated population. The goals of this study were to (i) make a genetic assessment of this island population through comparisons with mainland populations and simulation, and (ii) assess the likely source population of...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids

Alexsandra Schneider, Corneliu Henegar, Kenneth Day, Devin Absher, Constanza Napolitano, Leandro Silveira, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O’Brien, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Gregory S. Barsh & Eduardo Eizirik
Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as independent causes...

Individual quality and extra-pair paternity in the blue tit: sexy males bear the costs

Elisa P Badás, Amaia Autor, Javier Martínez, Juan Rivero-De Aguilar & Santiago Merino
Adaptive explanations for the evolution of extra-pair paternity (EPP) suggest that females seek extra-pair copulations with high quality males. Still, the link between ornamentation, individual quality and paternity remains unclear. Moreover, honest signaling is essential when explaining EPP because it is needed for sexual selection to occur; yet, it is understudied in multiple ornaments. Because blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) show variable color expression in several plumage patches, we tested: (i) over two seasons, whether males...

Dataset: Plant-plant facilitation increases with reduced phylogenetic relatedness along an elevation gradient

Milen Duarte
Environmental conditions can modify the intensity and sign of ecological interactions. The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts that facilitation becomes more important than competition under stressful conditions. To properly test this hypothesis, it is necessary to account for all (not a subset of) interactions occurring in the communities and consider that species do not interact at random but following a specific pattern. We aim to assess elevational changes in facilitation, in terms of species richness,...

Bizarre tail weaponry in a transitional ankylosaur from subantarctic Chile

Sergio Soto-Acuña, Alexander Vargas & Joao F. Botelho
Armoured dinosaurs are well known for their evolution of specialized tail weapons— paired tail spikes in stegosaurs and heavy tail clubs in advanced ankylosaurs1. Armoured dinosaurs from southern Gondwana are rare and enigmatic, but probably include the earliest branches of Ankylosauria2–4. Here we describe a mostly complete, semi-articulated skeleton of a small (approximately 2 m) armoured dinosaur from the late Cretaceous period of Magallanes in southernmost Chile, a region that is biogeographically related to West...

2019 Copiapo

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Slow-slip events have recently been detected along the Chilean subduction in the Atacama region (Klein et al., GRL 2018). To monitor the seismicity associated with such events, we have deployed 3 broadband stations to complete the chilean network in the region. These stations will be on the field for three years (the end of the deployment is planed in 2022).

Data from: Evidence for non-allopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert

Federico Luebert, Pit Jacobs, Hartmut H. Hilger & Ludo A. H. Muller
The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In non-allopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this paper, we analysed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used...

Data from: Evolution of a predator-induced, nonlinear reaction norm

Mauricio J. Carter, Martin I. Lind, Stuart R. Dennis, William Hentley & Andrew P. Beckerman
Inducible, anti-predator traits are a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Their evolutionary dynamics depend on their genetic basis, the historical pattern of predation risk that populations have experienced and current selection gradients. When populations experience predators with contrasting hunting strategies and size preferences, theory suggests contrasting micro-evolutionary responses to selection. Daphnia pulex is an ideal species to explore the micro-evolutionary response of anti-predator traits because they face heterogeneous predation regimes, sometimes experiencing only invertebrate midge...

Data from: Phylogeography and population history of Leopardus guigna, the smallest American felid

Constanza Napolitano, Warren E. Johnson, Jim Sanderson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Rus Hoelzel, Rachel Freer, Nigel Dunstone, Kermit Ritland, Carol E. Ritland, Elie Poulin & A. Rus Hoelzel
The guigna (Leopardus guigna) is the smallest and most-restricted New World cat species, inhabiting only around 160,000 km2 of temperate rain forests in southern South America and is currently threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and human persecution. We investigated phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity, demographic history and barriers to gene flow with 116 individuals sampled across the species geographic range by analyzing 1,798 base pairs of the mtDNA (496 bp HVSI region, 720 bp NADH-5...

Data from: Human paths have positive impacts on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis

Meredith Root-Bernstein & Jens-Christian Svenning
We assess the impacts of human paths, trails and roads on plant species richness and Shannon diversity. Most reviews of this topic have not considered community-level measures, and have focused on excessive tourism impacts. We found significant positive effects of paths on plant richness and diversity. The effect size for richness was highest when studies included roads (paved) or trails (unpaved). The effect size found for diversity was highest when studies were in grasslands. We...

Data from: High frequency echolocation, ear morphology, and the marine–freshwater transition: a comparative study of extant and extinct toothed whales

Carolina S. Gutstein, Constanza P. Figueroa-Bravo, Nicholas D. Pyenson, Roberto E. Yury-Yañez, Mario A. Cozzuol & Mauricio Canals
This study compares the bony ear morphology of freshwater and marine odontocetes (toothed whales). Odontocetes are unique among marine mammals in two important respects: 1) they use echolocation; 2) at least three lineages have independently evolved obligate freshwater habits from marine ancestries. Freshwater odontocetes include the so-called “river dolphins,” a paraphyletic group that each evolved convergent external morphological characters that distinguish them from oceanic dolphins (Delphinoidea). In addition to their convergent external morphology, “river dolphins”...

Data from: Isotopic niches support the resource breadth hypothesis

Jonathan A. Rader, Seth D. Newsome, Pablo Sabat, R. Terry Chesser, Michael E. Dillon & Carlos Martínez Del Rio
Because a broad spectrum of resource use allows species to persist in a wide range of habitat types, and thus permits them to occupy large geographical areas, and because broadly distributed species have access to more diverse resource bases, the resource breadth hypothesis posits that the diversity of resources used by organisms should be positively related with the extent of their geographic ranges. We investigated isotopic niche width in a small radiation of South American...

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