15 Works

Morphometric Response of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) to Lake Colonization in Chile

Margaret Mercer, Peter C. Searle, Roberto Cifuentes, Evelyn Habit & Mark C. Belk
Body and head shape in fish responds to environmental factors such as water flow rate, food sources, and niche availability. However, the way in which fish respond to these environmental factors varies. In Central Chile, multiple river and lake systems along the coast provide an ideal study site to investigate these types of shape changes. We use geometric morphometrics to characterize shape differences in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) between river and lake populations. Lake fish converge...

Do dog breeds differ in pain sensitivity? Veterinarians and the public believe they do

Margaret Gruen, Brian Hare & Philip White
Humans do not respond to the pain of all humans equally; physical appearance and associated group identity affect how people respond to the pain of others. Here we ask if a similar differential response occurs when humans evaluate different individuals of another species. Beliefs about pain in pet dogs (Canis familiaris) provide a powerful test, since dogs vary so much in size, shape, and color, and are often associated with behavioral stereotypes. Using an on-line...

Decreased coevolutionary potential and increased symbiont fecundity during the biological invasion of a legume-rhizobium mutualism

Camille Wendlandt, Emily Helliwell, Miles Roberts, Kyle Nguyen, Maren Friesen, Eric Von Wettberg, Paul Price, Joel Griffitts & Stephanie Porter
Although most invasive species engage in mutualism, we know little about how mutualism evolves as partners colonize novel environments. Selection on cooperation and standing genetic variation for mutualism traits may differ between a mutualism's invaded and native ranges, which could alter cooperation and coevolutionary dynamics. To test for such differences, we compare mutualism traits between invaded- and native-range host-symbiont genotype combinations of the weedy legume, Medicago polymorpha, and its nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbiont, Ensifer medicae, which...

Data from: Plotting for change: an analytic framework to aid decisions on which lineages are candidate species in phylogenomic species discovery

Arthur Georges, Peter Unmack, Mark Adams, Michael Hammer, Jerald Johnson, Bernd Gruber, André Gilles & Matthew Young
A recent study argued that coalescent-based models of species delimitation mostly delineate population structure not species, and called for the validation of candidate species using biological information additional to the genetic information, such as phenotypic or ecological data. Here we introduce a framework to interrogate genomic datasets and coalescent-based species trees for the presence of candidate species in situations where additional biological data are unavailable, unobtainable, or uninformative. For de novo genomic studies of species...

Archives and Special Collections Linked Data: Navigating between Notes and Nodes

Erin Blake, Itza A. Carbajal, Regine Heberlein, Sarah Horowitz, Jason Kovari, VANESSA LACEY, Cory Lampert, Holly Mengel, Cory Nimer, Maria Oldal, Merrilee Proffitt, Nathan Putnam, Arielle Rambo, Elizabeth Roke, Eric de Ruijter, Dan Santamaria, Karen Smith-Yoshimura, Weatherly Stephan, Bruce Washburn & Chela Weber

Data from: Behavioral constraints on local adaptation and counter-gradient variation: implications for climate change

Brandon Quinby, Mark Belk & J. Curtis Creighton
Resource allocation to growth, reproduction, and body maintenance varies within species along latitudinal gradients. Two hypotheses explaining this variation are local adaptation and counter-gradient variation. The local adaptation hypothesis proposes that populations are adapted to local environmental conditions and are therefore less adapted to environmental conditions at other locations. The counter-gradient variation hypothesis proposes that one population out performs others across an environmental gradient because its source location has greater selective pressure than other locations....

Data From: An artificial habitat increases the reproductive fitness of a range-shifting species within a newly colonized ecosystem

Zachary Cannizzo, Susan Lang, Bryan Benitez-Nelson & Blaine Griffen
When a range-shifting species colonizes an ecosystem it has not previously inhabited, it may experience suboptimal conditions that challenge its continued persistence and expansion. Some impacts may be partially mitigated by artificial habitat analogues: artificial habitats that more closely resemble a species’ historic ecosystem than the surrounding habitat. If conditions provided by such habitats increase reproductive success, they could be vital to the expansion and persistence of range-shifting species. We investigated the reproduction of the...

Data from: The microbiota influences the Drosophila melanogaster life history strategy

Amber Walters, Rachel C Hughes, Tanner B. Call, Carson J. Walker, Hailey Wilcox, Samara C. Petersen, Seth M. Rudman, Peter D. Newell, Angela E. Douglas, Paul S. Schmidt & John M. Chaston
Organisms are locally adapted when members of a population have a fitness advantage in one location relative to conspecifics in other geographies. For example, across latitudinal gradients, some organisms may trade off between traits that maximize fitness components in one, but not both, of somatic maintenance or reproductive output. Latitudinal gradients in life history strategies are traditionally attributed to environmental selection on an animal's genotype, without any consideration of the possible impact of associated microorganisms...

Data from: Light environment drives evolution of color vision genes in butterflies and moths

Yash Sondhi, Emily Elis, Seth Bybee, Jamie Theobald & Akito Kawahara
Opsins, combined with a chromophore, are the primary light-sensing molecules in animals and are crucial for color vision. Throughout animal evolution duplications and losses of opsin proteins are common, but it is unclear what is driving these gains and losses. Light availability is implicated, and dim environments are often associated with low opsin diversity and loss. Correlations between high opsin diversity and bright environments, however, are tenuous. To test if increased light availability is associated...

Creating and Contesting Latter-day Saint Pilgrimage to Nauvoo, Illinois

Scott Esplin
Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (frequently referred to as Latter-day Saints or Mormons) share with other faiths a desire to celebrate sites significant to their founding. By memorialising religious sacred space, the Church of Jesus Christ has created a desire among many of its more than sixteen million members to retrace the steps of their early faith leaders as pilgrims. As with other religious sites around the world, Latter-day Saint...

Evolutionary history of Neotropical savannas geographically concentrates species, phylogenetic and functional diversity of lizards

Jessica Fenker, Fabricius M. C. B. Domingos, Leonardo G. Tedeschi, Dan F. Rosauer, Fernanda P. Werneck, Guarino R. Colli, Roger M. D. Ledo, Emanuel M. Fonseca, Adrian A. Garda, Derek Tucker, , Maria F. Breitman, Flavia Soares, Lilian G. Giugliano & Craig Moritz
Supporting information (scripts) to compute diversity and endemism indices copied and available by Dan Rosauer (https ://github.com/DanRosauer/phylospatial). Aim: Understanding where and why species diversity is geographically concentrated remains a challenge in biogeography and macroevolution. This is true for the Cerrado, the most biodiverse tropical savanna in the world, which has experienced profound biodiversity loss. Previous studies have focused on a single metric (species composition), neglecting the fact that ‘species’ within the biome are often composed...

Large losses of ammonium-nitrogen from a rice ecosystem under elevated CO2

Lei Cheng, Chenchao Xu, Kaihang Zhang, Wanying Zhu, Jing Xiao, Chen Zhu, Naifang Zhang, Fangjian Yu, Shuyao Li, Chunwu Zhu, Qichao Tu, Xin Chen, Jianguo Zhu, Shuijin Hu, Roger T Koide & Mary K Firestone
Inputs of nitrogen into terrestrial ecosystems, mainly via the use of ammonium-based fertilizers in agroecosystems, are enormous, but its fate under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well understood. We have taken advantage of a 15-year free air CO2 enrichment study to investigate the influence of elevated CO2 on the transformation of ammonium-nitrogen in a rice ecosystem in which ammonium is usually assumed to be stable under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrate that elevated CO2...

Missionaries on a Pilgrimage, or Pilgrims on a Mission? Elements of Pilgrimage in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Missionary Experience

Elisha McIntyre & Daniel H. Olsen
The purpose of this paper is to consider the ways in which proselytizing missions by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are pilgrimage-like. After outlining the historical and theological background behind the Church’s missionary efforts and discuss how this missionary work is organized both practically and social, the similarities between Church missions and religious pilgrimage are compared based on six themes: journeying and the sacred, liminality, communitas, hardships, status, and change...

Artificial nightlight alters the predator-prey dynamics of an apex carnivore

Mark Ditmer, David Stoner, Clinton D. Francis, Jesse Barber, James Forester, David Choate, Kirsten Ironside, Kathleen Longshore, Kent Hersey, Randy Larsen, Brock McMillan, Daniel Olson, Alyson Andreasen, Jon Beckmann, Brandon Holton, Terry Messmer & Neil Carter
Artificial nightlight is increasingly recognized as an important environmental disturbance that influences the habitats and fitness of numerous species. However, its effects on wide-ranging vertebrates and their interactions remain unclear. Light pollution has the potential to amplify land-use change, and as such, answering the question of how this sensory stimulant affects behavior and habitat use of species valued for their ecological roles and economic impacts is critical for conservation and land-use planning. Here, we combined...

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