31 Works

Data from: Extracellular space preservation aids the connectomic analysis of neural circuits

Marta Pallotto, Paul V. Watkins, Boma Fubara, Joshua H. Singer & Kevin L. Briggman
Dense connectomic mapping of neuronal circuits is limited by the time and effort required to analyze 3D electron microscopy (EM) datasets. Algorithms designed to automate image segmentation suffer from substantial error rates and require significant manual error correction. Any improvement in segmentation error rates would therefore directly reduce the time required to analyze 3D EM data. We explored preserving extracellular space (ECS) during chemical tissue fixation to improve the ability to segment neurites and to...

Data from: Controlled comparison of species- and community-level models across novel climates and communities

Kaitlin Clare Maguire, Diego Nieto-Lugilde, Jessica Blois, Matthew Fitzpatrick, John Williams, Simon Ferrier & David Lorenz
Species distribution models (SDMs) assume species exist in isolation and do not influence one another's distributions, thus potentially limiting their ability to predict biodiversity patterns. Community-level models (CLMs) capitalize on species co-occurrences to fit shared environmental responses of species and communities, and therefore may result in more robust and transferable models. Here, we conduct a controlled comparison of five paired SDMs and CLMs across changing climates, using palaeoclimatic simulations and fossil-pollen records of eastern North...

Data from: Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages

Rafael P. Leitão, Jansen Zuanon, Sebastien Villeger, Stephen E. Williams, Christopher Baraloto, Claire Fortunel, Fernando P. Mendonça & David Mouillot
There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to go extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here we investigated the consequences of local and...

Data from: Flower-visiting bat species contribute unequally toward agricultural pollination ecosystem services in southern Thailand

Alyssa B. Stewart & Michele R. Dudash
The large majority of angiosperm species depend on animals for pollination, including many agricultural crops, and plant-pollinator interactions have been extensively studied. However, not all floral visitors actually transfer pollen, and efforts to distinguish true pollinators from mere visitors are particularly scarce among the bat pollination literature. To determine whether Old World bat species are equally effective pollinators in mixed-agricultural areas of southern Thailand, we examined six night-blooming plant taxa and quantified pollinator importance (PI)...

Data from: The effect of demographic correlations on the stochastic population dynamics of perennial plants

Aldo Compagnoni, Andrew J. Bibian, Brad M. Ochocki, Haldre S. Rogers, Emily L. Schultz, Michelle E. Sneck, Bret D. Elderd, Amy M. Iler, David W. Inouye, Hans Jacquemyn, Tom E.X. Miller & Tom E. X. Miller
Understanding the influence of environmental variability on population dynamics is a fundamental goal of ecology. Theory suggests that, for populations in variable environments, temporal correlations between demographic vital rates (e.g., growth, survival, reproduction) can increase (if positive) or decrease (if negative) the variability of year-to-year population growth. Because this variability generally decreases long-term population viability, vital rate correlations may importantly affect population dynamics in stochastic environments. Despite long-standing theoretical interest, it is unclear whether vital...

Data from: Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

Michael Gonsior, Juliana Valle, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Norbert Hertkorn, David Bastviken, Jenna Luek, Mourad Harir, Wanderley Bastos & Alex Enrich-Prast
Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM)...

Data from: Geographic origins and population genetics of bats killed at wind-energy facilities

Cortney L. Pylant, David M. Nelson, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, J. Edward Gates & Stephen R. Keller
An unanticipated impact of wind-energy development has been large-scale mortality of insectivorous bats. In eastern North America, where mortality rates are among the highest in the world, the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and the eastern red bat (L. borealis) comprise the majority of turbine-associated bat mortality. Both species are migratory tree bats with widespread distributions; however, little is known regarding the geographic origins of bats killed at wind-energy facilities or the diversity and population structure...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

Data from: Effects of fertilizer on inorganic soil N in East Africa maize systems: vertical distributions and temporal dynamics

Katherine L. Tully, Jonathan Hickman, Madeline McKenna, Christopher Neill & Cheryl A. Palm
Fertilizer applications are poised to increase across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the fate of added nitrogen (N) is largely unknown. We measured vertical distributions and temporal variations of soil inorganic N following fertilizer application in two maize (Zea mays L.)-growing regions of contrasting soil type. Fertilizer trials were established on a clayey soil in Yala, Kenya, and on a sandy soil in Tumbi, Tanzania, with application rates of 0–200 kg N/ha/yr. Soil profiles were collected...

Data from: The opsin genes of Amazonian cichlids

Daniel Escobar-Camacho, Erica Ramos, Cesar Martins & Karen L. Carleton
Vision is a critical sense for organismal survival with visual sensitivities strongly shaped by the environment. Some freshwater fishes with a Gondwanan origin are distributed in both South American rivers including the Amazon, as well as African rivers and lakes. These different habitats likely required adaptations to murky and clear environments. In this study, we compare the molecular basis of Amazonian and African cichlid fishes’ visual systems. We used next generation sequencing of genomes and...

Data from: Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity

Brian C. O'Meara, Stacey D. Smith, W. Scott Armbruster, Lawrence D. Harder, Christopher R. Hardy, Lena C. Hileman, Larry Hufford, Amy Litt, Susana Magallon, Stephen A. Smith, Peter F. Stevens, Charles B. Fenster & Pamela K. Diggle
Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction), and...

Data from: Host-adapted aphid populations differ in their migratory patterns and capacity to colonize crops

Sanford D. Eigenbrode, Thomas S. Davis, Jennifer R. Adams, Lisette P. Waits, David Hawthorne & Damon S. Husebye
Although phytophagous insects can vary genetically in host use and exhibit long-range movements, the combined implications of these phenomena for pest management have received limited attention. To address this, we surveyed the genetic diversity of pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum using twelve microsatellite loci and assessed host association patterns and annual movement from a putative source region (Columbia River Basin) to the Palouse region of northern Idaho and western Washington, where the aphid is a pest...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria

Felipe Zapata, Freya E. Goetz, Stephen A. Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H. Church, Steven M. Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S. McFadden, Scott C. France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G. Collins, Steven H. D. Haddock, Casey W. Dunn & Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is the most diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses...

Data from: An auditory illusion reveals the role of streaming in the temporal misallocation of perceptual objects

Anahita H. Mehta, Nori Jacoby, Ifat Yasin, Andrew J. Oxenham & Shihab A. Shamma
This study investigates the neural correlates and processes underlying the ambiguous percept produced by a stimulus similar to Deutsch's ‘octave illusion’, in which each ear is presented with a sequence of alternating pure tones of low and high frequencies. The same sequence is presented to each ear, but in opposite phase, such that the left and right ears receive a high–low–high … and a low–high–low … pattern, respectively. Listeners generally report hearing the illusion of...

Data from: Phylotranscriptomics resolves ancient divergences in the Lepidoptera

Adam L. Bazinet, Kim T. Mitter, Donald R. Davis, Erik J. Van Nieukerken, Michael P. Cummings & Charles Mitter
Classic morphological studies of the oldest, so-called nonditrysian lineages of Lepidoptera yielded a well-resolved phylogeny, supported by the stepwise origin of the traits characterizing the clade Ditrysia, which contains over 98% of extant lepidopterans. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular studies have robustly supported many aspects of the morphological hypothesis and strongly contradicted others, while leaving some relationships unsettled. Here we bring the greatly expanded gene sampling of RNA-Seq to bear on nonditrysian phylogeny, especially...

Data from: A molecular phylogeny and revised higher-level classification for the leaf-mining moth family Gracillariidae and its implications for larval host-use evolution

Akito Y. Kawahara, David Plotkin, Issei Ohshima, Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde, Peter R. Houlihan, Jesse W. Breinholt, Atsushi Kawakita, Lei Xiao, Jerome C. Regier, Donald R. Davis, Tosio Kumata, Jay-Cheon Sohn, Jurate De Prins, Charles Mitter & JAE-CHEON SOHN
Gracillariidae are one of the most diverse families of internally feeding insects, and many species are economically important. Study of this family has been hampered by lack of a robust and comprehensive phylogeny. In the present paper, we sequenced up to 22 genes in 96 gracillariid species, representing all previously recognized subfamilies and genus groups, plus 20 outgroups representing other families and superfamilies. Following objective identification and removal of two rogue taxa, two datasets were...

Data from: Fisher’s geometric model predicts the effects of random mutations when tested in the wild

Frank W. Stearns & Charles B. Fenster
Fisher's Geometric Model of Adaptation (FGM) has been the conceptual foundation for studies investigating the genetic basis of adaptation since the onset of the neo Darwinian synthesis. FGM describes adaptation as the movement of a genotype toward a fitness optimum due to beneficial mutations. To date, one prediction of FGM, the probability of improvement is related to the distance from the optimum, has only been tested in microorganisms under laboratory conditions. There is reason to...

Data from: Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, T. Mitchell Aide, Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Eben N. Broadbent, Robin L. Chazdon, Dylan Craven, Jarcilene S. De Almeida-Cortez, George A. L. Cabral, Ben H. J. De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan M. Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mario M. Espírito-Santo, María C. Fandino, Ricardo G. César, Jefferson S. Hall, José Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni, Catarina C. Jakovac … & Danaë M. A. Rozendaal
Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle1. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use2, 3, 4. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major...

Data from: Continental-scale patterns reveal potential for warming-induced shifts in cattle diet

Joseph M. Craine, Jay P. Angerer, Andrew Elmore & Noah Fierer
In North America, it has been shown that cattle in warmer, drier grasslands have lower quality diets than those cattle grazing cooler, wetter grasslands, which suggests warming will increase nutritional stress and reduce weight gain. Yet, little is known about how the plant species that comprise cattle diets change across these gradients and whether these shifts in dietary quality coincide with shifts in dietary composition, i.e. the relative abundance of different plant species consumed by...

Data from: Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

W. Chris Funk, Robert E. Lovich, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Courtney A. Hofman, Scott A. Morrison, T. Scott Sillett, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesús E. Maldonado, Torben C. Rick, Mitch D. Day, Nicholas R. Polato, Sarah W. Fizpatrick, Timothy J. Coonan, Kevin R. Crooks, Adam Dillon, David K. Garcelon, Julie L. King, Christina L. Boser, Nicholas Gould, William F. Andelt & Sarah W. Fitzpatrick
The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each...

Data from: Field measurements of genotype by environment interaction for fitness caused by spontaneous mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana

Angela J. Roles, Matthew Thomas Rutter, Ian Dworkin, Charles B. Fenster & Jeffrey K. Conner
As the ultimate source of genetic diversity, spontaneous mutation is critical to the evolutionary process. The fitness effects of spontaneous mutations are almost always studied under controlled laboratory conditions rather than under the evolutionarily relevant conditions of the field. Of particular interest is the conditionality of new mutations - i.e., is a new mutation harmful regardless of the environment in which it is found? In other words, what is the extent of genotype-environment interaction for...

Data from: Biomechanical diversity of mating structures among harvestmen species is consistent with a spectrum of precopulatory strategies

Mercedes Burns & Jeffrey W. Shultz
Diversity in reproductive structures is frequently explained by selection acting at individual to generational timescales, but interspecific differences predicted by such models (e.g., female choice or sexual conflict) are often untestable in a phylogenetic framework. An alternative approach focuses on clade- or function-specific hypotheses that predict evolutionary patterns in terms neutral to specific modes of sexual selection. Here we test a hypothesis that diversity of reproductive structures in leiobunine harvestmen (daddy longlegs) of eastern North...

Data from: Genetic inviability is a major driver of type-III survivorship in experimental families of a highly fecund marine bivalve

Louis V. Plough, Grace Shin & Dennis Hedgecock
The offspring of most highly fecund marine fish and shellfish suffer substantial mortality early in the life cycle, complicating prediction of recruitment and fisheries management. Early mortality has long been attributed to environmental factors and almost never to genetic sources. Previous work on a variety of marine bivalve species uncovered substantial genetic inviability among the offspring of inbred crosses, suggesting a large load of early-acting deleterious recessive mutations. However, genetic inviability of randomly bred offspring...

Data from: The Yin and the Yang of Prediction: an fMRI study of semantic predictive processing

Kirsten Weber, Ellen F. Lau, Benjamin Stillerman & Gina R. Kuperberg
Probabilistic prediction plays a crucial role in language comprehension. When predictions are fulfilled, the resulting facilitation allows for fast, efficient processing of ambiguous, rapidly-unfolding input; when predictions are not fulfilled, the resulting error signal allows us to adapt to broader statistical changes in this input. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to examine the neuroanatomical networks engaged in semantic predictive processing and adaptation. We used a relatedness proportion semantic priming paradigm, in which we manipulated...

Data from: Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors

John L. Hoogland & Charles R. Brown
Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology, or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado USA revealed that interspecific killing (IK) of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common,...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    31

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    31

Affiliations

  • University of Maryland, College Park
    31
  • Columbia University
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • Smithsonian Institution
    3
  • University of Kansas
    2
  • Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
    2
  • University of Gothenburg
    2
  • National Autonomous University of Mexico
    2
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
    2
  • National Institute of Amazonian Research
    2