73 Works

Gestos performativos en el documental chileno: Ningún lugar en ninguna parte (2004), El corredor (2004) y El astuto mono Pinochet contra la moneda de los cerdos (2004)

Iván Veas

Influence of the haemosporidian Leucocytozoon spp. over reproductive output in a wild Neotropical passerine, the Thorn-tailed Rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda

Elfego Cuevas, Carolina Orellana-Peñailillo, Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Pamela Espíndola-Hernández, Rodrigo A. Vásquez & Verónica Quirici
Life-history theory predicts that hosts may adjust the costs of parasites by altering their reproductive effort. Haemosporidian parasites can affect the reproductive output of wild birds in multiple ways. Thorn-tailed Rayaditos Aphrastura spinicauda breeding in Navarino Island, Southern Chile (55°-40° S) experience high prevalence of the haemosporidian Leucocytozoon spp., which opens the possibility of exploring how these parasites may affect reproductive output in a Neotropical bird species. We compared several variables describing reproductive output (laying...

Employment protection and capital-labor ratios (LIEPP Working Paper, n°33)

Alexandre Janiak & Etienne Wasmer
Employment protection (EPL) has a well know negative impact on labor flows as well as an ambiguous but often negative effect on employment. In contrast, its impact on capital accumulation and capital-labor ratio is less well understood. The available empirical evidence suggests a non-monotonic relation between capital-labor ratios and EPL: positive at very low levels of EPL, and the negative. We explore the theorical effects of EPL on physical capital in a model of a...

The European continental crust through detrital zircons from modern rivers: biasing effects in the detrital zircon record

Paula Castillo , Heinrich Bahlburg , Rodrigo Fernández , Mark Fanning & Jasper Berndt
We present U-Pb, Lu-Hf, and O isotopic data, as well as size-shape data for approximately 3700 detrital zircons from 15 European rivers. In combination with geomorphological information for each river basin (area, drainage length, and hypsometric curves), we evaluate the representativeness and biases affecting such datasets. The new data allow us to demonstrate that the detrital zircon record from major rivers represents all relevant geological events in Europe at the continental scale, with detrital zircon...

Taxonomy based on limited genomic markers may underestimates species diversity of rockhopper penguins and threaten their conservation

María José Frugone, Theresa Cole, María Eugenia López, Gemma Clucas, Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicolás Lois, Pierre Pistorius, Francesco Bonadonna, Phil Trathan, Andrea Polanowski, Barbara Wienecke, Andrea Raya-Rey, Klemens Pütz, Antje Steinfurth, Ke Bi, Cynthia Wang-Claypool, Rauri C. K. Bowie, Jonathan Waters, Elie Poulin & Juliana Vianna
Delimiting recently diverged species is challenging. During speciation, genetic differentiation may be distributed unevenly across the genome, as different genomic regions can be subject to different selective pressures and evolutionary histories. Reliance on limited numbers of genetic markers that may be underpowered can make species delimitation even more challenging, potentially resulting in taxonomic inconsistencies. Rockhopper penguins of the genus Eudyptes comprise three broadly recognized taxa: northern (E. moseleyi), southern (E. chrysocome), and eastern rockhopper (E....

Un segundo mandato a medias tintas: balance del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet (2014-2018) (Les Études du CERI, n°233-234)

Antoine Faure & Antoine Maillet
Otra vez, Michelle Bachelet le otorgará la banda presidencial a Sebastián Piñera. Termina su segundo mandato con un 23% de aprobación, según la encuesta de opinión de referencia (CEP). Ocho años antes, al fin de su primer mandato (2009), la misma encuesta le otorgaba 78% de opiniones favorables. Sin duda, estas encuestas no son el único indicador a considerar para hacer el balance de un mandato presidencial, pero en este preciso caso, la profunda diferencia...

Hotspots within a hotspot: Evolutionary measures unveil interesting biogeogeographic patterns for the conservation of the coastal forest in Chile

Rosa Scherson & Daniela Mardones
Aim: Given the continuous loss of biodiversity, there is an urgent need to study its patterns to generate conservation measures. Complementing the traditional patterns with indices that incorporate evolutionary aspects such as phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic endemism (PD and PE) allows us to infer possible historical processes that could explain the conformation of current biodiversity. Coastal forests in Chile are part of a biodiversity hotspot of high endemism that is under threat. In this study,...

Nizolke zugu Dios ñi Nütxam pu Chilemapuche ñi zugun mew : Kritische digitale Re-Edition der Edition Araucana der \"Kurze Biblische Geschichte für die unteren Schuljahre\" in Deutsch, Spanisch und Mapuzugun

Alejandra Natalia Araya Espinoza , Romy Susanne Köhler, Miriam Lay Brander & Andrea Salazar Vega
Trilinguale Re-Edition

Data from: High frequency echolocation, ear morphology, and the marine–freshwater transition: a comparative study of extant and extinct toothed whales

Carolina S. Gutstein, Constanza P. Figueroa-Bravo, Nicholas D. Pyenson, Roberto E. Yury-Yañez, Mario A. Cozzuol & Mauricio Canals
This study compares the bony ear morphology of freshwater and marine odontocetes (toothed whales). Odontocetes are unique among marine mammals in two important respects: 1) they use echolocation; 2) at least three lineages have independently evolved obligate freshwater habits from marine ancestries. Freshwater odontocetes include the so-called “river dolphins,” a paraphyletic group that each evolved convergent external morphological characters that distinguish them from oceanic dolphins (Delphinoidea). In addition to their convergent external morphology, “river dolphins”...

Data from: Adaptive genetic variation distinguishes Chilean blue mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from different marine environments

Cristian Araneda, Maria A. Larrain, Benjamin Hecht & Shawn Narum
Chilean mussel populations have been thought to be panmictic with limited genetic structure. Genotyping-by-sequencing approaches have enabled investigation of genome-wide variation that may better distinguish populations that have evolved in different environments. We investigated neutral and adaptive genetic variation in Mytilus from six locations in southern Chile with 1,240 SNP obtained with RAD-seq. Differentiation among locations with 891 neutral SNPs was low (FST = 0.005). Higher differentiation was obtained with a panel of 58 putative...

Data from: Evidence for non-allopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert

Federico Luebert, Pit Jacobs, Hartmut H. Hilger & Ludo A. H. Muller
The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In non-allopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this paper, we analysed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used...

Data from: Phylogeography and population history of Leopardus guigna, the smallest American felid

Constanza Napolitano, Warren E. Johnson, Jim Sanderson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Rus Hoelzel, Rachel Freer, Nigel Dunstone, Kermit Ritland, Carol E. Ritland, Elie Poulin & A. Rus Hoelzel
The guigna (Leopardus guigna) is the smallest and most-restricted New World cat species, inhabiting only around 160,000 km2 of temperate rain forests in southern South America and is currently threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and human persecution. We investigated phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity, demographic history and barriers to gene flow with 116 individuals sampled across the species geographic range by analyzing 1,798 base pairs of the mtDNA (496 bp HVSI region, 720 bp NADH-5...

Data from: Early life experience drives short-term acclimation of metabolic and osmoregulatory traits in the leaf-eared mouse

Grisel Cavieres, Monica Nuñez-Villegas, Francisco Bozinovic & Pablo Sabat
We studied the putative effect of early experience on the physiological flexibility of metabolic and osmoregulatory traits in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini, an altricial rodent inhabiting seasonal mediterranean environments. Adult individuals were collected in central Chile and maintained in breeding pairs. Pups were isolated after weaning and acclimated to different temperature (cold or warm) and water availability (unrestricted and restricted) until adulthood. Subsequently, individuals were re-acclimated to the opposite treatment. Rodents reared in warm...

Data from: Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis

Nicolás I. Segovia, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Elie Poulin & Pilar A. Haye
Marine benthic organisms inhabit a heterogeneous environment in which connectivity between populations occurs mainly through dispersive larval stages, while local selective pressures acting on early life history stages lead to non-random mortality, shaping adaptive genetic structure. In order to test the influence of local adaptation and neutral processes in a marine benthic species with low dispersal, in this study we used Genotyping by Sequencing technology to compare the neutral and putatively selected signals (neutral and...

Data from: Isotopic niches support the resource breadth hypothesis

Jonathan A. Rader, Seth D. Newsome, Pablo Sabat, R. Terry Chesser, Michael E. Dillon & Carlos Martínez Del Rio
Because a broad spectrum of resource use allows species to persist in a wide range of habitat types, and thus permits them to occupy large geographical areas, and because broadly distributed species have access to more diverse resource bases, the resource breadth hypothesis posits that the diversity of resources used by organisms should be positively related with the extent of their geographic ranges. We investigated isotopic niche width in a small radiation of South American...

Data from: Evolution of a predator-induced, nonlinear reaction norm

Mauricio J. Carter, Martin I. Lind, Stuart R. Dennis, William Hentley & Andrew P. Beckerman
Inducible, anti-predator traits are a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Their evolutionary dynamics depend on their genetic basis, the historical pattern of predation risk that populations have experienced and current selection gradients. When populations experience predators with contrasting hunting strategies and size preferences, theory suggests contrasting micro-evolutionary responses to selection. Daphnia pulex is an ideal species to explore the micro-evolutionary response of anti-predator traits because they face heterogeneous predation regimes, sometimes experiencing only invertebrate midge...

Data from: Human paths have positive impacts on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis

Meredith Root-Bernstein & Jens-Christian Svenning
We assess the impacts of human paths, trails and roads on plant species richness and Shannon diversity. Most reviews of this topic have not considered community-level measures, and have focused on excessive tourism impacts. We found significant positive effects of paths on plant richness and diversity. The effect size for richness was highest when studies included roads (paved) or trails (unpaved). The effect size found for diversity was highest when studies were in grasslands. We...

Data from: Heterozigosity-fitness correlations in a continental island population of Thorn-tailed Rayadito

Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Rodrigo A. Vásquez & Bart Kempenaers
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been used to monitor the effects of inbreeding in threatened populations. HFCs can also be useful to investigate the potential effects of inbreeding in isolated relict populations of long-term persistence, and to better understand the role of inbreeding and outbreeding as drivers of changes in genetic diversity. We studied a continental island population of thorn-tailed rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) inhabiting the relict forest of Fray Jorge National Park, north-central Chile. This population...

Experimental evolution on heat tolerance and thermal performance curves under contrasting thermal selection in Drosophila subobscura

Andres Mesas, Angélica Jaramillo & Luis Castañeda
Ectotherms can respond to global warming via evolutionary change of their upper thermal limits (CTmax). Thus, the estimation of CTmax and its evolutionary potential is crucial to determine their vulnerability to global warming. However, CTmax estimations depend on the thermal stress intensity, and it is not completely clear whether its evolutionary capacity can be affected. Here, we performed an artificial selection experiment to increase heat tolerance using fast- and slow-ramping selection protocols in Drosophila subobscura....

Combining point counts and autonomous recording units improves avian survey efficacy across elevational gradients on two continents

Anna Drake, Devin R. De Zwaan, Tomás A. Altamirano, Scott Wilson, Kristina Hick, Camila Bravo, José Tomás Ibarra & Kathy Martin
Accurate biodiversity and population monitoring is a requirement for effective conservation decision-making. Survey method bias is therefore a concern, particularly when research programs face logistical and cost limitations. We employed point counts (PCs) and autonomous recording units (ARUs) to survey avian biodiversity within comparable, high elevation, temperate mountain habitats at opposite ends of the Americas: 9 mountains in British Columbia (BC), Canada and 10 in southern Chile. We compared detected species richness against multi-year species...

Data from: Evidence of low within-pair genetic relatedness in a relict population of Thorn-tailed Rayadito despite long-term isolation

Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Silvina Ippi, Rodrigo Vásquez & Bart Kempenaers
Investigating whether mating patterns are biased in relation to kinship in isolated populations can provide a better understanding of the occurrence of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in wild populations. Here we report on the genetic relatedness (r) among breeding pairs in a relict population of Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) in north-central Chile that has experienced a long-term history of isolation. We used simulations based on eight years of data to assess whether mating is random with...

Élections au Paraguay : victoire en demi-teinte pour le parti colorado et opposition en embuscade (Les Études du CERI, n° 239-240)

Damien Larrouqué
Les élections générales paraguayennes se sont tenues le 22 avril 2018. Elles ont mobilisé 61 % des électeurs inscrits contre 68 % en 2013. De l’avis de nombreux observateurs, la campagne présidentielle a été apathique et n’a guère suscité l’enthousiasme des citoyens, à l’inverse de celle qui, il y a tout juste dix ans, avait insufflé une « nouvelle équation démocratique » en portant l’ancien évêque Fernando Lugo au « Palais des López », tel...

Le bilan en demi-teinte du second mandat de Michelle Bachelet (Les Études du CERI, n° 233-234)

Antoine Faure & Antoine Maillet
Une fois encore, Michelle Bachelet a cédé l’écharpe présidentielle à Sebastián Piñera. Elle a conclu son second mandat avec une approbation de 23 % selon l’enquête d’opinion de référence (CEP). Huit ans auparavant, à la fin de son premier mandat, la même enquête lui attribuait 78 % d’opinions favorables. Les sondages ne sont assurément pas le seul indicateur à considérer pour tirer le bilan d’un mandat présidentiel, mais dans ce cas précis, l’inversion mérite réflexion....

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