Source data for: Presynaptic NMDARs cooperate with local spikes toward GABA release from the reciprocal olfactory bulb granule cell spineVeronica Egger, Vanessa Lage-Rupprecht, Li Zhou, Gaia Bianchini, S. Sara Aghvami, Balazs Rozsa, Marco Sassoe-Pognetto & Max Mueller
In the rodent olfactory bulb the smooth dendrites of the principal glutamatergic mitral cells (MCs) form reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses with large spines on GABAergic granule cells (GC), where unitary release of glutamate can trigger postsynaptic local activation of voltage-gated Na+-channels (Navs), i.e. a spine spike. Can such single MC input evoke reciprocal release? We find that unitary-like activation via two-photon uncaging of glutamate causes GC spines to release GABA both synchronously and asynchronously onto MC...
Data from: Large-bodied sabre-toothed anchovies reveal unanticipated ecological diversity in early Palaeogene teleostsAlessio Capobianco, Hermione Beckett, Etienne Steurbaut, Philip Gingerich, Giorgio Carnevale & Matthew Friedman
Many modern groups of marine fishes first appear in the fossil record during the early Palaeogene (66–40 million years ago), including iconic predatory lineages of spiny-rayed fishes that appear to have originated in response to ecological roles left empty after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction. The hypothesis of extinction-mediated ecological release likewise predicts that other fish groups have adopted novel predatory ecologies. Here we report remarkable trophic innovation in early Palaeogene clupeiforms (herrings and allies), a group...
Environmental filtering and convergent evolution determine the ecological specialisation of subterranean spidersStefano Mammola, Miquel Arnedo, Cene Fišer, Pedro Cardoso, Andrea Dejanaz & Marco Isaia
1. Ecological specialisation is an important mechanism enhancing species coexistence within a given community. Yet, unravelling the effect of multiple selective evolutionary and ecological factors leading the process of specialisation remains a key challenge in ecology. Subterranean habitats provide highly replicated experimental arenas in which to disentangle the relative contribution of evolutionary history (convergent evolution vs character displacement) and ecological setting (environmental filtering vs competitive exclusion) in driving community assembly. 2. We tested alternative hypotheses...
Data from: The earliest baleen whale of the mediterranean: Large-scale implications of an early miocene thalassotherian mysticete from Piedmont, ItalyMichelangelo Bisconti, Piero Damarco, Selina Mao, Marco Pavia & Giorgio Carnevale
The discovery of an Early Miocene chaeomysticete from the Pietra da Cantoni Group in Piedmont (north-western Italy) allowed for the creation of Atlanticetus n. gen. and Atlanticetus lavei n. sp. The new species is represented by a partial skeleton including the earbones and shows anatomical resemblance with Atlanticetus patulus (new combination) from the western North Atlantic. The Early Miocene age of the new specimen supports the view that it represents the oldest record of Chaeomysticeti...
Trait-based analyses explaining the different responses of species and communities to environmental changes are increasing in frequency. European butterflies are an indicator group that responds rapidly to environmental changes with extensive citizen science contributions to documenting changes of abundance and distribution. Species traits have been used to explain long- and short-term responses to climate, land-use and vegetation changes. Studies are often characterised by limited traits sets being used, with risks that the relative roles of...
Data from: The rise to dominance of lanternfishes (Teleostei, Myctophidae) in the oceanic ecosystems: a paleontological perspectiveWerner Schwarzhans & Giorgio Carnevale
Lanternfishes currently represent one of the dominant groups of mesopelagic fishes in terms of abundance, biomass and diversity. Their otolith record dominates pelagic sediments below 200 m in dredges, especially during the entire Neogene. Here we provide an analysis of their diversity and rise to dominance primarily based on their otolith record. The earliest unambiguous fossil myctophids are known based on otoliths from the late Paleocene and early Eocene. During their early evolutionary history myctophids...
Data from: Differential neuropsychological profile of ALS patients with and without C9orf72 mutationAdriano Chio
Objective. To determine whether the neuropsychological profiles of ALS patients with (ALSC9+) and without (ALSC9-) C9orf72 expansion are different we administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to 741 ALS patients (68 ALSC9+ and 673 ALSC9-) and 129 controls. Methods. The study population includes 741 ALS patients who were consecutively diagnosed at the Turin ALS expert center in the period 2010-2018 and who underwent both cognitive/behavioral and genetic testing. Patients’ neuropsychological patterns were compared (a) at...
Confronting sources of systematic error to resolve historically contentious relationships: a case study using gadiform fishes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii, Gadiformes)Adela Roa-Varon, Rebecca Dikow, Giorgio Carnevale, Luke Tornabene, Carole Baldwin, Chenhong Li & Eric Hilton
Reliable estimation of phylogeny is central to avoid inaccuracy in downstream macroevolutionary inferences. However, limitations exist in the implementation of concatenated and summary coalescent approaches, and Bayesian and full coalescent inference methods may not yet be feasible for computation of phylogeny using complicated models and large datasets. Here, we explored methodological (e.g., optimality criteria, character sampling, model selection) and biological (e.g., heterotachy, branch length heterogeneity) sources of systematic error that can result in biased or...
Rise and fall of †Pycnodontiformes: Diversity, competition and extinction of a successful fish cladeJohn J. Cawley, Giorgio Giuseppe Marramà Carnevale, Giorgio Carnevale, Jaime A. Villafaña, Faviel A. López‐Romero & Giuseppe Jürgen Marramà Kriwet
Pycnodontiformes was a successful lineage of primarily marine fishes that broadly diversified during the Mesozoic. They possessed a wide variety of body shapes and were adapted to a broad range of food sources. Two other neopterygian clades possessing similar ecological adaptations in both body morphology (Dapediiformes) and dentition (Ginglymodi) also occurred in Mesozoic seas. Although these groups occupied the same marine ecosystems, the role that competitive exclusion and niche partitioning played in their ability to...
Data from: Using structured eradication feasibility assessment to prioritise the management of new and emerging invasive alien species in EuropeOlaf Booy, Peter A. Robertson, Niall Moore, Jess Ward, Helen E. Roy, Tim Adriaens, Richard Shaw, Johan Van Valkenburg, Gabe Wyn, Sandro Bertolino, Olivier Blight, Etienne Branquart, Giuseppe Brundu, Joe Caffrey, Dario Capizzi, Jim Casaer, Olivier De Clerck, Neil Coughlan, Eithne Davis, Jaimie Dick, Franz Essl, Guillaume Fried, Piero Genovesi, Pablo González-Moreno, Frank Hysentruyt … & Aileen C. Mill
Prioritising the management of invasive alien species (IAS) is of global importance and within Europe integral to the EU IAS regulation. To prioritise management effectively the risks posed by IAS need to be assessed, but so too does the feasibility of their management. While risk of IAS to the EU has been assessed, the feasibility of management has not. We assessed the feasibility of eradicating 60 new (not yet established) and 35 emerging (established with...
University of Turin11
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences2
University of Vienna2
University of Florence2
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research1
University of Washington1
Queen's University Belfast1
Research Institute for Nature and Forest1