526 Works

Antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers in the Thames catchment

A.C. Singer, Järhult, R. Grabic, G.A. Khan, R.H. Lindberg, G. Fedorova, J. Fick, M.J. Bowes, B. Olsen & H. Söderström
This dataset contains the concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate, measured at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England. The measurements were taken weekly during November 2009, once in March 2010 and once in May 2011, with the aim to quantify pharmaceutical usage during the influenza pandemic of 2009 and...

Data from: The effects of male social environment on sperm phenotype and genome integrity

Willian T.A.F. Silva, Paula Saez-Espinosa, Stephanie Torijo Boix, Alejandro Romero, Caroline Devaux, Mathilde Durieux, Maria Jose Gomez Torres & Simone Immler
Sperm function and quality are primary determinants of male reproductive performance and hence fitness. The presence of rival males has been shown to affect ejaculate and sperm traits in a wide range of taxa. However, male physiological conditions may not only affect sperm phenotypic traits but also their genetic and epigenetic signatures, affecting the fitness of the resulting offspring. We investigated the effects of male-male competition on sperm quality using TUNEL assays and geometric morphometrics...

Data from: Experimentally reduced insulin/IGF-1 signalling in adulthood extends lifespan of parents and improves Darwinian fitness of their offspring

Martin I. Lind, Sanjana Ravindran, Zuzana Sekajova, Hanne Carlsson, Andrea Hinas & Alexei A. Maklakov
Classical theory maintains that ageing evolves via energy trade-offs between reproduction and survival leading to accumulation of unrepaired cellular damage with age. In contrast, the emerging new theory postulates that ageing evolves because of deleterious late-life hyper-function of reproduction-promoting genes leading to excessive biosynthesis in late-life. The hyper-function theory uniquely predicts that optimizing nutrient-sensing molecular signalling in adulthood can simultaneously postpone ageing and increase Darwinian fitness. Here we show that reducing evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 nutrient-sensing...

Data from: Parental genetic similarity and offspring performance in blue tits in relation to brood size manipulation

Aneta Arct, Szymon Drobniak, Samantha Mellinger, Lars Gustafsson & Mariusz Cichon
In birds, as in many other taxa, the level of genetic similarity between parents is an important source of variation in offspring fitness. The majority of avian studies which explore the influence of mates’ genetic similarity on offspring viability have focused on hatching success as a viability measure. Yet, viability benefits may extend into later life stages, including the nestling period and beyond. Here, we analysed data from free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) across three...

Data from: Small Carbonaceous Fossils (SCFs) from North Greenland: new light on metazoan diversity in early Cambrian shelf environments

Elise Wallet, Ben Slater, Sebastian Willman & John Peel
The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte of North Greenland provides one of the oldest records of soft-bodied metazoan-dominated ecosystems from within the early Cambrian. The Lagerstätte site itself is restricted to just a single ~1 km-long outcrop located offshore from the shelf margin, in an area that has been affected by metamorphic alteration during the Ellesmerian Orogeny (Devonian–Early Carboniferous). The recent recovery of Small Carbonaceous Fossils (SCFs) to the south in areas that have escaped the effects...

Data from: Trade-off between somatic and germline repair in a vertebrate supports the expensive germ line hypothesis

Simone Immler, Hwei-Yen Chen, Kasparas Bublys, Cecile Jolly & Daniel Marcu
The disposable soma theory is a central tenet of the biology of aging where germline immortality comes at the cost of an aging soma [T. B. L. Kirkwood, Nature 270, 301–304 (1977); T. B. L. Kirkwood, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 205, 531–546 (1979); T. B. L. Kirkwood, S. N. Austad, Nature 408, 233–238 (2000)]. Limited resources and a possible trade-off between the repair and maintenance of the germ cells and growth and...

High variation in last male sperm precedence and genital morphology in the emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa

Frank Johansson, David Berger, Jacob Höglund, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Patrik Rödin-Mörch, Szymon Sniegula & Phillip Watts
In organisms where individuals mate multiply, knowledge on the proportion of offspring sired by the last male to mate (P2) under field conditions is important for a thorough understanding of how sexual selection works in nature. In many insect groups, pronounced intraspecific variation in P2 is commonplace. Interestingly, however, in stark contrast to these observations, compilation of P2 data in dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) indicate that a high P2, seldom below 0.95, is a feature...

Data from: Sex differences in adult mortality rate mediated by early-life environmental conditions

Robert M. Griffin, Adam D. Hayward, Elisabeth Bolund, Alexei A. Maklakov & Virpi Lummaa
Variation in sex differences is affected by both genetic and environmental variation, with rapid change in sex differences being more likely due to environmental change. One case of rapid change in sex differences is human lifespan, which has become increasingly female-biased in recent centuries. Long-term consequences of variation in the early-life environment may, in part, explain such variation in sex differences, but whether the early-life environment mediates sex differences in life-history traits is poorly understood...

Data from: No evidence for nuclear introgression despite complete mtDNA replacement in the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni)

Piotr Zieliński, Krystyna Nadachowska-Brzyska, Ben Wielstra, Rafał Szkotak, Severus D. Covaciu-Marcov, Dan Cogalniceanu & Wieslaw Babik
Patterns of interspecific introgression may vary geographically, and the distribution of introgressed variants can yield insight into the historical dynamics of genetic interactions between hybridizing species. Urodele amphibians, often characterized by limited mobility, deep intraspecific genetic structuring and vulnerability to climatic changes, constitute suitable models for such historical inferences. Here, we combine an extensive survey of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (15 microsatellites) genomes in the Carpathian newt, Lissotriton montandoni (Lm) with species distribution modelling...

Data from: Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region

Paco Cárdenas, Hans Tore Rapp, Anne Birgitte Klitgaard, Megan Best, Mikael Thollesson & Ole Secher Tendal
Geodia species north of 60°N in the Atlantic appeared in the literature for the first time when Bowerbank described Geodia barretti and G. macandrewii in 1858 from western Norway. Since then, a number of species have been based on material from various parts of the region: G. simplex, Isops phlegraei, I. pallida, I. sphaeroides, Synops pyriformis, G. parva, G. normani, G. atlantica, Sidonops mesotriaena (now called G. hentscheli), and G. simplicissima. In addition to these...

Data from: Genomic distribution and estimation of nucleotide diversity in natural populations: perspectives from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome

Ludovic Dutoit, Reto Burri, Alexander Nater, Carina F. Mugal & Hans Ellegren
Properly estimating genetic diversity in populations of non-model species requires a basic understanding of how diversity is distributed across the genome and among individuals. To this end we analysed whole-genome re-sequencing data from 20 collared flycatchers (genome size ≈1.1 Gb; 10.13 million single nucleotide polymorphisms detected). Genome-wide nucleotide diversity was almost identical among individuals (mean = 0.00394, range = 0.00384-0.00401) but diversity levels varied extensively across the genome (95% confidence interval for 200 kb windows...

Data from: Evolution under dietary restriction increases male reproductive performance without survival cost

Felix Zajitschek, Susanne R. K. Zajitschek, Cindy Canton, Grigorios Georgolopoulos, Urban Friberg & Alexei A. Maklakov
Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in nutrient intake without malnutrition, is the most reproducible way to extend lifespan in a wide range of organisms across the tree of life, yet the evolutionary underpinnings of the DR effect on lifespan are still widely debated. The leading theory suggests that this effect is adaptive and results from reallocation of resources from reproduction to somatic maintenance in order to survive periods of famine in nature. However, such response...

Data from: A Turing Test for Collective Motion

James E. Herbert-Read, Maksym Romenskyy & David J. T. Sumpter
A widespread problem in biological research is assessing whether a model adequately describes some real-world data. But even if a model captures the large-scale statistical properties of the data, should we be satisfied with it? We developed a method, inspired by Alan Turing, to assess the effectiveness of model fitting. We first built a self-propelled particle model whose properties (order and cohesion) statistically matched those of real fish schools. We then asked members of the...

Data from: Evaluating the reintroduction project of Przewalski’s horse in China using genetic and pedigree data

Gang Liu, Aaron B. A. Shafer, Defu Hu, Wenting Wang, Hongjun Chu, Aaron B.A. Shafer, Jie Cao & Chongxue Zhao
Przewalski's horse went extinct in the wild in the mid 1960’s. Starting in 1985, individuals were brought from western zoos to two centers in China and breeding programs were initiated. With the increasing size of captive populations, two reintroduction projects were launched in the northwestern China in 2001 and 2010. Knowledge on genetic diversity in China’s horse populations is limited, but would help improve the genetic management and assess the success of the reintroduction. Accordingly,...

Data from: The influence of habitat accessibility on the dietary and morphological specialisation of an aquatic predator

Maria H.K. Marklund, Richard Svanbäck, Yinghua Zha, Kristin Scharnweber, Peter Eklov & Maria H. K. Marklund
Individual diet and habitat specialisation are widespread in animal taxa and often related to levels of predation and competition. Mobile consumers such as predatory fish can stabilise lake food webs by ranging over a larger area than their prey, thereby switching between habitats. Although, this switching assumes that the predator has equal preference for the available prey, individual diet specialisation and morphological adaptations to different habitats could potentially prevent individuals from switching between habitats. In...

Data from: Rapid and unpredictable changes of the G-matrix in a natural bird population over 25 years

Mats Björklund, Arild Husby & Lars Gustafsson
Knowledge of the genetic variances and covariances of traits (the G-matrix) is fundamental for the understanding of evolutionary dynamics of populations. Despite its essential importance in evolutionary studies, empirical tests of the temporal stability of the G-matrix in natural populations are few. We used a 25-year-long individual-based field study on almost 7000 breeding attempts of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to estimate the stability of the G-matrix over time. Using animal models to estimate G...

Data from: Identification of Swedish mosquitoes based on molecular barcoding of the COI gene and SNP analysis

Cecilia Engdahl, Pär Larsson, Jonas Näslund, Mayra Bravo, Magnus Evander, Jan O. Lundstrom, Clas Ahlm & Göran Bucht
Mosquito-borne infectious diseases are emerging in many regions of the world. Consequently, surveillance of mosquitoes and concomitant infectious agents is of great importance for prediction and prevention of mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Currently, morphological identification of mosquitoes is the traditional procedure. However, sequencing of specified genes or standard genomic regions, DNA barcoding, has recently been suggested as a global standard for identification and classification of many different species. Our aim was to develop a genetic method...

Data from: The consequences of sexual selection in well-adapted and maladapted populations of bean beetles

Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Uroš Savković, Mirko Đorđević, Göran Arnqvist, Biljana Stojkovic & David Berger
Whether sexual selection generally promotes or impedes population persistence remains an open question. Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) can render sexual selection in males detrimental to the population by increasing the frequency of alleles with positive effects on male reproductive success but negative effects on female fecundity. Recent modelling based on fitness landscape theory, however, indicates that the relative impact of IaSC may be reduced in maladapted populations and that sexual selection therefore might promote adaptation...

Data from: Replicated latitudinal clines in reproductive traits of European and North American yellow dung flies

Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Martin A. Schäfer, David Berger, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Charles W. Fox
Geographic variation in phenotypic traits is commonly correlated with spatial variation in the environment, e.g., seasonality and mean temperature, providing evidence that natural selection generates such patterns. In particular, both body size and egg size of ectothermic animals are commonly larger in northern climates, and temperature induces plastic responses in both traits. Size-independent egg quality can also vary with latitude, though this is rarely investigated. For the widespread yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae),...

Data from: Different DMRT3 genotypes are best adapted for harness racing and riding in Finnhorses

Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Lisa Johansson, Minna Mäenpää, Anna Mykkänen, Lisa S. Andersson, Brandon D. Velie, Leif Andersson, Thorvaldur Árnason & Gabriella Lindgren
Previous studies showed a positive effect of the DMRT3 “gait keeper” mutation on harness racing performance in Standardbreds, French-, and Nordic trotters. The mutation has also been shown to influence riding traits in multiple breeds. This study investigated the effect of the DMRT3 mutation on harness racing performance and riding traits in Finnhorses. Finnhorses used for harness racing (n = 180) and for riding (n = 59) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. For the...

Data from: Flowering time QTL in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and implications for their adaptive value

Emily L. Dittmar, Christopher G. Oakley, Jon Ågren & Douglas W. Schemske
The genetic basis of phenotypic traits is of great interest to evolutionary biologists, but their contribution to adaptation in nature is often unknown. To determine the genetic architecture of flowering time in ecologically relevant conditions, we used a recombinant inbred line population created from two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy. Using these RILs, we identified flowering time QTL in growth chambers that mimicked the natural temperature and photoperiod variation across...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Haploid selection within a single ejaculate increases offspring fitness

Ghazal Alavioon, Cosima Hotzy, Khriezhanuo Nakhro, Sandra Rudolf, Douglas Scofield, Susanne Zajitschek, Alexei Maklakov & Simone Immler
An inescapable consequence of sex in eukaryotes is the evolution of a biphasic life cycle with alternating diploid and haploid phases. The occurrence of selection during the haploid phase can have far-reaching consequences for fundamental evolutionary processes including the rate of adaptation, the extent of inbreeding depression, and the load of deleterious mutations, as well as for applied research into fertilization technology. Although haploid selection is well established in plants, current dogma assumes that in...

Data from: Brain plasticity over the metamorphic boundary: carry-over effect of larval environment on froglet brain development

Nina Trokovic, Abigél Gonda, Gábor Herczeg, Anssi Laurila & Juha Merilä
Brain development shows high plasticity in response to environmental heterogeneity. However, it is unknown how environmental variation during development may affect brain architecture across life history switch points in species with complex life cycles. Previously, we showed that predation and competition affect brain development in common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles. Here, we studied if larval environment had carry-over effects in brains of metamorphs. Tadpoles grown at high density had large optic tecta at metamorphosis, while...

Data from: The evolutionary origin of variation in song length and frequency in the avian family Cettiidae

Chentao Wei, Trevor D. Price, Jiayu Liu, Per Alström & Yanyun Zhang
Aspects of bird song have been shown to correlate with morphological and ecological features, including beak and body size, and habitat. Here we study evolution of song length and song frequency among 30 species belonging to the Cettiidae. Frequency is negatively correlated with body size, and song length increases with latitude. Although migration distance correlates with latitude, the association of song length with latitude is only present within the non-migratory species, implying the association is...

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