191 Works

Data from: Haldane's rule is linked to extraordinary sex ratios and sperm length in stalk-eyed flies.

Gerald S. Wilkinson, Sarah J. Christianson, Cara L. Brand, George Ru & Wyatt Shell
We use three allopatric populations of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni from Southeast Asia to test two predictions made by the sex chromosome drive hypothesis for Haldane's rule. The first is that modifiers that suppress or enhance drive should evolve rapidly and independently in isolated populations. The second is that drive loci or modifiers should also cause sterility in hybrid males. We tested these predictions by assaying the fertility of 2,066 males derived from backcross...

Data from: Individual-level trait variation and negative density dependence affects growth in tropical tree seedlings

Maria Natalia Umana, Elise F. Zipkin, Caicai Zhang, Min Cao, Luxiang Lin & Nathan G. Swenson
1. Individual-level interactions with neighbours and their surrounding environments are key factors influencing performance that ultimately shape and maintain diversity in tropical plant communities. Theory predicts that the strength of these interactions depends on the similarity among neighbours, the turnover in composition caused by individuals that enter as new recruits and individuals that die, and fitting to local conditions. Despite considerable phenotypic variation among individuals and high community dynamics, these three factors have rarely been...

Data from: Does selfing or outcrossing promote local adaptation?

Joe Hereford
The degree to which plants self-fertilize may impact their potential for genetic adaptation. Given that the mating system influences genetic processes within and among populations, the mating system could limit or promote local adaptation. I conducted a literature survey of published reciprocal transplant experiments in plant populations to quantify the effect of mating system on the magnitude of local adaptation. Mating system had no effect on local adaptation. I detected no effect when species were...

Data from: More taxa or more characters revisited: combining data from nuclear protein-encoding genes for phylogenetic analyses of Noctuoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

Andrew Mitchell, Charles Mitter & Jerome C. Regier
A central question concerning data collection strategy for molecular phylogenies has been, is it better to increase the number of characters or the number of taxa sampled to improve the robustness of a phylogeny estimate? A recent simulation study concluded that increasing the number of taxa sampled is preferable to increasing the number of nucleotide characters, if taxa are chosen specifically to break up long branches. We explore this hypothesis by using empirical data from...

Data from: Coevolution of male mating signal and female preference during early lineage divergence of the Hawaiian cricket, Laupala cerasina

Jaime L Grace & Kerry L Shaw
Sexual selection is a powerful evolutionary force shaping mate choice phenotypes, initiating phenotypic shifts resulting in (or reinforcing) population divergence and speciation when such shifts reduce mating probabilities among divergent populations. In the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala, pulse rate of male calling song, a conspicuous mating signal, differs among species, potentially behaving as a speciation phenotype. Populations of the widespread species L. cerasina show variation in pulse rate. We document the degree of population differentiation...

Data from: Reproductive isolation and cryptic introgression in a sky island enclave of Appalachian birds

Brian S. Davidson, Gene D. Sattler, Sara Via & Michael J. Braun
Reproductive isolation is central to the speciation process, and cases where the strength of reproductive isolation varies geographically can inform our understanding of speciation mechanisms. Although generally treated as separate species, Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadees (P. carolinensis) hybridize and undergo genetic introgression in many areas where they come into contact across the eastern United States and in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The Great Smoky Mountains harbor the last large breeding population of...

Data from: Interspecific genetics of speciation phenotypes: song and preference coevolution in Hawaiian crickets

Kevin P. Oh, Daniel J. Fergus, Jaime L. Grace & Kerry L. Shaw
Understanding the genetic architecture of traits involved in premating isolation between recently diverged lineages can provide valuable insight regarding the mode and tempo of speciation. The repeated coevolution of male courtship song and female preference across the species radiation of Laupala crickets presents an unusual opportunity to compare the genetic basis of divergence across independent evolutionary histories. Previous studies of one pair of species revealed a polygenic basis (including a significant X chromosome contribution) to...

Data from: Multigene phylogenetic analyses of the Thelonectria coronata and T. veuillotiana species complexes

Gary J. Samuels, Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Amy Y. Rossman, Mariana Capdet & Priscila Chaverri
Thelonectria is a recently established genus of common and ubiquitous fungi on woody hosts, previously placed in the genus Neonectria. Thelonectria coronata and T. veuillotiana occur sympatrically in several geographical areas in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Previous taxonomic studies including T. coronata and T. veuillotiana suggested these fungi could represent species complexes; however, the morphological features used to define species exhibited few differences useful for testing this hypothesis. In order to assess the status...

Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks

Nancy H. L. Leung, Daniel K. W. Chu, Eunice Y. C. Shiu, Kwok-Hung Chan, James J. McDevitt, Benien J. P. Hau, Hui-Ling Yen, Yuguo Li, Dennis K. M. Ip, J. S. Malik Peiris, Wing-Hong Seto, Gabriel M. Leung, Donald K. Milton & Benjamin J. Cowling
We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in the exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a marginally significant reduction in coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical facemasks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Comparative morphology and evolution of the cnidosac in Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia)

Jessica A. Goodheart, Sabrina Bleidißel, Dorothee Schillo, Ellen E. Strong, Daniel L. Ayres, Angelika Preisfeld, Allen G. Collins, Michael P. Cummings & Heike Wägele
Background: A number of shelled and shell-less gastropods are known to use multiple defensive mechanisms, including internally generated or externally obtained biochemically active compounds and structures. Within Nudipleura, nudibranchs within Cladobranchia possess such a special defense: the ability to sequester cnidarian nematocysts – small capsules that can inject venom into the tissues of other organisms. This ability is distributed across roughly 600 species within Cladobranchia, and many questions still remain in regard to the comparative...

Modeling Conventionalization and Predictability within MWEs at the Brain Level

Shohini Bhattasali, Murielle Popa-Fabre, Christophe Pallier & John Hale

Law, Liability, and Grey Literature: Resolving Issues of Law and Compliance

Daniel Mack
Grey literature faces a number of unique challenges when facing issues of liability and compliance with local, national, and international law. Conference and symposium proceedings, white papers, reports, newsletters, and other forms of grey literature often do not have the same legal support as journals, monographs, and other, more formal publications. This can create problems of compliance and liability. Grey publications often include works authored, edited, translated, compiled, or otherwise modified by many people affiliated...

Reproduction Materials for: Anthropogenic Climate Change Has Slowed Global Agricultural Productivity Growth

Ariel Ortiz-Bobea, Toby R. Ault, Carlos M. Carrillo, Robert G. Chambers & David B. Lobell
Agricultural research has fostered productivity growth, but the historical influence of anthropogenic climate change on that growth has not been quantified. We develop a robust econometric model of weather effects on global agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) and combine this model with counterfactual climate scenarios to evaluate impacts of past climate trends on TFP. Our baseline model indicates that anthropogenic climate change has reduced global agricultural TFP by about 21% since 1961, a slowdown that...

Finding Levers for Privacy and Security by Design in Mobile Development

Edel Spencer

Elevated rates of positive selection drive the evolution of pestiferousness in the Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say)

Zachary Cohen, Kristian Brevik, Yolanda H. Chen, David J. Hawthorne, Benjamin D. Weibel & Sean D. Schoville
In order to understand the evolution of pestiferousness, which we define as the accumulation of traits that contribute to an insect population’s success in an agroecosystem, we tested the importance of known genomic properties associated with rapid adaptation. Within the leaf beetle genus Leptinotarsa, only the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, and a few populations therein, has risen to pest status on cultivated nightshades, Solanum. Using whole genomes from ten closely related Leptinotarsa...

DataCite Metadata Schema Documentation for the Publication and Citation of Research Data v4.3

1 Introduction 1.1 The DataCite Consortium 1.2 DataCite Community Participation 1.3 The Metadata Schema 1.4 Version 4.32 Update 2 DataCite Metadata Properties 2.1 Overview 2.2 Citation 2.3 DataCite Properties 3 XML Example 4 XML Schema 5 Other DataCite Services Appendices Appendix 1: Controlled List Definitions Appendix 2: Earlier Version Update Notes Appendix 3: Standard values for unknown information Appendix 4: Version 4.1 Changes in support of software citation Appendix 5: FORCE11 Software Citation Principles Mapping

Data from: Population genetic structure and secondary symbionts in host-associated populations of the pea aphid complex

Julia Ferrari, Joan A West, Sara Via & H. Charles J. Godfray
Polyphagous insect herbivores experience different selection pressures on their various host plant species. How this affects population divergence and speciation may be influenced by the bacterial endosymbionts that many harbor. Here, we study the population structure and symbiont community of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), which feeds on a range of legume species and is known to form genetically differentiated host-adapted populations. Aphids were collected from eight legume genera in England and Germany. Extensive host...

Data from: Parental genetic effects in a cavefish adaptive behavior explain disparity between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA

Masato Yoshizawa, Go Ashida & William R. Jeffery
Epigenetic parental genetic effects are important in many biological processes but their roles in the evolution of adaptive traits and their consequences in naturally evolving populations remain to be addressed. By comparing two divergent blind cave-dwelling cavefish populations with a sighted surface-dwelling population (surface fish) of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, we report here that convergences in vibration attraction behavior (VAB), the lateral line sensory receptors underlying this behavior, and the feeding benefits of this behavior...

Data from: Trophic niche flexibility in Glossophaga soricina: how a nectar seeker sneaks an insect snack

Elizabeth L. Clare, Holger R. Goerlitz, Violaine A. Drapeau, Marc W. Holderied, Amanda M. Adams, Juliet Nagel, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Paul D. N. Hebert & M. Brock Fenton
Omnivory enables animals to fill more than one trophic niche, providing access to a wider variety of food resources with potentially higher nutrient value, particularly when resources become scarce. Animals can achieve omnivory using different strategies, for example opportunistic foraging, or switching between multiple trophic niches. The Neotropical bat Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) is a common and widespread species known for nectar-feeding, but it also eats fruit and insects. Approaching stationary objects (flowers and fruits)...

Data from: Food sharing in vampire bats: reciprocal help predicts donations more than relatedness or harassment

Gerald G. Carter & Gerald S. Wilkinson
Common vampire bats often regurgitate food to roost-mates that fail to feed. The original explanation for this costly helping behaviour invoked both direct and indirect fitness benefits. Several authors have since suggested that food sharing is maintained solely by indirect fitness because non-kin food sharing could have resulted from kin recognition errors, indiscriminate altruism within groups, or harassment. To test these alternatives, we examined predictors of food-sharing decisions under controlled conditions of mixed relatedness and...

Data from: \"Genome-wide microsatellite marker development from next-generation sequencing of two non-model bat species impacted by wind turbine mortality: Lasiurus borealis and L. cinereus (Vespertilionidae)\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2013 to 30 November 2013

Stephen R. Keller, Regina Trott, Cortney Pylant, David N. Nelson & Scott R. Santos
Tree-roosting bats in the genus Lasiurus are widespread, migratory species that have not been well characterized for population genetic diversity and structure due to a lack of genetic resources. Generating genetic resources in Lasiurus is made pressing by the need for conservation genetic assessments of demographic trends in this genus, which comprise a large percentage of bat mortalities at wind turbine sites across North America. We report on marker development from whole-genome Illumina sequencing of...

Data from: Target enrichment of ultraconserved elements from arthropods provides a genomic perspective on relationships among Hymenoptera

Brant C. Faircloth, Michael G. Branstetter, Noor D. White & Séan G. Brady
Gaining a genomic perspective on phylogeny requires the collection of data from many putatively independent loci across the genome. Among insects, an increasingly common approach to collecting this class of data involves transcriptome sequencing, because few insects have high-quality genome sequences available; assembling new genomes remains a limiting factor; the transcribed portion of the genome is a reasonable, reduced subset of the genome to target; and the data collected from transcribed portions of the genome...

Data from: Can RNA-Seq resolve the rapid radiation of advanced moths (Lepidoptera: Apoditrysia)? An exploratory study

Adam L. Bazinet, Michael P. Cummings, Kim T. Mitter & Charles W. Mitter
Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the insect order Lepidoptera have robustly resolved family-level divergences within most superfamilies, and most divergences among the relatively species-poor early-arising superfamilies. In sharp contrast, relationships among the superfamilies of more advanced moths and butterflies that comprise the mega-diverse clade Apoditrysia (ca. 145,000 spp.) remain mostly poorly supported. This uncertainty, in turn, limits our ability to discern the origins, ages and evolutionary consequences of traits hypothesized to promote the spectacular diversification...

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  • University of Maryland, College Park
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Columbia University
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Cornell University
  • Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
  • University of Georgia
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute