564 Works

Data from: QTL and quantitative genetic analysis of beak morphology reveals patterns of standing genetic variation in an Estrildid finch

Ulrich Knief, Holger Schielzeth, Bart Kempenaers, Hans Ellegren & Wolfgang Forstmeier
The intra- and interspecific diversity of avian beak morphologies is one of the most compelling examples for the power of natural selection acting on a morphological trait. The development and diversification of the beak has also become a textbook example for evolutionary developmental biology, and variation in expression levels of several genes is known to causally affect beak shape. However, until now no genomic polymorphisms have been identified that are related to beak morphology in...

Data from: Evolution of Acoustic and Visual Signals in Asian Barbets

Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Robert-J. Den Tex, Alberto Castelló, Jennifer A. Leonard & R.-J. Den Tex
The study of animal communication systems is an important step towards gaining greater understanding of the processes influencing diversification because signals often play an important role in mate choice and can lead to reproductive isolation. Signal evolution can be influenced by a diversity of factors such as biophysical constraints on the emitter, the signalling environment, or selection to avoid heterospecific matings. Furthermore, because signals can be costly to produce, trade-offs may exist between different types...

Data from: Evolutionarily stable sex ratios and mutation load

Josh Hough, Simone Immler, Spencer C. H. Barrett & Sarah P. Otto
Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve...

Data from: Short term variation in sperm competition causes sperm mediated epigenetic effects on early offspring performance in the zebrafish

Susanne R. K. Zajitschek, Cosima Hotzy, Felix Zajitschek & Simone Immler
The inheritance of non-genetic factors is increasingly seen to play a major role in ecology and evolution. While the causes and consequences of epigenetic effects transmitted from the mother to the offspring have received ample attention, much less is known about how variation in the condition of the father affects the offspring. Here, we manipulated the intensity of sperm competition experienced by male zebrafish Danio rerio to investigate the potential for sperm-mediated epigenetic effects over...

Data from: Local selection modifies phenotypic divergence among Rana temporaria populations in the presence of gene flow

Alex Richter-Boix, Céline Teplitsky, Björn Rogell & Anssi Laurila
In ectotherms, variation in life-history traits among populations is common and suggests local adaptation. However, geographic variation itself is not a proof for local adaptation, since genetic drift and gene flow may also shape patterns of quantitative variation. We studied local and regional variation in means and phenotypic plasticity of larval life history traits in the common frog Rana temporaria using six populations from central Sweden, breeding in either open canopy or partially closed canopy...

Data from: Genetic architecture and adaptive significance of the selfing syndrome in Capsella

Tanja Slotte, Khaled Michel Hazzouri, David L Stern, Peter Andolfatto & Stephen I. Wright
The transition from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. This shift is often accompanied by a suite of changes in floral and reproductive characters termed the selfing syndrome. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture and evolutionary forces underlying evolution of the selfing syndrome in Capsella rubella following its recent divergence from the outcrossing ancestor Capsella grandiflora. We conduct genotyping by multiplexed shotgun sequencing and map floral...

Data from: The developmental plasticity and functional significance of an additional sperm storage compartment in female yellow dung flies

Martin A. Schäfer, David Berger, Ralf Jochmann, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Luc F. Bussière
1. The mechanistic basis for, and adaptive significance of variation in female sperm storage organs is important for a range of questions concerning sexual selection and speciation, as such variation influences the evolutionary trajectories of male fertilization related traits and may facilitate speciation through its effects on gamete recognition. 2. Female yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) usually develop three sperm storage compartments, and this subdivision may be an adaptation for sorting sperm during post-copulatory choice....

Data from: Neurospora and the dead-end hypothesis: genomic consequences of selfing in the model genus.

Anastasia Gioti, Jason E. Stajich & Hanna Johannesson
It is becoming increasingly evident that adoption of different reproductive strategies, such as sexual selfing and asexuality, greatly impacts genome evolution. In this study, we test theoretical predictions on genomic maladaptation of selfing lineages using empirical data from the model fungus Neurospora. We sequenced the genomes of four species representing distinct transitions to selfing within the history of the genus, as well as the transcriptome of one of these, and compared with available data from...

Data from: QTL linkage mapping of zebra finch beak color shows an oligogenic control of a sexually selected trait

Holger Schielzeth, Bart Kempenaers, Hans Ellegren & Wolfgang Forstmeier
Mate choice based on sexual ornaments can impose strong selection, which raises the question of how genetic variation in ornaments is maintained. One mechanism that has been proposed is genic capture. If ornament expression is influenced by general condition and condition is under polygenic control, selection will be inefficient in removing genetic variation. Here we analyze whether the genetic architecture of beak color in a population of zebra finches supports this hypothesis. Zebra finch beak...

Data from: Emotion reactivity is increased 4-6 weeks postpartum in healthy women: a longitudinal fMRI study

Malin Gingnell, Elin Bannbers, Harmen Moes, Jonas Engman, Sara Sylvén, Alkistis Skalkidou, Kristiina Kask, Johan Wikström & Inger Sundström-Poromaa
Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal–infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional...

Data from: Non-linear costs of reproduction in a long-lived plant

Nina Sletvold & Jon Ågren
A trade-off between current reproduction and future performance is a key component of life-history theory, but the shape of this trade-off for any specific fitness component remains elusive. We induced 3-5 levels of reproductive effort (RE) by manipulating fruit set of a long-lived orchid in two populations that differed in the length of the growing season and local climate, and examined survival, size and fecundity the following year. Natural fruit set was 72% higher in...

Data from: Relaxed predation results in reduced phenotypic integration in a suite of dragonflies

Dirk Johannes Mikolajewski, Linda Rüsen, Rüdiger Mauersberger, Frank Johansson & Jens Rolff
While changes in magnitude of single traits responding to selective agents have been studied intensively, little is known about selection shaping networks of traits and their patterns of co-variation. However, this is central for our understanding of phenotypic evolution since traits are embedded in a multivariate environment with selection affecting a multitude of traits simultaneously rather than individually. Here, we investigate inter- and intraspecific patterns of trait integration (trait correlations) in the larval abdomen of...

Data from: The population demography of Betula maximowicziana, a cool temperate tree species in Japan, in relation to the last glacial period: Its admixture-like genetic structure is the result of simple population splitting not admixing

Yoshiaki T. Tsuda, Katsuhiro N. Nakao, Yuji I. Ide, Yoshihiko T. Tsumura, Y. Tsuda, Y. Tsumura & K. Nakao
Conservation of the local genetic variation and evolutionary integrity of economically and ecologically important trees is a key aspect of studies involving forest genetics, and a population demographic history of the target species provides valuable information for this purpose. Here, the genetic structure of 48 populations of Betula maximowicziana was assessed using 12 expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers. Genetic diversity was lower in northern populations than southern ones and structure analysis revealed three...

Data from: The nature of nurture in a wild mammal’s fitness

S. Eryn McFarlane, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin & Andrew G. McAdam
Genetic variation in fitness is required for the adaptive evolution of any trait but natural selection is thought to erode genetic variance in fitness. This paradox has motivated the search for mechanisms that might maintain a population's adaptive potential. Mothers make many contributions to the attributes of their developing offspring and these maternal effects can influence responses to natural selection if maternal effects are themselves heritable. Maternal genetic effects (MGEs) on fitness might, therefore, represent...

Data from: The evolution of sex chromosomes in organisms with separate haploid sexes

Simone Immler & Sarah Perin Otto
The evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes is driven largely by the evolution of reduced recombination and the subsequent accumulation of deleterious mutations. While these processes are increasingly well understood in diploid organisms, the evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes in haploid organisms (U/V) has been virtually unstudied theoretically. We analyze a model to investigate the evolution of linkage between fitness loci and the sex-determining region in U/V species. In a second step, we test how prone...

Data from: Global biogeography of scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae): evidence for Gondwanan vicariance and limited transoceanic dispersal

Petra Korall & Kathleen M. Pryer
Aim: Scaly tree ferns, Cyatheaceae, are a well-supported group of mostly tree-forming ferns found throughout the tropics, the subtropics and the south-temperate zone. Fossil evidence shows that the lineage originated in the Late Jurassic period. We reconstructed large-scale historical biogeographical patterns of Cyatheaceae and tested the hypothesis that some of the observed distribution patterns are in fact compatible, in time and space, with a vicariance scenario related to the break-up of Gondwana. Location: Tropics, subtropics...

Data from: Malaria infections reinforce competitive asymmetry between two Ficedula flycatchers in a recent contact zone

Katarzyna Kulma, Matthew Low, Staffan Bensch & Anna Qvarnstrom
Parasites may influence the outcome of interspecific competition between closely related host species through lower parasite virulence in the host with which they share the longer evolutionary history. We tested this idea by comparing the prevalence of avian malaria (Haemosporidia) lineages and their association with survival in pied and collared flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca and F. albicollis) breeding in a recent contact zone on the Swedish island of Öland. A nested PCR protocol amplifying haemosporidian fragments...

Data from: Sex-dependent evolution of life-history traits following adaptation to climate warming

Björn Rogell, William Widegren, Lára R. Hallsson, David Berger, Mats Björklund & Alexei A. Maklakov
1. Thermodynamic processes increase metabolic rate and decrease longevity at high temperatures in ectotherms. However, how sustained long-term increase in temperature affects the evolution of longevity is poorly understood. 2. Stress theory of ageing predicts that increased longevity is positively genetically correlated with resistance to different types of environmental stressors implying that evolutionary trajectories of ageing may be mediated by correlative selection for robust phenotypes under thermal stress. 3. Here, we test this hypothesis by...

Data from: Natural selection in a post-glacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl

Sylvain Antoniazza, Ricardo Kanitz, Samuel Neuenschwander, Reto Burri, Arnaud Gaigher, Alexandre Roulin & Jérôme Goudet
Gradients of variation – or clines – have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation-by-distance or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait....

Data from: ModelOMatic: fast and automated comparison between RY, nucleotide, amino acid, and codon substitution models

Simon Whelan, James E. Allen, Benjamin P. Blackburne & David Talavera
Molecular phylogenetics is a powerful tool for inferring both the process and pattern of evolution from genomic sequence data. Statistical approaches, such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, are now established as the preferred methods of inference. The choice of models that a researcher uses for inference is of critical importance, and there are established methods for model selection conditioned on a particular type of data, such as nucleotides, amino acids, or codons. A major...

Data from: Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Masahito Tsuboi, Arild Husby, Alexander Kotrschal, Alexander Hayward, Séverine Denise Büchel, Josefina Zidar, Hanne Løvlie & Niclas Kolm
The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and i) investment into other costly tissues, ii) overall metabolic rate, and iii) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing...

Data from: Artificial selection on relative brain size reveals a positive genetic correlation between brain size and proactive personality in the guppy

Alexander Kotrschal, Eva J. P. Lievens, Josefin Dahlbom, Andreas Bundsen, Svetlana Semenova, Maria Sundvik, Alexei A. Maklakov, Svante Winberg, Pertti Panula, Niclas Kolm & Eva JP Lievens
Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a ‘reactive’ personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a ‘proactive’ personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata),...

Data from: Maternal antibodies contribute to sex based difference in hantavirus transmission dynamics

Eva R. Kallio, Heikki Henttonen, Esa Koskela, Åke Lundkvist, Tapio Mappes, Olli Vapalahti & A. Lundkvist
Individuals often differ in their ability to transmit disease and identifying key individuals for transmission is a major issue in epidemiology. Male hosts are often thought to be more important than females for parasite transmission and persistence. However, the role of infectious females, particularly the transient immunity provided to offspring through maternal antibodies (MatAbs), has been neglected in discussions about sex-biased infection transmission. We examined the effect of host sex upon infection dynamics of zoonotic...

Data from: Disruptive selection without genome-wide evolution across a migratory divide

Jan A. C. Von Rönn, Aaron B. A. Shafer, Jochen B. W. Wolf & Aaron B.A. Shafer
Transcontinental migration is a fascinating example of how animals can respond to climatic oscillation. Yet, quantitative data on fitness components are scarce, and the resulting population genetic consequences are poorly understood. Migratory divides, hybrid zones with a transition in migratory behaviour, provide a natural setting to investigate the micro-evolutionary dynamics induced by migration under sympatric conditions. Here, we studied the effects of migratory programme on survival, trait evolution and genome-wide patterns of population differentiation in...

Data from: Divergence of gastropod life history in contrasting thermal environments in a geothermal lake

Magnus P. Johansson, Friederike Ermold, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson & Anssi Laurila
Experiments using natural populations have provided mixed support for thermal adaptation models, probably because the conditions are often confounded with additional environmental factors like seasonality. The contrasting geothermal environments within Lake Mývatn, northern Iceland, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate thermal adaptation models using closely located natural populations. We conducted laboratory common garden and field reciprocal transplant experiments to investigate how thermal origin influences the life history of Radix balthica snails originating from stable cold...

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