457 Works

Antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers in the Thames catchment

A.C. Singer, Järhult, R. Grabic, G.A. Khan, R.H. Lindberg, G. Fedorova, J. Fick, M.J. Bowes, B. Olsen & H. Söderström
This dataset contains the concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate, measured at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England. The measurements were taken weekly during November 2009, once in March 2010 and once in May 2011, with the aim to quantify pharmaceutical usage during the influenza pandemic of 2009 and...

Data from: Brain plasticity over the metamorphic boundary: carry-over effect of larval environment on froglet brain development

Nina Trokovic, Abigél Gonda, Gábor Herczeg, Anssi Laurila & Juha Merilä
Brain development shows high plasticity in response to environmental heterogeneity. However, it is unknown how environmental variation during development may affect brain architecture across life history switch points in species with complex life cycles. Previously, we showed that predation and competition affect brain development in common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles. Here, we studied if larval environment had carry-over effects in brains of metamorphs. Tadpoles grown at high density had large optic tecta at metamorphosis, while...

Data from: Evolution of male and female genitalia following release from sexual selection

Luis Cayetano, Alexei A. Maklakov, Robert C. Brooks & Russell Bonduriansky
Despite the key functions of the genitalia in sexual interactions and fertilization, the role of sexual selection and conflict in shaping genital traits remains poorly understood. Seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) males possess spines on the intromittent organ, and females possess a thickened reproductive tract wall that also bears spines. We investigated the role of sexual selection and conflict by imposing monogamous mating on eight replicate populations of this naturally polygamous insect, while maintaining eight other...

Data from: Rapid and unpredictable changes of the G-matrix in a natural bird population over 25 years

Mats Björklund, Arild Husby & Lars Gustafsson
Knowledge of the genetic variances and covariances of traits (the G-matrix) is fundamental for the understanding of evolutionary dynamics of populations. Despite its essential importance in evolutionary studies, empirical tests of the temporal stability of the G-matrix in natural populations are few. We used a 25-year-long individual-based field study on almost 7000 breeding attempts of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to estimate the stability of the G-matrix over time. Using animal models to estimate G...

Data from: Flowering time QTL in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and implications for their adaptive value

Emily L. Dittmar, Christopher G. Oakley, Jon Ågren & Douglas W. Schemske
The genetic basis of phenotypic traits is of great interest to evolutionary biologists, but their contribution to adaptation in nature is often unknown. To determine the genetic architecture of flowering time in ecologically relevant conditions, we used a recombinant inbred line population created from two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy. Using these RILs, we identified flowering time QTL in growth chambers that mimicked the natural temperature and photoperiod variation across...

Data from: Reassessment of the non-titanosaurian somphospondylan Wintonotitan wattsi (Dinosauria: Sauropoda: Titanosauriformes) from the mid-Cretaceous Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

Stephen F. Poropat, Philip D. Mannion, Paul Upchurch, Scott A. Hocknull, Benjamin P. Kear & David A. Elliott
Wintonotitan wattsi, a Cretaceous titanosauriform sauropod from central Queensland, Australia, is redescribed following a full revision of its osteology. The holotype specimen, a partial postcranial skeleton derived from the lower Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation, comprises axial and appendicular elements. Wintonotitan has been commonly resolved as a non-titanosaurian somphospondylan titanosauriform since its description, in contrast to its more derived contemporary Diamantinasaurus matildae. We provide a detailed redescription, taking this opportunity to correct four misinterpretations made in...

Data from: Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region

Paco Cárdenas, Hans Tore Rapp, Anne Birgitte Klitgaard, Megan Best, Mikael Thollesson & Ole Secher Tendal
Geodia species north of 60°N in the Atlantic appeared in the literature for the first time when Bowerbank described Geodia barretti and G. macandrewii in 1858 from western Norway. Since then, a number of species have been based on material from various parts of the region: G. simplex, Isops phlegraei, I. pallida, I. sphaeroides, Synops pyriformis, G. parva, G. normani, G. atlantica, Sidonops mesotriaena (now called G. hentscheli), and G. simplicissima. In addition to these...

Data from: No evidence for nuclear introgression despite complete mtDNA replacement in the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni)

Piotr Zieliński, Krystyna Nadachowska-Brzyska, Ben Wielstra, Rafał Szkotak, Severus D. Covaciu-Marcov, Dan Cogalniceanu & Wieslaw Babik
Patterns of interspecific introgression may vary geographically, and the distribution of introgressed variants can yield insight into the historical dynamics of genetic interactions between hybridizing species. Urodele amphibians, often characterized by limited mobility, deep intraspecific genetic structuring and vulnerability to climatic changes, constitute suitable models for such historical inferences. Here, we combine an extensive survey of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (15 microsatellites) genomes in the Carpathian newt, Lissotriton montandoni (Lm) with species distribution modelling...

Data from: Climate change upends selection on ornamentation in a wild bird

Simon R. Evans & Lars Gustafsson
Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the...

Data from: The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan

Sterling J. Nesbitt, Richard J. Butler, Martin D. Ezcurra, Paul M. Barrett, Michelle R. Stocker, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Roger M. H. Smith, Christian A. Sidor, Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki, Andrey G. Sennikov & Alan J. Charig
The relationship between dinosaurs and other reptiles is well established, but the sequence of acquisition of dinosaurian features has been obscured by the scarcity of fossils with transitional morphologies. The closest extinct relatives of dinosaurs either have highly derived morphologies or are known from poorly preserved or incomplete material. Here we describe one of the stratigraphically lowest and phylogenetically earliest members of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), Teleocrater rhadinus gen. et sp. nov., from the...

Data from: Blood transcriptomes and de novo identification of candidate loci for mating success in lekking great snipe (Gallinago media)

Jacob Höglund, Biao Wang, Stein Are Saether, Mozes Pil Kyu Blom, Peder Fiske, Peter Halvarsson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Terry Burke, John Atle Kålås & Robert Ekblom
We assembled the great snipe blood transcriptome using data from fourteen lekking males, in order to de novo identify candidate genes related to sexual selection, and determined the expression profiles in relation to mating success. The three most highly transcribed genes were encoding different haemoglobin subunits. All tended to be overexpressed in males with high mating success. We also called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) from the transcriptome data and found considerable genetic variation for many...

Data from: The evolutionary origin of variation in song length and frequency in the avian family Cettiidae

Chentao Wei, Trevor D. Price, Jiayu Liu, Per Alström & Yanyun Zhang
Aspects of bird song have been shown to correlate with morphological and ecological features, including beak and body size, and habitat. Here we study evolution of song length and song frequency among 30 species belonging to the Cettiidae. Frequency is negatively correlated with body size, and song length increases with latitude. Although migration distance correlates with latitude, the association of song length with latitude is only present within the non-migratory species, implying the association is...

Data from: Replicated latitudinal clines in reproductive traits of European and North American yellow dung flies

Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Martin A. Schäfer, David Berger, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Charles W. Fox
Geographic variation in phenotypic traits is commonly correlated with spatial variation in the environment, e.g., seasonality and mean temperature, providing evidence that natural selection generates such patterns. In particular, both body size and egg size of ectothermic animals are commonly larger in northern climates, and temperature induces plastic responses in both traits. Size-independent egg quality can also vary with latitude, though this is rarely investigated. For the widespread yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae),...

Data from: Demographic expansion and genetic load of the halophyte model plant Eutrema salsugineum

Xiao-Juan Wang, Quan-Jun Hu, Xin-Yi Guo, Kun Wang, Da-Fu Ru, Dmitry A. German, Elizabeth A. Weretilnyk, Richard J. Abbott, Martin Lascoux & Jian-Quan Liu
Eutrema salsugineum is a widely distributed species, which provide a good model to study long-distance dispersal and accumulation of deleterious mutations. Based on population genomic data, we clarified demographic history of E. salsugineum and showed how deleterious alleles accumulated.

Scripts and files for \"Small-scale population divergence is driven by local larval environment in a temperate amphibian\"

Patrik Rödin Mörch, Hugo Palejowski, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, Simon Kärvemo, Alex Richter-Boix, Jacob Höglund & Anssi Laurila
Genomic variation within and among populations is shaped by the interplay between natural selection and the effects of genetic drift and gene flow. Adaptive divergence can be found in small scale natural systems even when population sizes are small and the potential for gene flow is high, suggesting that local environments exert selection pressures strong enough to counteract the opposing effects of drift and gene flow. Here, we investigated genomic differentiation in nine moor frog...

Data from: Regulation of fatty acid composition related to ontogenetic changes and niche differentiation of a common aquatic consumer

Fernando Chaguaceda, Scharnweber Kristin & Peter Eklöv
Fatty acids (FAs) are key nutrients for fitness which take part in multiple physiological processes over the ontogeny of organisms. Yet, we lack evidence on how FA nutrition mediates life-history trade-offs and ontogenetic niche shifts in natural populations. In a field study, we analyzed ontogenetic changes in the FAs of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), a widespread fish that goes through ontogenetic niche shifts and can have high individual niche specialization. Diet explained most of...

Data from: Trade-off between somatic and germline repair in a vertebrate supports the expensive germ line hypothesis

Simone Immler, Hwei-Yen Chen, Kasparas Bublys, Cecile Jolly & Daniel Marcu
The disposable soma theory is a central tenet of the biology of aging where germline immortality comes at the cost of an aging soma [T. B. L. Kirkwood, Nature 270, 301–304 (1977); T. B. L. Kirkwood, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 205, 531–546 (1979); T. B. L. Kirkwood, S. N. Austad, Nature 408, 233–238 (2000)]. Limited resources and a possible trade-off between the repair and maintenance of the germ cells and growth and...

High variation in last male sperm precedence and genital morphology in the emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa

Frank Johansson, David Berger, Jacob Höglund, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Patrik Rödin-Mörch, Szymon Sniegula & Phillip Watts
In organisms where individuals mate multiply, knowledge on the proportion of offspring sired by the last male to mate (P2) under field conditions is important for a thorough understanding of how sexual selection works in nature. In many insect groups, pronounced intraspecific variation in P2 is commonplace. Interestingly, however, in stark contrast to these observations, compilation of P2 data in dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) indicate that a high P2, seldom below 0.95, is a feature...

Data from: Algal affinity and possible life cycle of the early Cambrian acritarch Yurtusia uniformis from South China

Xiaodong Shang, Pengju Liu, Małgorzata Moczydłowska & Ben Yang
Abundant, well-preserved specimens of spheroidal organic-walled microfossil Yurtusia uniformis are reported from the basal Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Changyang area of Hubei Province, South China. Thin and hollow processes extend between the double walls of the vesicle. The single to multiple internal bodies within the vesicle cavity are observed in the genus for the first time, representing reproductive structures (dividing daughter cells). A small circular perforation may occur on the vesicle wall to release...

Experimentally induced intrasexual mating competition and sex-specific evolution in female and male nematodes

Josefine Stångberg, Elina Immonen, Pilar Puimedon Moreno & Elisabeth Bolund
Sexual dimorphism in life history traits and their trade-offs is widespread among sexually reproducing animals, and is strongly influenced by the differences in reproductive strategies between the sexes. We investigated how intrasexual competition (pre- and postcopulatory) acted on specific life history traits, important to fitness, and their trade-offs in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we imposed strong sex-specific selection through experimental evolution with increased potential for intrasexual competition by skewing the adult sex ratio...

Data from: Mechanisms of male-male interference during dispersal of orchid pollen

Lawrence Harder, Shane A. Richards, Jon Ågren & Steven D. Johnson
Siring success of flowering plants depends on the fates of male gametophytes, which compete for access to stigmas, stylar resources and ovules. Although rarely considered, pollen may often compete during dispersal, affecting the processes required for export to stigmas; pollen pickup, transport and deposition. We quantified dispersal interference by tracking bee dispersal of stained Anacamptis morio (Orchidaceae) pollen from individual donor flowers and inferred the affected dispersal mechanisms based on the fit of a process-based...

Raw fitness data (offspring number and weight), main dataset for manuscript: Female-specific resource limitation does not make the opportunity for selection more female biased

Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Elina Immonen & Johanna L. Rönn
The present dataset contains the entirety of the raw empirical data used in the manuscript entitled: "Female-specific resource limitation does not make the opportunity for selection more female biased". This data is composed of offspring count and weight, which represent proxys of fitness. Fitness was assessed for males and females independently, and across three different experimental treatments. These fitness measures are used to calculate the opportunity for selection, as the variance in realtive fitness. Detailed...

Genomic variation data for the wagtail hybrid zone

Georgy Semenov, Ethan Link, Erik Enbody, Rebecca Harris, David Khaydarov, Per Alström, Leif Andersson & Scott Taylor
Genome-wide variation in introgression rates across hybrid zones offers a powerful opportunity for studying population differentiation. One poorly understood pattern of introgression is the geographic displacement of a trait implicated in lineage divergence from genome-wide population boundaries. While difficult to interpret, this pattern can facilitate the dissection of trait genetic architecture because traits become uncoupled from their ancestral genomic background. We studied an example of trait displacement generated by the introgression of head plumage coloration...

French (F) and Swedish (S) Founder (P) and Mutation Accumulation Line (MA) performance in France and Sweden

Charles Fenster, Mao-Lun Weng, Jon Agren, Henning Nottebrock, Eric Imbert & Matthew Rutter
Little is empirically known about the contribution of mutations to fitness in natural environments. However, Fisher's Geometric Model (FGM) provides a conceptual foundation to consider the influence of the environment on mutational effects. To quantify mutational properties in the field, we established eight sets of MA lines (7-10 generations) derived from eight founders collected from natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from French and Swedish sites, representing the range margins of the species in Europe. We...

Data from: Scented nectar and the challenge of measuring honest signals in pollination

Amy Parachnowitsch, Rosalie Burdon, Rob Raguso, Robert Gegear, Ellen Pierce & André Kessler
1. Nectar scents are thought to function as honest signals of reward used by pollinators, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. 2. Using Penstemon digitalis, we examined honest signalling of the nectar volatile (S)-(+)-linalool and pollinator responses to linalool in both field and laboratory settings. Because our previous work showed that linalool emission was associated with higher female fitness and that nectar is scented with linalool, we hypothesized that linalool was an honest signal...

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