250 Works

Data from: Haldane's rule is linked to extraordinary sex ratios and sperm length in stalk-eyed flies.

Gerald S. Wilkinson, Sarah J. Christianson, Cara L. Brand, George Ru & Wyatt Shell
We use three allopatric populations of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni from Southeast Asia to test two predictions made by the sex chromosome drive hypothesis for Haldane's rule. The first is that modifiers that suppress or enhance drive should evolve rapidly and independently in isolated populations. The second is that drive loci or modifiers should also cause sterility in hybrid males. We tested these predictions by assaying the fertility of 2,066 males derived from backcross...

Data from: Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae

Markos A. Alexandrou, John D. Hall, Charles F. Delwiche, Bradley J. Cardinale, Keith Fritschie, Bastian Bentlage, Anita Narwani, Patrick A. Venail, M. Sabrina Pankey & Todd H. Oakley
The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed...

Data from: How many routes lead to migration? Comparison of methods to assess and characterise migratory movements

Francesca Cagnacci, Stefano Focardi, Anne Ghisla, Bram Van Moorter, Eliezer Gurarie, Marco Heurich, Atle Mysterud, John Linnell, Manuela Panzacchi, Evelyn Merrill, Roel May, Torgeir Nygård, Christer Rolandsen, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn H. Merrill
1. Decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. 2. The main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterising migration at the individual and population level on the basis of animal location...

Data from: Can observation skills of citizen scientists be estimated using species accumulation curves?

Steve Kelling, Alison Johnston, Wesley M. Hochachka, Marshall Iliff, Daniel Fink, Jeff Gerbracht, Carl Lagoze, Frank A. La Sorte, Travis Moore, Andrea Wiggins, Weng-Keen Wong, Chris Wood & Jun Yu
Volunteers are increasingly being recruited into citizen science projects to collect observations for scientific studies. An additional goal of these projects is to engage and educate these volunteers. Thus, there are few barriers to participation resulting in volunteer observers with varying ability to complete the project’s tasks. To improve the quality of a citizen science project’s outcomes it would be useful to account for inter-observer variation, and to assess the rarely tested presumption that participating...

Data from: Correcting for missing and irregular data in home-range estimation

Christen H. Fleming, Daniel Sheldon, William F. Fagan, Peter Leimgruber, Thomas Mueller, Dejid Nandintsetseg, Michael J. Noonan, Kirk A. Olson, Edy Setyawan, Abraham Sianipar & Justin M. Calabrese
Home-range estimation is an important application of animal tracking data that is frequently complicated by autocorrelation, sampling irregularity, and small effective sample sizes. We introduce a novel, optimal weighting method that accounts for temporal sampling bias in autocorrelated tracking data. This method corrects for irregular and missing data, such that oversampled times are downweighted and undersampled times are upweighted to minimize error in the home-range estimate. We also introduce computationally efficient algorithms that make this...

Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks

Nancy H. L. Leung, Daniel K. W. Chu, Eunice Y. C. Shiu, Kwok-Hung Chan, James J. McDevitt, Benien J. P. Hau, Hui-Ling Yen, Yuguo Li, Dennis K. M. Ip, J. S. Malik Peiris, Wing-Hong Seto, Gabriel M. Leung, Donald K. Milton & Benjamin J. Cowling
We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in the exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a marginally significant reduction in coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical facemasks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.

Data from: Bee phenology is predicted by climatic variation and functional traits

Michael Stemkovski, Will Pearse, Sean Griffin, Gabriella Pardee, Jason Gibbs, Terry Griswold, John Neff, Ryan Oram, Molly RightMyer, Cory Sheffield, Karen Wright, Brian Inouye, David Inouye & Rebecca Irwin
Climate change is shifting the environmental cues that determine the phenology of interacting species. Plant-pollinator systems may be susceptible to temporal mismatch if bees and flowering plants differ in their phenological responses to warming temperatures. While the cues that trigger flowering are well-understood, little is known about what determines bee phenology. Using Generalized Additive Models, we analyzed time-series data representing 67 bee species collected over nine years in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to perform the...

Finding Levers for Privacy and Security by Design in Mobile Development

Edel Spencer

Ecological impacts of pesticide seed treatments on arthropod communities in a grain crop rotation

Aditi Dubey, Margaret Lewis, Galen Dively & Kelly Hamby
1. While many studies have investigated non-target impacts of neonicotinoid seed treatments (NSTs), they usually take place within a single crop and focus on specific pest or beneficial arthropod taxa. 2. We compared the impacts of three seed treatments to an untreated control: imidacloprid + fungicide products, thiamethoxam + fungicide products, and fungicide products alone in a three-year crop rotation of full-season soybean, winter wheat, double-cropped soybean and maize. Specifically, we quantified neonicotinoid residues in...

Encoding laboratory testing data: Case studies of the national implementation of HHS requirements and related standards in five laboratories

Raja Cholan, Gregory Pappas, Greg Rehwoldt, Andrew Sills, Elizabeth Korte, I. Khalil Appleton, Natalie Scott, Wendy Rubinstein, Sara Brenner, Riki Merrick, Wilbur Hadden, Keith Campbell & Michael Waters
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effectiveness of providing Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC®)-to-In Vitro Diagnostic (LIVD) coding specification, required by the Department of Health and Human Services for SARS-CoV-2 reporting, in medical center laboratories, and utilize findings to inform future Food and Drug Administration policy on the use of real-world evidence in regulatory decisions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared gaps and similarities between diagnostic test manufacturers’ recommended LOINC® codes and the LOINC® codes used in...

Urbanization drives geographically heterogeneous freshwater salinization in the northeastern United States

Ryan Utz, Samantha Bidlack, Burch Fisher & Sujay Kaushal
Rising trends in freshwater salinity, collectively termed the Freshwater Salinization Syndrome (FSS), constitute a global environmental concern. Given that the FSS has been observed in diverse settings, key questions regarding the causes, trend magnitudes, and consequences remain. Prior work hypothesized that FSS is driven by state factors, such as human-centered land use change, geology, and climate. Here, we identify the fundamental overriding factors driving FSS within the northeastern United States and quantify the diversity of...

HGAPS Evolution in Responding to Crises

Hannah Kim, Emma Choplin, Eric Youngstrom, Elizabeth Wilson, Mian-Li Ong, Joshua Langfus, Breiana Sisk, Lillian Pitts, Natalie Charamut, hide okuno & Chase DuBois

Society for Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (SCCAP)

Emma Choplin, Logan Smith, Shelby Anderson, Eric Youngstrom, Jessica Janos, Caroline Vincent, Hannah Kim, Julia Iacoviello, Breiana Sisk, Lillian Pitts, Natalie Charamut, hide okuno, Joshua Langfus & Chase DuBois

2022 Forum Virtual Posters

JCCAP FDF & Andres De Los Reyes

Effects of Infant Behavioral Inhibition on Social Processing and Risk for Social Anxiety during Adulthood

Miranda Lutz, Ashley Smith, Devi Lakhlani, Alva Tang, Amanda Guyer, Rianne Kok, Ingmar Franken, Nathan Fox, Daniel Pine & Anita Harrewijn
Behavioral Inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by fearful, shy, timid, or withdrawn behavior in unfamiliar situations early in life (DiLalla et al., 1994; Fox et al., 2001). High infant BI puts children at risk for social difficulties, such as problems during peer interactions and social withdrawal (Clauss & Blackford, 2012; Sandstrom et al., 2020). Approximately 40% of children with BI develop anxiety disorders (Clauss & Blackford, 2012; Fox et al., 2001; Sandstrom et al.,...

Data from: Parallel processing in speech perception with local and global representations of linguistic context

Christian Brodbeck, Shohini Bhattasali, Aura A. L. Cruz Heredia, Philip Resnik, Jonathan Z. Simon & Ellen Lau
Speech processing is highly incremental. It is widely accepted that human listeners continuously use the linguistic context to anticipate upcoming concepts, words, and phonemes. However, previous evidence supports two seemingly contradictory models of how a predictive context is integrated with the bottom-up sensory input: Classic psycholinguistic paradigms suggest a two-stage process, in which acoustic input initially leads to local, context-independent representations, which are then quickly integrated with contextual constraints. This contrasts with the view that...

New Ultrahigh Affinity Host−Guest Complexes of Cucurbit[7]uril with Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane and Adamantane Guests: Thermodynamic Analysis and Evaluation of M2 Affinity Calculations

Sarvin Moghaddam, Cheng Yang, Mikhail Rekharsky, Young Ho Ko, Kimoon Kim, Yoshihisa Inoue & Michael K. Gilson
A dicationic ferrocene derivative has previously been shown to bind cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) in water with ultrahigh affinity (ΔGo = −21 kcal/mol). Here, we describe new compounds that bind aqueous CB[7] equally well, validating our prior suggestion that they, too, would be ultrahigh affinity CB[7] guests. The present guests, which are based upon either a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane or adamantane core, have no metal atoms, so these results also confirm that the remarkably high affinities of the ferrocene-based...

International Crisis Behavior Project, 1918-2001

Michael Brecher & Jonathan Wilkenfeld
This data collection was produced as part of the International Crisis Behavior Project, a research effort aimed at investigating 20th-century interstate crises and the behavior of states under externally generated stress. To this end, the data describe, over a 83-year period, the sources, processes, and outcomes of all military-security crises involving states (with data on 956 crisis actors and 80 variables for each case). Variables were collected at both the micro/state actor level and the...

The Cucurbit[n]uril Family:  Prime Components for Self-Sorting Systems

Simin Liu, Christian Ruspic, Pritam Mukhopadhyay, Sriparna Chakrabarti, Peter Y. Zavalij & Lyle Isaacs
We determined the values of Ka for a wide range of host−guest complexes of cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]), where n = 6−8, using 1H NMR competition experiments referenced to absolute binding constants measured by UV/vis titration. We find that the larger homologuesCB[7] and CB[8]individually maintain the size, shape, and functional group selectivity that typifies the recognition behavior of CB[6]. The cavity of CB[7] is found to effectively host trimethylsilyl groups. Remarkably, the values of Ka for the...

Data from: Population genetic structure and secondary symbionts in host-associated populations of the pea aphid complex

Julia Ferrari, Joan A West, Sara Via & H. Charles J. Godfray
Polyphagous insect herbivores experience different selection pressures on their various host plant species. How this affects population divergence and speciation may be influenced by the bacterial endosymbionts that many harbor. Here, we study the population structure and symbiont community of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), which feeds on a range of legume species and is known to form genetically differentiated host-adapted populations. Aphids were collected from eight legume genera in England and Germany. Extensive host...

Data from: Species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences

Romina Gazis, Stephen Rehner & Priscila Chaverri
The estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or the assignment of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. The main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influences biodiversity estimates. Here, we compare approaches to...

Data from: Ecological effects on metabolic scaling amphipod responses to fish predators in freshwater springs

Douglas S. Glazier, Eric M. Butler, Sara A. Lombardi, Travis J. Deptola, Andrew J. Reese & Erin V. Satterthwaite
Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass to the 3/4-power as a result of universal body-design constraints. However, recent comparative work has shown that the metabolic scaling slope may vary significantly among species and higher taxa, apparently in response to different lifestyles and ecological conditions, though the precise mechanisms involved are not well understood. To better understand these under-appreciated ecological effects and their causes, it is important to control for extraneous phylogenetic...

Data from: Coevolution of male mating signal and female preference during early lineage divergence of the Hawaiian cricket, Laupala cerasina

Jaime L Grace & Kerry L Shaw
Sexual selection is a powerful evolutionary force shaping mate choice phenotypes, initiating phenotypic shifts resulting in (or reinforcing) population divergence and speciation when such shifts reduce mating probabilities among divergent populations. In the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala, pulse rate of male calling song, a conspicuous mating signal, differs among species, potentially behaving as a speciation phenotype. Populations of the widespread species L. cerasina show variation in pulse rate. We document the degree of population differentiation...

Data from: Does selfing or outcrossing promote local adaptation?

Joe Hereford
The degree to which plants self-fertilize may impact their potential for genetic adaptation. Given that the mating system influences genetic processes within and among populations, the mating system could limit or promote local adaptation. I conducted a literature survey of published reciprocal transplant experiments in plant populations to quantify the effect of mating system on the magnitude of local adaptation. Mating system had no effect on local adaptation. I detected no effect when species were...

Data from: More taxa or more characters revisited: combining data from nuclear protein-encoding genes for phylogenetic analyses of Noctuoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

Andrew Mitchell, Charles Mitter & Jerome C. Regier
A central question concerning data collection strategy for molecular phylogenies has been, is it better to increase the number of characters or the number of taxa sampled to improve the robustness of a phylogeny estimate? A recent simulation study concluded that increasing the number of taxa sampled is preferable to increasing the number of nucleotide characters, if taxa are chosen specifically to break up long branches. We explore this hypothesis by using empirical data from...

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  • University of Maryland, College Park
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