244 Works

Data from: Opening the door to the past: accessing phylogenetic, pathogen, and population data from museum curated bees

Anthony D. Vaudo, Megan L. Fritz & Margarita M. López-Uribe
Tens of thousands of insects are deposited in collections every year as a result of survey-based studies that aim to investigate ecological questions. DNA-based techniques can expand the utility of these collections to explore their demographic and evolutionary history, temporal changes in their abundance, and pathogen dynamics. Using museum collections of the non-model bee species Eucera (Peponapis) pruinosa Say 1837 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini), we developed a standard minimally-destructive and budget-friendly protocol to extract DNA and...

Data from: \"Complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for the jack species Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål, 1775) and C. melampygus (Cuvier, 1833) (Perciformes:Carangidae) from the High Hawaiian Islands\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2013 – 30 November 2013

Scott R. Santos
Complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for the jack species Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål, 1775) and C. melampygus (Cuvier, 1833) (Perciformes:Carangidae) from the High Hawaiian Islands are presented along with annotation and characterization of intragenomic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and indel variation.

Data from: Intra-specific relatedness, spatial clustering and reduced demographic performance in tropical rainforest trees

Xiaona Shao, Calum Brown, Samantha J. Worthy, Lu Liu, Min Cao, Qiaoming Li, Luxiang Lin & Nathan G. Swenson
Intra-specific negative density dependence promotes species coexistence by regulating population sizes. Patterns consistent with such density dependence are frequently reported in diverse tropical tree communities. Empirical evidence demonstrating whether intra-specific variation is related to these patterns, however, is lacking. The present study addresses this important knowledge gap by genotyping all individuals of a tropical tree in a long-term forest dynamics plot in tropical China. We show that related individuals are often spatially clustered, but having...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Emerging Representational Geometries in the Visual System Predict Reaction Times for Object Categorization

J. Brendan Ritchie, David A. Tovar & Thomas A. Carlson
Recognizing an object takes just a fraction of a second, less than the blink of an eye. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, or "brain decoding", methods to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data has allowed researchers to characterize, in high temporal resolution, the emerging representation of objects that underlie our capacity for rapid recognition. Shortly after stimulus onset, exemplar stimuli cluster by category in high-dimensional activation spaces. In these emerging activation spaces, the decodability of exemplar category varies over...

Data from: Movements of four native Hawaiian birds across a naturally fragmented landscape

Jessie L. Knowlton, David J. Flaspohler, Eben H. Paxton, Tadashi Fukami, Christian P. Giardina, Daniel S. Gruner & Erin E. Wilson Rankin
Animals often increase their fitness by moving across space in response to temporal variation in habitat quality and resource availability, and as a result of intra and inter-specific interactions. The long-term persistence of populations and even whole species depends on the collective patterns of individual movements, yet animal movements have been poorly studied at the landscape level. We quantified movement behavior within four native species of Hawaiian forest birds in a complex lava-fragmented landscape: Hawai‛i...

Data from: Nutrient presses and pulses differentially impact plants, herbivores, detritivores and their natural enemies

Shannon M. Murphy, Gina M. Wimp, Danny Lewis & Robert F. Denno
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into native ecosystems cause fluctuations in resources that normally limit plant growth, which has important consequences for associated food webs. Such inputs from agricultural and urban habitats into nearby natural systems are increasing globally and can be highly variable, spanning the range from sporadic to continuous. Despite the global increase in anthropogenically-derived nutrient inputs into native ecosystems, the consequences of variation in subsidy duration on native plants and their associated food webs...

Data from: Social learning of migratory performance

Thomas Mueller, Robert B. O’Hara, Sarah J. Converse, Richard P. Urbanek & William F. Fagan
Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort,...

Data from: Species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences

Romina Gazis, Stephen Rehner & Priscila Chaverri
The estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or the assignment of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. The main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influences biodiversity estimates. Here, we compare approaches to...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

Data from: A quantitative framework for investigating risk of deadly collisions between marine wildlife and boats

Julien Martin, Quentin Sabatier, Timothy A. Gowan, Christophe Giraud, Eliezer Gurarie, Charles Scott Calleson, Joel G. Ortega-Ortiz, Charles J. Deutsch, Athena Rycyk & Stacie M. Koslovsky
Speed regulations of watercraft in protected areas are designed to reduce lethal collisions with wildlife but can have economic consequences. We present a quantitative framework for investigating the risk of deadly collisions between boats and wildlife. We apply encounter rate theory to demonstrate how marine mammal-boat encounter rate can be used to predict the expected number of deaths associated with management scenarios. We illustrate our approach with management scenarios for two endangered species: the Florida...

Data from: The effects of synthetic estrogen exposure on pre-mating and post-mating episodes of selection in sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish

Emily Rose, Kimberly A. Paczolt & Adam G. Jones
Environmental estrogens have been shown to affect populations of aquatic organisms in devastating ways, including feminization of males, alterations in mating behaviors, and disruption of sexual selection. Studies have shown 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) exposure to induce female-like secondary sexual traits in male Gulf pipefish, changing how females perceive affected males. We aimed to understand the effects of EE2 exposure on the sex-role-reversed mating system and the strength of selection in Gulf pipefish. We used artificial Gulf...

Data from: Effects of exposure to pile driving sounds on the lake sturgeon, Nile tilapia, and hogchoker

Michele B. Halvorsen, Brandon M. Casper, Frazer Matthews, Thomas J. Carlson & Arthur N. Popper
Pile driving and other impulsive sound sources have the potential to injure or kill fishes. One mechanism that produces injuries is the rapid motion of the walls of the swim bladder as it repeatedly contacts nearby tissues. To further understand the involvement of the swim bladder in tissue damage a specially-designed wave tube was used to expose three species to pile driving sounds. Species included lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvecens) with an open (physoclistous) swim bladder,...

Data from: Effects of fertilizer on inorganic soil N in East Africa maize systems: vertical distributions and temporal dynamics

Katherine L. Tully, Jonathan Hickman, Madeline McKenna, Christopher Neill & Cheryl A. Palm
Fertilizer applications are poised to increase across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the fate of added nitrogen (N) is largely unknown. We measured vertical distributions and temporal variations of soil inorganic N following fertilizer application in two maize (Zea mays L.)-growing regions of contrasting soil type. Fertilizer trials were established on a clayey soil in Yala, Kenya, and on a sandy soil in Tumbi, Tanzania, with application rates of 0–200 kg N/ha/yr. Soil profiles were collected...

Data from: Multiresponse algorithms for community-level modeling: review of theory, applications, and comparison to species distribution models

Diego Nieto-Lugilde, Katlin C. Maguire, Jessica L. Blois, John W. Williams, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick & Kaitlin C. Maguire
1.Community-level models (CLMs) consider multiple, co-occurring species in model fitting and are lesser known alternatives to species distribution models (SDMs) for analyzing and predicting biodiversity patterns. CLMs simultaneously model multiple species, including rare species, while reducing overfitting and implicitly considering drivers of co-occurrence. Many CLMs are direct extensions of well-known SDMs and therefore should be familiar to ecologists. However, CLMs remain underutilized, and there have been few tests of their potential benefits and no systematic...

Data from: Geographic origins and population genetics of bats killed at wind-energy facilities

Cortney L. Pylant, David M. Nelson, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, J. Edward Gates & Stephen R. Keller
An unanticipated impact of wind-energy development has been large-scale mortality of insectivorous bats. In eastern North America, where mortality rates are among the highest in the world, the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and the eastern red bat (L. borealis) comprise the majority of turbine-associated bat mortality. Both species are migratory tree bats with widespread distributions; however, little is known regarding the geographic origins of bats killed at wind-energy facilities or the diversity and population structure...

Data from: The role of transcriptomes linked with responses to light environment on seedling mortality in a subtropical forest, China

Baocai Han, Maria Natalia Umana, Xiangcheng Mi, Xiaojuan Liu, Lei Chen, Yunquan Wang, Yu Liang, Wei Wei & Keping Ma
Differences in seedling survival in trees have a lasting imprint on seedling, juvenile and adult community structure. Identifying the drivers of these differences, therefore, is a critical research objective that ultimately requires knowledge regarding how organismal function interacts with the local environment to influence survival rates. In tree communities, differences in light use strategies are frequently invoked to explain differences in seedling demographic performance through growth and survival trade-offs. For example, shade-tolerant species grow slowly...

Data from: Ecological correlates of Himalayan musk deer Moschus leucogaster

Paras Bikram Singh, Pradip Saud, Kumar Mainali, Doug Cram, Arjun Thapa, Nar Bahadur Chhetri, Laxman P. Poudyal, Hem Sagar Baral, Zhigang Jiang & Douglas Cram
Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster; hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular and elusive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. However, musk deer establish and repeatedly use the same latrines for defecation. To quantify musk deer habitat correlates, we used observational spatial data based on presence-absence of musk deer latrines, as well as a range of fine spatial-scale ecological covariates. To...

Data from: Land use history and seed dispersal drive divergent plant community assembly patterns in urban vacant lots

Anna L. Johnson, Dorothy Borowy & Christopher M. Swan
1. Despite high levels of disturbance and habitat modification, urban ecosystems still host substantial levels of biodiversity. The processes that maintain existing levels of diversity, however, remain understudied. Identifying the links between urban ecological processes and patterns has, therefore, become a fundamental research goal to support urban biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 2. We conducted a study to determine how the diversity and composition of urban plant communities is affected by spatially and temporally variable land...

Data from: A novel mechanism for grazing lawn formation: large herbivore-induced modification of the plant-soil water balance

Michiel P. Veldhuis, Ruth A. Howison, Rienk W. Fokkema, Elske Tielens & Han Olff
1. Large herbivores play a key-role in creating spatial heterogeneity through the formation of grazing lawns. Recent research suggests that the currently accepted nutrient-based theory on the formation of these grazing lawns cannot universally explain their formation in all ecosystems where they are found. 2. We developed and investigated an alternative hypothesis on grazing lawn formation and maintenance based on herbivore effects on the plant-soil water balance. We propose that large herbivores change the soil...

Data from: A rotational cylindrical fMRI phantom for image quality control

Sunder S. Rajan & Wang Zhan
Purpose: A novel phantom for image quality testing for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans is described. Methods: The cylindrical, rotatable, ~4.5L phantom, with eight wedge-shaped compartments, is used to simulate rest and activated states. The compartments contain NiCl2 doped agar gel with alternating concentrations of agar (1.4%, 1.6%) to produce T1 and T2 values approximating brain grey matter. The Jacard index was used to compare the image distortions for echo planar imaging (EPI) and...

Data from: Coordinated species importation policies are needed to reduce serious invasions globally: the case of alien bumblebees in South America

Marcelo A. Aizen, Cecilia Smith-Ramirez, Carolina L. Morales, Lorena Vieli, Agustín Sáez, Rodrigo M. Barahona-Segovia, Marina P. Arbetman, José Montalva, Lucas A. Garibaldi, David W. Inouye & Lawrence D. Harder
The global trade of species promotes diverse human activities but also facilitates the introduction of potentially invasive species into new environments. As species ignore national boundaries, unilateral national decisions concerning species trade set the stage for transnational species invasion with significant conservation, economic and political consequences. The need for a coordinated approach to species importation policies is demonstrated by the introduction of two bumblebee species into Chile for crop pollination, despite Argentina banning commercial importation...

Data from: Integrating encounter theory with decision analysis to evaluate collision risk and determine optimal protection zones for wildlife

Bradley J. Udell, Julien Martin, , Mathieu Bonneau, Holly Edwards, Timothy A. Gowan, Stacie K. Hardy, Eliezer Gurarie, Charles Calleson, Charles J. Deutsch, Robert J. Fletcher & Charles S. Calleson
1. Better understanding human-wildlife interactions and their links with management can help improve the design of wildlife protection zones. One important example is the problem of wildlife collisions with vehicles or human-built structures (e.g. power lines, wind farms). In fact, collisions between marine wildlife and watercraft are among the major threats faced by several endangered species of marine mammals. Natural resource managers are therefore interested in finding cost-effective solutions to mitigate these threats. 2. We...

Data from: Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

Michael Gonsior, Juliana Valle, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Norbert Hertkorn, David Bastviken, Jenna Luek, Mourad Harir, Wanderley Bastos & Alex Enrich-Prast
Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM)...

Data from: Ecological interactions and coexistence are predicted by gene expression similarity in freshwater green algae

Anita Narwani, Bastian Bentlage, Markos A. Alexandrou, Keith J. Fritschie, Charles Delwiche, Todd H. Oakley & Bradley J. Cardinale
Phenotypic variation controls the species interactions which determine whether or not species coexist. Long-standing hypotheses in ecology and evolution posit that phenotypic differentiation enables coexistence by increasing the size of niche differentiation. This hypothesis has only been tested using macroscopic traits to date, but niche differentiation, particularly of microscopic organisms, also occurs at the molecular and metabolic level. We examined how phenotypic variation that arises at the level of gene expression over evolutionary time affects...

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  • University of Maryland, College Park
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  • United States Department of Agriculture